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Geograpli .AnsUilt von Wagner iDeljes. Leipzig. 







with Excursions to the 


With 25 Maps and 16 Flans. 

Tenth Revised Edition. 




All Righ ts Reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send tliee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all'. 


The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with the most necessary information regarding the 
history and culture of the people he is about to visit, to 
render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating 
countries in the world. These volumes will also, it is hoped, 
be the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper ; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The whole work is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents, which he 
gratefully acknowledges , has [in many cases proved most 
serviceable. Hotel-bills, with annotations showing the trav- 
eller's opinion of his treatment and accommodation, are par- 
ticularly useful. 

The Handbook for Southern Italy and Sicily., which now 
appears for the tenth time, has been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented, and the information regarding 
Naples and its environs in particular has been carefully veri- 
fied. The account of the climatic and sanitary conditions of 
Naples given at p. xxiii is from the pen of a thoroughly com- 
petent observer , and while dissipating some of the exag- 
gerated notions which are prevalent regarding its unheal- 
thiness, may afford some useful hints for the traveller's mode 
of life in that town. The article on Ancient Art by Prof. 
R. Kekule of Bonn has been adapted for the use of English 
travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. L'roive, the 
eminent historian of art, and will be found suggestive by 
visitors to the museums of Naples and Palermo or the ruins 
of Pompeii. The description of Sicily owes much of its value 


to the co-operation of Prof. Holm of Palermo, who has en- 
riched it with interesting archteological notices. The in- 
sertion of excursions to the Lipari Islands , Malta , Sardinia, 
Tunis (Carthage) , and Corfu does not add materially to the 
bulk of the volume, and will be acceptable to many travellers. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The Map of Sicily, drawn by Prof. Kiepert of Ber- 
lin, is a reproduction on a reduced scale of the new map of the 
Italian Ordnance Survey ; the rivers which flow all the year 
round are printed in blue, those which are generally dry in 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. if). Pop- 
ulations are stated in accordance with the latest official 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are perhaps nowhere so out- 
rageous. The inns of S. Italy and Sicily, with the exception 
of those of Naples, Palermo, and a few other towns, are sadly 
behind the requirements of the age ; but the Editor has in- 
dicated by asterisks those which he has reason to consider 
comparatively respectable , clean , and reasonable. The 
charges in the most frequented places have a constant ten- 
dency to rise, but those of the last few years are approx- 
imately stated in the Handbook for the traveller's guidance. 

To hotel -proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for Bae- 
deker's Handbooks. 


Introduction. p 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period of Tour. Language xii 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... xiii 

IV. Public Safety. Begging xiv 

V. Intercourse with Italians xiv 

VI. Conveyances xvi 

VII. Hotels xix 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafes, etc xx 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops xxi 

X. Reckoning of Time xxii 

XI. Postal Arrangements xxiii 

XII. Climate and Health of Naples xxiii 

XIII. History of Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule . . xxvii 

History of the Kingdom of Naples xliv 

Route Koutes - 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway 1 

2. From Rome to Naples via the Pontine Marshes. Terracina, 

Gaeta, and Capua 11 

3. Naples 20 

Preliminary Observations : 

a. Arrival. Hotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. . . 20-22 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Omnibuses, Boats 23,24 

c. Bankers, Money-Changers. Consulates. Physicians, Hospitals. 

Baths. Post and Telegraph Office. English Churches . . 25, 26 

d. Shops 26-28 

e. Theatres. Street Scenes. Religious and National Festivals . 28-3U 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides . . . 30, 31 
Remarks on the Situation and Characteristics of Naples 31 
I. Side next the Sea, to the E. of the Pizzofalcone (from 

the Largo della Vittoria to the Piazza del Mercato) 35 
II. Toledo. Capodimonte (from the Largo della Vittoria 
through the Strada Ckiaja and the Toledo to Capodi- 
monte. Strada Foria) 42 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters, between the Toledo and 

the Harbour (from the Strada Medina through the 
Str. Montoliveto to the Str. S. Trinita ; Porta 

Capuana, Cemeteries, Strada de' Trihunali) ... 46 

IV. The Museum 60 

V. Modern Quarters : The Chiaja, Villa Nazionale, Corso 

Vittorio Emanuele, Castel S. Elmo, Via Tasso . . 85 

VI. Hill of Posilipo 93 

Excursion to Camaldoli , • • 96 

4. "Western Environs of Naples — Pozzuoli, Baias, Misenum, 

Cumae 98 

5. Procida and Ischia 112 


Route Page 

6. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). Herculaneum. 

High-road from Naples to Pompeii 117 

7. Mount Vesuvius 121 

8. Pompeii 129 

9. Castellammare, Sorrento, and Capri 156 

10. The Gulf of Salerno 172 

1. Corpo di Cava 174 

2. From Amalfl to Sorrento and to Castellammare . . 184, 185 

11. From Naples to Nola and Avellino 185 

E. and S. Districts of S. Italy. 

12. From Terni toCastellammare Adriatico through theAbruzzi 189 

1. Gran Sasso d'ltalia 191 

2. From Aquila to Avezzano 192 

3. Monte Amaro. . . 193 

4. From Solmona to Caianello 193 

5. Corflnium 194 

13. From Rome to Solmona via Avezzano 195 

14. From Avezzano to Roccasecea (Naples) 198 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi) 200 

1. From S. Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno 201 

2. From Giulianova to Teramo 201 

3. From Termoli to Benevento 203 

4. From Foggia to Manfredonia 204 

5. From Foggia to Lucera 204 

From Foggia to Melfi. Venosa 205, 206 

16. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . 206 

From Barletta to Barl via Andria 207 

From Bari to Taranto 210 

17. From Naples to Foggia (Ancona) 214 

18. From Naples to Brindisi via Metaponto and Taranto . . 217 

From Sicignano to Casalbuono and Spezzano .... 218 

19. From (Naples) Metaponto to Eeggio 225 

20. From Sibari to Cosenza and thence to Reggio via Gioia . 230 

21. From Naples to Messina by Sea 234 

22. From Naples to Palermo by Sea • 236 


General Remarks 237 

Geography and Statistics 238 

Historical Notice 246 

1. Political History 246 

2. History of Civilisation and Art 253 

23. Palermo 260 

24. Environs of Palermo 281 

a. Monte Pellegrino The Favorita 281 

b. La Cuba. Monreale. S. Martino 283 

c. Parco. S. Maria di Gesii 286 

d. Bagheria. Soluntum - 287 

Island of Ustica 288 

25. From Palermo to Trapani 288 

1. From Calatafimi to Segesta 290 

2. From Castelvetrano to Selinunto 292 

MAPS. ix 

Route Page 

26. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti .... 300 

From Palermo via Sciacca via, Corleone 30t 

27. From Palermo to Girgenti and Porto Empedocle . . . 302 

28. Girgenti 305 

29. From Palermo and Girgenti to Catania 311 

From Castrogiovanni to Catania via Caltagirone .... 314 

30. From Girgenti to Syracuse via, Palma, Licata, Terranova, 

Modiea (Val d'Ispica), and Palazzolo 315 

31. From Palermo to Messina by the Coast 320 

From S. Filippo to Milazzo 324 

32. Messina 325 

33. The Lipari Islands 334 

34. From Messina to Catania. Taormina 338 

35. From Taormina to Catania round the W. side of Mt. vEtna 345 

36. Catania 348 

37. Mount ^Etna 353 

38. From Catania to Syracuse 360 

39. Syracuse 362 

40. Sardinia 376 

a. Cagliari and Environs 379 

b. From Cagliari to Sassari 3S3 

e. Sassari. Porto Torres 385, 386 

d. From Cagliari to Nuoro, with Excursions into the Mountains 

of La Barbagia 387 

41. Excursion to Malta 388 

42. Excursion to Tunis. Carthage 391 

43. Excursion to Corfu 397 

List of Artists 402 

Index 406 


1. Map of Southern Italy, from Rome to Capo Palinuro 
(1 : 3,350,000), facing title-page. 

2. Environs of Monte Cassino (1 : 50,000), p. 4. 

3. General Map of the Environs of Naples (1 : 400,000), be- 
tween pp. 96, 97. 

4. Western Environs op Naples (1 : 100,000) , between pp. 
98, 99. 

5. The Islands op Procida and Ischia (1 : 100,000), p. 112. 

6. Eastern Environs op Naples. Mt. Vesuvius (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 118, 119. 

7. Peninsula of Sorrento and Island of Capri , between 
pp. 156, 157. 

8. Environs op La Cava, Salbrno, and Amalpi (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 176, 177. 

9. District between Salerno and PiBSTUM (1 : 286,000), p. 177. 
10. Environs op Taranto (1 : 50,000), p. 208. 


11. District of Mbtapontum (1 : 50,000), p. 221. 

12. General Map of Calabria (1 : 350,000), p. 226. 

13. Environs of Palermo (1 : 75,000), p. 281. 

14. District between C alatafimi and Segesta (1 : 50, 000), p. 290. 

15. District of Sblinunto (1 : 50,000), p. 292. 

16. Environs of Girgenti (1 : 50,000), p. 305. 

17. Environs of Messina (1 : 400,000), p. 326. 

18. Environs of Taormina (1 : 50,000), p. 340. 

19. Mount .Etna (1 : 300,000), between pp. 354, 355. 

20. Environs of Syracuse (1 : 50,000), between pp. 362, 363. 

21. Map of Sardinia (1 : 1,350,000), p. 376. 

22. Malta, Gozzo, Comino (1 : 500,000), p. 391. 

23. Environs of Tunis (1 : 250,000), p. 392. 

24. Map of Sicily, with the Lipari Islands (1 : 800,000), after 
the Index. 

25. Railway Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000), at the end of the Hand- 

1. Naples (1 : 10,100), p. 20. — 2, 3. Museo Nazionale at 
Naples, ground-floor p. 74, upper floor p. 75. — 4. Pozzuoli, p. 99. 
— 5, 6. Pompeii, general plan (1 : 4200), p. 131, plan of excavations 
(1 : 8500), between pp. 130, 131. — 7. House of Pansa at Pompeii, 
p. 134. — 8. P^istum (1 : 28,000), p. 177. — 9. Bari (1 : 10,000), 
p. 209. — 10. Palermo (1 : 13,000), p. 260. — 11, 12. Museo Na- 
zionale at Palermo, ground-floor p. 275, upper floor p. 277. — 13. 
Acropolis of Sblinunto, p. 293. — 14. Messina and Environs j 
between pp. 326, 327. — 15. Catania, between pp. 348, 349. — 
16. Syracuse, modern town, p. 363. 


R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; S. = supper; L. = 
light; A. = attendance. — N. = north, northern, etc.; S. = 
south, southern, etc. ; E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. — r. = 
right; 1. = left; min. = minute; hr. = hour. — M. = English 
mile ; ft. = Engl, foot ; fr. = franc, c. = centime. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of 
a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number of 
miles placed before the principal places on railway-routes and high- 
roads indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 


"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Southern Italy and Sicily 
depends of course on the traveller's means and habits, but it may 
be stated generally that his expenses need not exceed those in- 
curred in the more frequented parts of the continent. The average 
expenditure of a single traveller may be estimated at 20-30 francs 
per day, or at 12-15 francs when a prolonged stay is made at one 
place, while those who are acquainted with the language and habits 
of the country may reduce their expenses to still narrower limits. 
Persons travelling as members of a party also effect a considerable 
saving by sharing the expense of guides, carriages, and other items. 
When, however, ladies are of the party, the expenses are always 
unavoidably greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now used throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 1 00 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark (conip. the money-table at 
p. ii). A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo (or sou), and as the lower 
classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller may find 
it useful to familiarise himself with this mode of reckoning. The 
gold and silver coins of France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Greece 
circulate freely, but the traveller should be on his guard against old 
coins from the papal mint and Greek copper coins. The only bank- 
notes now current throughout the whole country are those of the 
Banea Nazionale and the Biglietti di Stato, but the notes of the 
Banco di Napoli also pass in Southern Italy. 

Best Money for the Tour. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, 
issued by the principal English and American banks, are very con- 
venient for the transport of large sums, and always realise the full 
current exchange. English banknotes also realise their nominal 
equivalent in the principal towns. A moderate supply of French 
Oold will be found desirable. Sovereigns are almost everywhere 
received as the equivalent of 25 fr., and sometimes a little more. 
In remote districts, however, especially in Sicily, all foreign money 
is often refused. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns, either at one of the English bankers or at a re- 


spectable money-changer's ('cambiavalutd). Those money-changers 
who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange are the 
most satisfactory. The exchange is effected more advantageously 
at Rome than at Naples or any of the other towns in S. Italy. The 
traveller should always stipulate for an abundant supply of small 
notes (1, 2, and 5 fr.), as it is often difficult to change those of 
large amount. When a railway-fare has to be paid it is a wise 
precaution to be provided with the exact sum beforehand in order 
that mistakes or imposition may be prevented. Besides the small 
notes, l-l^fT- in copper should also be carried in a separate pocket 
or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10!., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : not exceeding 
21., 6d.; 51., Is.; 71., is. 6<2. ; 10?., 2s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must , strictly speaking, be guaranteed by two 
well-known residents or by a Libretto di Recognizione Postale (1 fr. ; with 
10 coupons) obtained beforehand in the central post-office at Rome; but 
an exhibition of the passport often suffices. The charge for money-orders 
granted in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per 11. sterling. 

A convenient method of carrying money for a journey in Italy is af- 
forded by the Tiioli di Credito, which may be procured at the post-offices 
(if the principal Italian towns for any sum not exceeding 10,000 fr. (400Z.). 
The holder may then draw what sum he requires (from 50 fr. upwards) at 
any post-office in the kingdom, until the amount for which the book is 
issued has been exhausted. In case of loss the traveller should at once 
inform the postal authorities, giving his name and the number of the 
book, when measures will immediately be taken to stop payment. 

II. Period of Tour. Language. 

Season. The season selected must of course depend on the 
traveller's convenience , but the best time for Naples , and par- 
ticularly for other parts of S. Italy and Sicily is spring, from the 
end of March to the end of May, or autumn , from the end of 
September to the middle of November. September is usually op- 
pressively hot, with numerous thunder-storms, and is therefore the 
worst month for the tourist. The rainy winter months had better be 
devoted to Rome. The hot season may be spent at some of the 
charming summer-resorts in the environs of Naples, such as Sor- 
rento, Oastellammare, Ischia, and La Cava, but is unfavourable for 
travelling in the South of Italy. The scenery indeed is then in 
perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the 
enterprising traveller ; but he will soon experience the enervating 
effects of exposure to the fierce rays of an Italian sun. These effects 
are produced, not so much by the intensity, as by the protracted 
duration of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not 
a drop of rain falling for many weeks. 

At pp. 30, 31 the traveller will find various plans for excursions 
in the environs of Naples, and at pp. 237,238 are others for a tour 
in Sicily. The other districts described in the Handbook are 
rarely visited by ordinary tourists , but those who desire to ex- 


plore them, whether in search of the picturesque, or for scien- 
tific purposes, will have no difficulty in framing an itinerary. 

Language. The time and labour which the traveller has 
bestowed on the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid 
as he proceeds on his journey, and more particularly in Southern 
Italy and Sicily. It is quite possible to travel in the regions 
around Naples and Palermo with a knowledge of a little French 
only, but in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate 
from the beaten track, and is moreover constantly exposed to gross 
extortion. Those , therefore , who desire to derive instruction 
from their tour and to confine their expenditure within moderate 
limits will find a slight acquaintance with the language + of the 
country indispensable. 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports. Passports are not absolutely required in Italy, but it 
is unwise not to be provided with one of these documents, as it 
may occasionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are 
not delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a guar- 
antee of their identity. The countenance and help of the Eng- 
lish and American consuls can , of course, be extended to those 
persons only who can prove their nationality. Excursions into 
the country in the southern provinces should not be undertaken 
without a passport. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through E. Stan- 
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, or 
Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage which takes 
place at the Italian custom-houses on the arrival of the traveller 
by land or sea, even when the vessel has come from another 
Italian port, is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the 
articles most sought for. "Weapons of all kinds are liable to con- 
fiscation (see below). The ' dazio consumo', or municipal tax 
levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, seldom of 
course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An assurance 
that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty generally suffices 
to prevent detention. 

t A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons 
unacquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like 
the English ch ; g before e and t like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or », are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, t, o, u are pronunced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In addressing 
persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 
3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' 
in familiar conversation only by those who are proficient in the language. 
'Voi' is the common mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is 
generally regarded as inelegant or uncourteous. 


Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train except through the medium of a trustworthy goods- 
agent , to whom the keys must be forwarded. As a rule, howeveT. 
the traveller will find it advisable, and less expensive, never to 
part from his luggage , and always to superintend the custom- 
house examination in person. Oomp. p. xvi. 

IV. Public Safety. Begging. 

Travelling in the neighbourhood of Naples and many other 
regions of Southern Italy is now hardly attended with greater 
hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The 
traveller should, however, avoid the poorer and less frequented 
parts of large towns, particularly of Naples, after nightfall. The 
Brigantaggio, properly so called, is now rooted out. Isolated cases 
of highway robbery may occasionally occur in remote districts in 
Sicily or Sardinia, but are not distinguishable in any way from 
similar crimes in other countries. Strangers, whose person and 
property are unknown, have in any case much less cause for alarm 
than wealthy natives, who are known to be travelling with large 
sums of money. The Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a black 
uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats) are a thoroughly re- 
spectable and trustworthy corps. 

Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and render 
the bearer liable to imprisonment without the option of a fine. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances to 
which the traveller must habituate himself. The best mode of get- 
ting rid of importunate applicants is to bestow a donation of 2 c. or 
at most 5c, or else firmly to decline giving with — 'niente', or a 
gesture of disapproval. 

Y. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy, and particularly in the southern pro- 
vinces, differs essentially in some respects from that in France, 
Germany, and Switzerland, chiefly owing to the almost invariable 
necessity for bargaining with innkeepers, cab-drivers, boatmen, 
and others of a similar class. The system of fixed prices is being 
gradually introduced, b\it it gains ground much more slowly in 
Southern than in Northern and Central Italy. 

The traveller is regarded by the classes in question as their 
natural and legitimate prey. Deception and imposition are con- 
sidered very venial offences by Italians of the lower orders, and 
they regard success in these arts as a proof of superior sagacity. 
The traveller who complacently submits to extortion is therefore 


less respected than one who stoutly resists barefaced attempts upon 
his credulity. On the principal routes, and especially in Naples, the 
insolence of this mercenary fraternity has attained to such an un- 
exampled pitch, that the traveller is often tempted to doubt whether 
such a thing as honesty is known in Italy; but a more intimate 
acquaintance with the people will satisfy him that his misgivings 
apply to the above classes only, and not to the community generally. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted is universal; but a knowledge 
of the custom , which is based upon the presumed ignorance of 
one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 
Where tariffs and fixed charges exist , they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. l Patti chiari, amicizia lunga' is a good Italian 
proverb. In the following pages the average prices of hotel accom- 
modation and other items are stated with all possible accuracy, 
and although liable to fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard 
against gross extortion. The equanimity of the traveller's own 
temper will greatly assist him if involved in a dispute or bargain, 
and he should pay no attention whatever to vehement gesticul- 
ations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter his knowledge of 
the Italian language is, the more careful should he be not to in- 
volve himself in a war of words, in which he must necessarily be 
at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, and others of a similar class, with whom even the in- 
habitants of the place often appear to act in concert, are unworthy 
of the slightest reliance. In such cases the traveller may gen- 
erally depend on the data in the Handbook. Where farther in- 
formation is required, it should be sought from printed tariffs, from 
fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed persons present, 
occasionally from landlords, but seldom or never from waiters. 

The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and donkey- 
attendants invariably expect , and often demand as a right , a 
gratuity (buona mono, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), 
varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to a franc or 
more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. The 
bestowal of half-a-franc when two sous would have sufficed may 
be fraught with disagreeable results to the injudicious donor; the 
fact speedily becomes known, and he is besieged by a host of other 
applicants whose demands it becomes utterly impossible to satisfy. 


VI. Conveyances, t 

Railways. The remarks made in the first two volumes of this 
Handbook on the railways of Northern and Central Italy apply on 
the whole to the railways of South Italy also. The first-class car- 
riages are tolerably comfortable, the second are inferior to those of 
the German railways, and resemble the English and French, while 
the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower orders. Among 
the expressions with which the railway-traveller will soon become 
familiar are — 'pronti' (ready), 'partema' (departure), 'si cambia 
convoglid' (change carriages) , and 'uscita 1 (egress) , which are 
shouted by the officials with characteristic vigour. The station- 
master is called 'capostazione' . Smoking compartments are labelled 
'pei fumatori', those for non-smokers 'e vietato di fumare\ Separate 
first and second-class compartments are reserved for ladies. Sleep- 
ing-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on all the main lines at a 
small extra charge. Railway time is that of the meridian of Rome, 
52 min. ahead of that of Greenwich and 40 min. before Paris. 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). In addition to the fare a 
tax of 5 c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are about 
10 per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also important to be at 
the station early. The booking-office at large stations is open 
40 min., at small stations 20 min. before the departure of the 
trains. Holders of tickets are alone entitled to enter the waiting- 
rooms. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscita, 
except in the case of the very large stations, where they are col- 
lected before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition (1 kilogramme = about 2 t /slbs.). No luggage is 
allowed free except small articles (which must not exceed 20X10 
X12 inches) taken by the passenger into his carriage. Porters who 
convey luggage to and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with 
a few sous, where there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make 
only a short stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies 
at a distance from the railway, should leave their heavier luggage 
at the station till their return (dare in deposito, or depositare, 10 c. 
per day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). 

In crossing the frontier travellers should travel with the same 
train as their luggage and superintend the custom-house examina- 

t The most trustworthy time-tables are those contained in the Indi- 
cators Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate , delta Navigazione e Telegrafia del 
Regno d'ltalia , published at Turin monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo (with 
map, price 1 fr.), and in Italia, Orario del Movimento Treni e Piroscafi 
(t fr.) published at Florence by Gius. Arnaboldi. It is advisable, however, 
not to trust implicitly to their accuracy but to consult the local time-tables 
as well. 


tion in person. Articles of great value should not be entrusted to 
the safe-keeping of any trunk or portmanteau, however strong and 
secure it may seem. 

The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently causea serious and even lifelong injury to the hotel and railway 
porters who have to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place 
their heavy articles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil as 
far as possible. 

Throt/gh Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in Lon- 
don (at^the principal railway-stations ; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Lud- 
gate Circus, Messrs. Gaze, 142 Strand, etc.), in Paris, and at many 
of the principal towns in Germany and Switzerland. They are 
generally available for 30 days, and each passenger is allowed 56 
Engl. lbs. of luggage free. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) for the S. Italian lines are 
issued under the conditions already explained in the first two parts 
of the present Handbook, and in the time-tables. The 'Indicatore 
Ufflciale' gives plans of the various tours, which extend as far as 
Sicily. In connection with these tours, return-tickets are issued 
from Rome to Naples (41 fr. 90, 29 fr. 35 c, 18 fr.), which are valid 
for the period for which the circular-ticket is taken. 

Circular tickets require to be stamped at each fresh starting-point 
with the name of the next station at which the traveller intends to halt. 
If, therefore, the traveller leaves the train before the station for which 
his ticket has been stamped he must at once apply to the caposlazione 
for recognition of the break in the journey ( l accertare il cambiamento di 
deslinazione'). When the traveller quits the prescribed route, intending 
to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure an t annotazione 1 
at the station where he alights, enabling him to resume his circular tour 
after his digression ('vale per riprendere alia stazione . . . il viaggio inter- 
rotto a . . .). If this ceremony be neglected the holder of the ticket is 
required to pay treble fare for the omitted portion of the route for which 
the ticket is issued. — Tickets for tours of 20 days or more may be 
extended for a period not exceeding half of the original duration, on 
payment of 1% of the original price for each day of the extension. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) are generally avail- 
able for one day only, except those issued on Saturday or the eves 
of festivals, which are available for 2-3 days. It should also be ob- 
served that if the traveller alights at a station short of his destin- 
ation he forfeits the rest of his ticket for the direction in which he 
is proceeding. In returning the ticket is not available unless he 
starts from the end-station for which the ticket was issued. 

Steam Tramways (Tramvia a Vapore), now so common in N. 
Italy, are also already in use in some parts of S. Italy. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparable from a tour in Southern Italy. If the vessel 
plies near the coast, the voyage is often entertaining ; and if the 
open sea is traversed, the magnificent Italian sunsets, lighting up 
the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present a scene not 
easily forgotten. Rough weather is not very often to be appre- 
hended in summer. The French steamers are said to be more 
comfortable than the Italian. 

Baedeke r. Italy III. 10th Edition. b 


Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office 
of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's name and 
destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. First and 
second class family-tickets, for not fewer than three persons, are issued 
by all the companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the passage-money, 
but not on the cost of food. A child of 2-10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are entitled 
to a berth for themselves. — Enquiry should be made beforehand as to 
the punctuality of the vessel, as it sometimes happens in smaller ports 
that the shipment and unshipment of goods prolong the voyage for a day 
or more beyond the advertised time. 

The First Class saloons and berths are comfortably and elegantly 
fitted up, those of the Second tolerably. Second-class passengers, like 
those of the first, have free access to every part of the deck. Officers ot 
the Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank of 
captain, are entitled to second-class berths only. When ladies are of the 
party it is of course advisable to travel first-class. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 70 kilogrammes (156 lbs. 
Engl.), second-class 45 kilogr. (100 lbs.), but articles not intended for per- 
sonal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is generally included in the 
first and second-class fares. D&je&ner a la fourchette, served at 10, con- 
sists of 3-4 courses , table-wine , and coffee. Sinner is a similar repast 
between 5 and 6 o'clock. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
repasts are provided with lemonade , etc. , gratuitously. Refreshments 
may of course be procured at other hours on payment (cup of coffee 25 c). 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12-24 hrs., but more 
if the passenger has given unusual trouble. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to the steamboat 
(usually l-l'/s fr. for each person with luggage) are fixed by tariff at all the 
seaports, and will be found in the Handbook. Passengers should there- 
fore avoid all discussions on the subject with the boatmen, and simply 
direct them to row 'al Vaticano', 'alia Bella Venezia', or whatever the 
name of the vessel may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands 
extravagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore, sono cinque lire!' 
— to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti!' On arriving at 
the vessel, payment should not be made until the traveller with all his 
luggage is deposited on deck. The wild gesticulations of the boatman, 
who has perhaps calculated upon the credulity of his passenger, but re- 
ceives no more than the fare fixed by tariff (which is ample remune- 
ration), may be enjoyed with serenity from the deck, a 'terra sacra 1 on 
which disputes are strictly prohibited. 

The passenger gives up his ticket on board, receives the number of 
his berth, superintends the stowing away of his luggage, and finally repairs 
to the deck to observe the progress of the vessel as it quits the harbour, 
of which a fine view is generally obtained. 

Diligences. Southern Italy is now so well provided with rail- 
ways that only those travellers who seek a more particular acquaint- 
ance with the country and its people have occasion to use the 
Diligenze (Olornnliera) or Vetture Corrieri. These vehicles ply re- 
gularly only on the chief routes, but even on the other roads there 
is seldom any difficulty in obtaining a conveyance. On the more fre- 
quented routes a Carriage with one horse may generally be hired for 
: y 4 -l fr., and on the less frequented for i /o- 3 /t^- per English mile. 

Walking Tours. An Italian never walks if he can possibly 
drive ; to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can afford 
pleasure. In the more frequented districts, however, such as the 
environs of Naples, the inhabitants are accustomed to this mania of 

HOTELS. xix 

travellers from the north ; and the numerous sections of the Italian 
Alpine Club, founded for the exploration of the Italian Alps as well 
as of the Apennines, have also introduced the habit among the 
native cultivated classes. Prolonged and fatiguing walking-tours, 
such as are undertaken in more northern climates, will be found 
impracticable in Italy. Cool and clear weather should if possible 
be selected, and exposure to the scirocco studiously avoided. The 
height of summer is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo), mule (mulo), or donkey (sommaro ; 
Neapol. ciucio ; Sicil. vettura, applied to all three animals), between 
which the difference of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant 
and cheap mode of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, 
where the attendant fpedone) also acts as a servant for the time 
being. Side-saddles for ladies are also generally procurable. A 
bargain should be made previously , tutto compreso , a gratuity 
being added if the traveller is satisfied. The donkey-drivers have 
an unpleasant habit of inciting their animals to the top of their 
speed when passing through a town or village, and it is as well to 
warn them beforehand that their 'mancia' will suffer if they do not 
go quietly through the streets. 

VII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
Naples and some of the places in its vicinity, at Brindisi, Palermo, 
Messina, Catania, and Girgenti, the landlords of many of them being 
Swiss or Germans. Rooms 2 1 / 2 -5fr., bougie 75c. -1 fr., attendance 
1 fr., table-d'hote 4-6 fr., and so on. Families, for whose reception 
the hotels are often specially fitted up, should make an agreement 
with regard to pension (8-12 fr. per day for each person). Visitors 
are expected to dine at the table-d'hote ; otherwise they are charged 
more for their rooms, or are informed that they are engaged by 
other travellers. French is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture 
of French and Italian. — The numerous Pensions in or near 
Naples, often kept by English or German ladies, are usually com- 
fortable, clean, and moderate. Passing travellers are received at 
many of them even for a day or two. 

The Second Class Inns, as in Northern and Central Italy, gener- 
ally have a trattoria in connection with the house. Room l 1 ^-^, 
light and attendance 1 fr. per day. Enquiry as to charges, however, 
should always be made beforehand ; and in bargaining for a room 
the 'servizio e candela' should not be forgotten. An extortionate 
bill may even be reduced though no previous agreement has been 
made, but never without long and vehement discussions. 

Attendance, exclusive of boots and commissionnaire, is usually 
charged in the bill at the best hotels. In the smaller inns it is 
generally included in the charge for rooms ; but if not, 1 fr. per 
day may be divided between the waiter and the facchino, or less 



for a prolonged stay. Copper coins are never despised by such 
recipients. — Travellers should not omit to provide themselves 
with matches, as these are not furnished by the hotels (wmp. p. 29). 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Southern Italy is hehind the age, 
dirt heing perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming in the better hotels and lodgings even of the second class ; but those 
who quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. In the village- 
inns the pig (animate nero) is a privileged inmate, and the poultry are freely 
admitted. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, as being less 
infested by the enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia, or 
Keating's ; better procured before leaving home) or camphor should be 
plentifully sprinkled on the beds and on the traveller's clothing in places 
of doubtful cleanliness. The zanzdre, or mosquitoes , are a source of 
great annoyance, and even of suffering, in summer and autumn. Windows 
should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the 
room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks forthe 
face, and gloves are used to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious 
intruders. The burning of insect-powder over a spirit-lamp is also re- 
commended, and pastilles for the same purpose may be purchased at the 
principal chemists'. A weak solution of carbolic acid is efficacious in 
allaying the irritation caused by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, il 
colletio, il solino ; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le mutande; woollen undershirt, 
una flanella, or giuba di flanella; petticoat, lasottana; stocking, la calza; 
sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give out to 
wash, dare a bucato (di biecato, newly washed) ; washing-list, nola; washer- 
woman, laundress, la lavandaja, la stiratrice. 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafes. 

Restaurants (trattorle) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and by travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtain- 
ed a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l^-^fr. ; 
or a repast (pasto) may be ordered at the fixed price of 3-5 fr. for 
each person. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi, or about 
1 soldo for each franc of the bill. The diner who desires to keep 
his expenses within reasonable limits should avoid ordering dishes 
not included in the bill of fare. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 
vegetables and bread. 

Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 

Risotto, a kind of rice-pudding (rich). 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 
pomidoro, or alia Napolituna, with 
tomatoes, see p. xxi. 

Manzo, beef. 

Lesso or bollito, boiled meat. 

Fritto, fried meat. 

Frittura mista, liver, brains, arti- 
chokes, etc., fried together. 

Frittata, omelette. 

Arrosto, roasted meat. 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 

Coscietto, loin. 

Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Testa di vitello, calf s head. 
Figato di vitello, calf s liver. 
Gostoletta or braccioletta di vitello, 

Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Antepasto, principi alia tavola , or 

piattini, hot relishes. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 


Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Gallotta, Gallinaccio, turkey. 
Umidi, meat with sauce. 
Stufatino, ragout. 
Erbe or legumi, vegetables. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchie, lentils. 
Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 
Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 
Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Sendpe, hot mustard. 
Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Frutta or Giardinetto, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutli, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Peru, pear. 
Pomi or mele, apples. 
Persici, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or Portogallo, orange. 
Pane francese or mecanico, bread made 

with yeast (the Italian is without). 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Forrnaggio, or in S. Italy caecio, 

Vino rosso or nero, red wine ; bianco, 

white ; asciutto, dry ; dolce, sweet; 

vino del paese, wine of the country. 

The Maccaroni of Naples is much esteemed , but is generally hard, 
and should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti'. It is usually flavoured with 
pomi oToro (tomatoes), of which the Neapolitans are very fond. Sea-fish 
and ragosta, a kind of lobster, excellent. Shell-fish soup (zuppa di von- 
gole), a good but indigestible dish. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon , and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. 

Cafe noir (Gaffe Nero) is most commonly drunk (15-20 c. per cup). 
Gaffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served (20-30 c.) ; or caffe e latte, 
i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred (30-40 c). The usual 
viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, and eggs (uova da here, soft ; 
teste, hard; uova al piatto, fried). Ices (sorbetto, or gelato) of every con- 
ceivable variety are supplied at the cafes, particularly at Naples, at 30-90 c. 
per portion ; or half-a-portion (mezza) may generally be ordered. Granita, 
or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons; aranciata, of oranges; di caffe, of 
coffee), is chiefly in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter (cameriere), whose 
accuracy in giving change is not always to be relied on expects a fee of 
5-10 c. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. The prices 
of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani , Virginias , Vevays , Cavours, 
Napolitani, etc.) vary from 7>/2 to 18 c. Good imported cigars may be bought 
at the best shops in the large towns for 25-60 c. — Passers-by are at 
liberty to ayail themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, 
without making any purchase. 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and gener- 
ally again from 2-4 to 7 p.m. Visitors may inspect the works of 
art even during divine service , provided they move about noise- 
lessly, and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. 
The verger (sagrestano or nonzolo) receives a fee of y fi fr. or up- 
wards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong to 
government are open on week-days at a charge of 1 fr., and on 
Sundays gratis. The attendants are forbidden to accept gratuities. 
The collections are closed on public holidays. 

The Museo Nazionale at Naples, for instance, is closed on New Year's 
Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the king's birthday (14th Mar.), Easter Sunday, 



Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Corpus Christ! , Festa dello Statuto (first 
Sunday in June), Day of SS. Peter & Paul (29th June), Assumption of the 
Virgin (15th Aug.), Birth of the Virgin (8th Sept.), St. Januarius (19th 
Sept.), All Saints' Day (1st Nov.), Feast of the Conception (8th Dec), and 
on Christmas Day. 

Theatres. The performances at the larger theatres, beginning 
at 8, 8. 30, or 9, and ending at midnight or later , consist ex- 
clusively of operas and ballets, the first act of an opera being 
usually succeeded by a ballet of three or more acts. The pit (platea), 
to which holders of the ordinary Mglietto cTingresso are admitted, 
is the usual resort of the men. For the reserved seats (seanni 
chiusi, sedle chime , poltrone , posti distinti) and boxes (palco) ad- 
ditional tickets must be taken. Ladies of course engage a box, or 
at least reserved seats. The former must always be secured in ad- 
vance. — The theatre is a favourite evening-resort of the Italians, 
and silence during the performance of the music is never very 
strictly observed. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price asked should be offered (comp. p. 26). The 
same rule applies to artizans , drivers, and others. 'Non volete?' 
(then you will not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should 
never be made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de- 
place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 
per cent of the purchase-money, which of course comes out of the 
purchaser's pocket. 

X. Beckoning of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, except by the lower classes, but is still 


. time 

By Ital. time 

■a, u u 





e Ma 
is ou 



0" « 








5 u 






July 1—12. 





18»| 4 

6»| t 

5'| 4 


16' j, 







5>) 2 

Aug. 1—15. 

16i| 2 








16»| 4 












1— 5. 




Sept. 1 — 5. 






53j 4 

6'| 4 



5i| 4 

6 3 | 4 


1T'I 2 





5i 2 

6i| 2 



5'| 4 

63| 4 



53| 4 




5'| 4 

63| 4 

Oct. 1—10. 













16»| 4 

43j 4 

7'| 4 

21—31 . 

18>| 4 

6i| 4 

53| 4 




4M 2 

7'| 2 

Nov. 1—15. 

18i| 2 

61 1 2 


16'| 4 

4' 4 

7=»| 4 

10— 31. 

183| 4 


5i| 4 






Dec. 1—31. 





almost universally employed in the country, especially in Sicily. 
The ordinary reckoning of other nations is termed ora francese. 
The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock'; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o'clock', or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' 
is rung. The following hours are usually called 'un ora di notte', 
'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of calculation 
would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece in the 
kingdom, but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter the 
hour of Ave Maria by V4 h f - about once a fortnight. The accom- 
panying table shows the Italian compared with the ordinary hours. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

Post Office. The address of letters, whether poste restante (Ital. 
ferma in posta), or to the traveller's hotel, should in all cases be 
simple and distinctly legible, all superfluous titles being omitted. 
In asking for letters it is advisable to show one's visiting-card, and 
to see that a proper search is made among the poste restante letters. 

Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at many of the tobacco-shops. A 
letter of 15 grammes 0/2 oz., weight of about 3 soldi) to any of the coun- 
tries included in the postal union 25 c. ; post-card (cartolina postale) 10 c, 
with card for answer attached (con Hsposta pagata) 20 c. ; hook-post 
(slampe soito fascia) 5 c. per 50 grammes-, registering (raccommandazione) 
25 c. — Post Office Orders, see p. xn. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout Italy 20 c. prepaid, 30 c. un- 
paid; post-cards 10 c, with card for answer attached 15 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily (including Sundays 
and holidays) from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; in smaller places it is generally 
closed for 2-3 hours in the middle of the day. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 39 c, France 14, Germany 18, Switzerland 6-14, 
Austria 6-14, Belgium 19, Holland 23, Denmark 23, Russia 49, 
Norway 36 , Sweden 38 c. — To America from 3% fr. per word 
upwards, according to the distance. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr., each additional word 5 c. Telegrams 
with special haste (telegrammi urgenti), which take precedence of 
all others, may be sent in Italy at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate and Health of Naples. 
Climate. The hills in the vicinity of Naples only afford it par- 
tial protection against the winds. The Posilipo and the heights of 
S. Elmo and Capodimonte shelter it tolerably well on the N.W. 
and N. ; but the N.E. (Tramontane/), S.E. (Scirocco), and S.W. 
(Libeccio) winds are opposed by no such natural barrier. The alter- 
nation of these air-currents from the N. and S. exercises the most 
material influence upon the temperature of the different seasons 
at Naples , and is the usual cause of the extreme variations which 
sometimes occur in the course of a single day. September is almost 


invariably hot and oppressive, but the first half of October is usu- 
ally much cooler, the mean temperature being about 65° Fahr. and 
the sky generally bright and cloudless. In November the rainy S. 
wind prevails, while in December, when the N. wind blows, many 
fine days are enjoyed. The weather at this season is often re- 
markably mild. The mean winter temperature is about 50°, but in 
the cold nights of January the thermometer sometimes sinks 5-6° 
below freezing-point. Snow seldom falls in Naples itself, but in 
January the surrounding mountains are sometimes covered with a 
mantle of snow which imparts a bitter keenness to the E. and N.E. 
winds. Fogs are very rare. Towards the end of January, or in Feb- 
ruary at latest, the S. winds again predominate, and a rainy sea- 
son sets in, which often lasts till April. March resembles an 
English April in its changeableness, while April (mean tempera- 
ture 60°) is perhaps the most delightful month of the whole year. 
May (68°) is also aii exceedingly pleasant month. In June, July, 
and August the prevalent winds are from the N. and N.E. The 
heat sometimes rises to 100° (mean 72-77°), but is pleasantly tem- 
pered by the sea-wind, which rises in the forenoon and blows till 
about 2 p.m., an advantage unknown at Rome or Florence. 

In Mt. Vesuvius the Neapolitans possess a gigantic barometer. 
The direction in which the smoke issuing from the crater blows 
often announces a change of weather twenty-four hours beforehand. 
When it blows towards Capri , good weather may be expected (in 
winter a clear sky and cool temperature) ; when it is turned towards 
Ischia, we may look for E. wind (Oreco Levante) and cold weather. 
Indications of the approach of the Scirocco are specially important, 
as during the prevalence of this depressing wind, perfect repose is 
desirable. Thus, when the crater is concealed by a thick layer of 
clouds, we may expect S. wind, often accompanied by heavy rain. 
Another premonition of the scirocco is afforded when Capri appears 
of a dark blue colour and unusually near and distinct. Long, low, 
and regular waves rolling in from the Bocca Piccola also as a rule 
betoken the approach of the scirocco. 

Health. The sanitary condition of Naples has greatly improved 
of late years and is on the whole not unsatisfactory. The mistaken 
idea, however, that no change whatever need be made in his mode 
of life often exposes the traveller to risks which a little caution 
would easily evade. The principal danger to visitors to Naples con- 
sists in the so-called Neapolitan fever, a variety of typhus to which 
numerous strangers fall a prey. In the great majority of cases, 
however, this illness takes a favourable course ; and it is only when 
complicated with other maladies that danger to life need be feared. 
It is only lately that Naples has secured a supply of wholesome 
drinking-water, and the violent outbreak of cholera in 1884 may in 
a great measure be traced to the lack of this. The epidemic how- 
ever, has had the effect of accelerating the necessary improvements. 


By far the most important of these is the construction of the im- 
mense Aqueduct (Acqua di Serino), which now brings a copious 
supply of good water to the town from the Serino, a river in the 
Apennines, several miles distant. Measures have also been taken 
to open up the crowded and infected lanes and alleys by demolish- 
ing houses and forming new streets, and finally a general sewerage 
system for the whole town has been begun. 

Whatever be the primary causes of the often exaggerated evil 
sanitary reputation of Naples, the immediate or exciting cause may 
almost invariably be traced to imprudence on the part of the trav- 
ellers, especially of those who wish to see everything in the shortest 
possible time, allow themselves no time for repose, and neglect 
the commonest sanitary precautions. It cannot be too emphatic- 
ally asserted that nearly all the acute diseases by which visitors 
to Naples are attacked are due to imprudences in diet , to ne- 
glected colds, or to excessive fatigue. Even the hardiest traveller 
from the N. should take the utmost care in avoiding these three 
provocatives of disease. On the smallest symptom of indisposition, 
all excursions should be given up until the nervous system has 
recovered its usual tone. A physician should also be consulted. 
Malarial affections are most generally incurred on excursions 
to Lago Agnano or Baiae, or in drives to Pianura or other places 
in the Phlegrsean Fields. Paestum and the railway -journey 
through the Roman Campagna are also more or less dangerous in 
this respect. The best prophylactic measures consist in warm 
clothing, an avoidance of the hours of sunset , and the shutting of 
the windows in the railway-carriage. Those who, notwithstanding 
all precautions, are attacked by malaria should at once seek change 
of air in Sorrento, Capri, or La Cava. Naples is often trying for 
persons with weak lungs on account of the sudden changes of tem- 
perature in winter, and such persons should not fix their abode 
here without medical advice. Pozzuoli or Capri is generally much 
more congenial to patients of this class. 

Rooms, or at least bedrooms, facing the S. are almost essential 
for the delicate and highly desirable for the robust. If such can- 
not be obtained , those facing the W. are the next best in win- 
ter, those facing the E. in summer. Corner rooms and lodgings 
on the ground-floor should be avoided. The uppermost floors of 
house are often damp on account of the thinness of the walls and 
ceilings. Care should be taken to see that all the doors and win- 
dows close satisfactorily. The healthiest parts of the town are the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, the Rione Principe Amedeo, and the Pizzo- 
falcone. The upper part of the Strada Santa Lucia may be recom- 
mended to those who do not fear a little wind and dust. There are 
also numerous comfortable and healthy dwellings in the Strada 
Chiatamone , the Riviera di Chiaja , and the Mergellina , although 
the drains here emptying themselves into the sea often pollute the 


air very perceptibly when the -wind blows inshore. One of the 
physicians mentioned at p. 25 should , however, in this case be 
consulted in the choice of a dwelling, as many of the houses here 
are so defective in hygienic arrangements that they are positively 
unhealthy and dangerous. 

The visitor to Naples should as a general rule wear warmer 
clothing than he would at home in a similar temperature. Natives 
are generally much more careful in this respect than strangers , as 
they know from experience that a cold at Naples is too likely to 
usher in a severe illness. The traveller should therefore always be 
provided with a greatcoat or shawl, which he should make use of in 
the evening, when sitting in a carriage or boat , or when exposed 
to sudden alternations of sun and shade. Exposure to the summer 
sun should be avoided as much as possible, and a sunshade should 
be used both in walking and driving. Long walks should be 
avoided as much as possible ; fortunately the low fares of the cabs 
and tramways make driving comparatively inexpensive. It is also 
necessary to be warmly covered during sleep ; the supply of bed- 
clothes at the hotels and lodging-houses is often apt to be scanty. 

Moderation in eating and drinking is , of course, imperative. 
The appetite gradually decreases under a southern sun, but at first 
strangers are sometimes apt to eat excessive quantities of macca- 
roni, cheese, fruit, etc. The traveller should adopt the Neapolitan 
custom of rejecting fish that are not quite fresh. Oysters are also 
dangerous here when not fresh ; and cases of typhus have been 
traced to the consumption of oysters from S. Lucia (p. 36), where 
the shell-fish are kept in undesirable proximity to the mouths of 
the sewers. It is safer, therefore, to dispense with this luxury al- 
together. Ripe fruit eaten in moderation at meals is perfectly 
wholesome , but the fruit offered at table-d'hote even in the best 
hotels is often unripe , as the Neapolitans prefer it in this state. 
Water-melons (Anguria) and the figs of the Indian cactus are bet- 
ter left untouched. A free indulgence in fruit should be especially 
avoided in autumn, when the excessive heat predisposes to diar- 
rhoea. The Sorbe, a kind of fruit resembling the medlar and con- 
taining a large quantity of tannin, is often useful in counteract- 
ing a diarrhoeic tendency. A dozen or so of this fruit may be eaten 
at once without fear of prejudicial consequences. Diarrhoea induced 
by violent exertion in hot weather may often be cured by the use 
of Qranith (p. xxi). Rice and the homoeopathic tincture of cam- 
phor are also common remedies, but thorough repose is the chief 
desideratum. The ordinary red wines of the country are usually sound 
and good, and a moderate use of them when pure may be thoroughly 
recommended. Those who find them unpalatable should drink claret. 
The native white wines, though generally lighter than the red are 
too astringent in their action. Beer-drinking is not advisable.' 


from the German of 

Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

Wir tragen 
Die Triimmer hiniiber 
Zfnd klagm 

ffber die verlome Schone .' 

The traveller whose attention is directed to the treasures of 
the National Museum at Naples, to the relics of antiquity scattered 
throughout Southern Italy and Sicily , and who , possibly setting 
foot on the soil of Attica, finds himself, if favoured by fortune, in 
the presence of her glorious ruins — has in all probability had 
his appetite whetted in Rome, and has there collected such data as 
he will readily apply to all that presents itself as new to his obser- 
vation. But even he who turns himself at once to the contemplation 
of an heritage of antiquity such as that comprised in the favoured 
regions of Campania and Sicily has the promise of a Tich and ab- 
undant harvest, if he but know how to prize its fruits. 

The National Museum partakes in many of its departments of 
the same character as the Vatican with its statue world , and in- 
cludes many works in marble which have indeed been brought 
thither from Rome, notably those formerly belonging to the Farnese 
family. By the careful observer many of the statues will be re- 
cognised as repetitions of those already seen in Rome. They belong 
to the numerous class of copies made from renowned masterpieces, 
which in the old Roman time were indispensable adjuncts to 
a display of wealth and refinement. Many of these martles betray, 
owing to a certain redundancy and pliancy of outline, a taste 
peculiar to people of these coasts upon which Nature has lavished 
her choicest gifts. The exquisite Greek coins remind us that we are 
in a land that was once the thriving and envied seat of Greek cul- 
ture : innumerable tripods, candelabra, lamps, brazieTS, jars, jugs, 
caskets, bracelets, needles, house and kitchen-utensils of all kinds, 
weapons of warriors and gladiators, the numerous figures in bronze, 
above all a stately array of some hundreds of wall-paintings, unique 
in the world , indicate with sufficient clearness that here are col- 

xxviii ANCIENT ART. 

lected the results of excavations which present as in a mirror a 
complete and charming picture of ancient life, and that we are in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and 
Stabiae, long buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

His first impression of purely Greek art the Northern traveller 
in Italy receives at Paestum. The drive through a lonely, silent 
country ; the picturesque beauty of the ruins and landscape with 
the glittering sea in apparently close proximity ; the melancholy re- 
flection that these proud temples before their decay looked upon 
a thriving Hellenic city amid the smiles of nature, instead of a 
fever-stricken pestilential wilderness : all this serves so to excite 
the susceptibility of the beholder, that he will find the impression 
produced by these ruins , conspicuously that of the Temple of 
Jupiter, almost more overpowering than even the spectacle of the 
Roman forum. There the scale, the solidity and splendour of the 
edifices , as well as the surpassing wealth of form and sculptured 
ornament, are imposing. Here the architecture appears externally 
poor in merely superficial decoration : poorer than it had originally 
been. The coating of stucco , so fine and firmly set that it gave to 
the porous limestone a surface smooth as marble, is shattered and 
weather-stained , the forms themselves have extensively suffered ; 
wind and weather have obliterated the coloured leaves which de- 
corated the heavy collars of the capitals together with all that gay 
adornment bestowed according to Greek custom. But precisely in 
this absence of adornment , in a simplicity which brings to view 
only what is indispensable and essential, does this stern Doric 
temple with its dense array of mighty columns, with its lofty and 
ponderous entablature and far-reaching projection of cornice, in 
the clear and simple disposal of the masses, in solemnity and 
strength of proportion, in beauty and distinctness of outline, pre- 
sent itself as a revelation of the spirit of Greek architecture, which 
so fills us with amazement that we are apt to overlook the very 
slight expenditure of material space employed to produce this in- 
comparable impression of grandeur and sublimity. One who has 
seen the ruins of Psestum will have the more pleasure in examin- 
ing less impressive mementoes of the Greek ages from the city dedi- 
cated to Poseidon — the fine monumental paintings from Paestum 
in the National Museum of Naples : Warriors departing for the 
combat whence they are never to return. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Paestum is ascribed to the close of 
the 6th century B.C. From a far remoter past, however dates 
the fragment of art-history which we are enabled to trace in Seli- 
nunto, although it cannot of course be deciphered on the spot from 
its ruins alone. The imagination is less severely taxed to supply 
all that is lost to the beauteous ruins in Segesta and Oirgenti. In 
Selinunto the effects of earthquakes have been so destructive that a 
clear conception of the temples can only be attained by reference 


to the architects' plans and drawings. The sculptures belonging to 
these temples, brought to light by recent excavations, are to be found 
in the Museum of Palermo. The oldest temple, usually distinguish- 
ed by the letter C, is that on the Acropolis. This was probably de- 
dicated to Apollo as god of succour, and was erected immediately 
subsequent to the foundation of the city, an event assigned variously 
to B.C. 651 and B.C. 628. The neighbouring and northernmost 
temple of the Acropolis, £>, presumably sacred to Athena, is scarcely 
more recent. In the three metope-reliefs which belong to the first- 
named temple C, scarcely a trace of Grecian beauty is discernible ; 
indeed they are almost ludicrously primitive and rude. And yet 
they afford an instructive insight into the rudimentary Sculpture of 
the Greeks. Possibly, in the place for which they were designed, 
aloft between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze, and set in a frame- 
work of strong and clearly denned architectural lines , the reliefs 
may have had a less repulsive effect. But it is curious to ob- 
serve how the same stage in art which had in architecture attained 
to an essentially coherent system , primitive perhaps in its severity 
and unwieldiness , yet conveying the impression of harmony in its 
completeness, should in the Tendering of such figures as would con- 
tribute to its architectural ornamentation be beset by a childish 
restraint and uncertainty of aim ; how the same eye that watched 
over the ordered arrangement of each part and proportion as 
well as the delicate rendering of each line and ornament of the 
building, could be content to give representations of mythical 
events , which, as it appears to us, must have exhibited an aimless 
and startling conspicuousness and a grotesque vivacity, entailing 
the disfigurement of the human form and the entire sacrifice of 
natural proportion. And yet in these characteristics lies the germ 
of a mighty future, in the religious enthusiasm which anim- 
ated the artist as he strove to give intelligible expression to 
the sacred history which he had to relate, in the independence 
and directness with which he embodied its purport in sculp- 
tured forms. Not that we can suppose such scenes to have been 
altogether new to him. He might have seen them in other 
places and in earlier times. But he had to mould them anew 
and from his own individual resources, without available pattern, 
and without that readiness in execution which the hand can only 
acquire by frequent exercise. The head of Medusa alone, this 
earliest figurative expression of destruction and horror, is clearly 
and unfailingly pourtrayed. To the artist as well as his contem- 
poraries this poverty in execution was not apparent. Their sucess- 
ors were not slow to make far different pretensions. If a kind 
fate had preserved the single statue of the youthful god that stood 
in the sanctuary, or at some future time should discover it to us, 
we should probably be overwhelmed with astonishment at the con- 
trast presented by the statue to the reliefs. At a time when such 


reliefs as these were possible, Greek art had already possessed itself 
of a definite type for the statue of Apollo, and foT the youthful 
form generally, in archaic stiffness , but conformable with the law 
of nature in shape and proportion ; while by constant comparison 
with nature it continued to gain in purity and truthfulness. 

By the same process representation in relief is gradually en- 
nobled. Offences against proportion and drawing are more easily 
overlooked in relief than in a lifesize work in the round ; the sus- 
ceptibility of the eye moreover is more readily forgotten in the in- 
terest excited by the pictorial narration. The monuments of Seli- 
nunto are pre-eminent in the opportunity they afford for observing 
on the spot what has sprung from these beginnings. Of the group on 
the Eastern hill the Temple F in point of time is next to those of 
the Psean Apollo and of Athena. Then come Temple O, likewise 
dedicated to Apollo, one to Juno E, and lastly Temple A, occupy- 
ing the Acropolis. Temple F still belongs to the 6th century B.C., 
a period when the building of the Apollo Temple G had begun, to 
be completed at a later period. The Herseum (Temple of Juno) E 
and temple A date from the middle of the 5th century B.C. or 
not much later. Two halves of metope-slabs have been brought 
to light which adorned the temple F (a god and goddess contend- 
ing with giants), and four similar slabs from the Herseum are so 
far preserved that they furnish a sufficiently intelligible repre- 
sentation of Zeus and Hera, Artemis and Actaeon, Heracles and 
the Amazons, and Athena contending with the Giants. 

In both metopes from F extraordinary clearness and animation 
again arrest the attention. The impetuous rush of the victorious 
goddess, the dying agonies of the fallen giant, his head convulsive- 
ly thrown back , his mouth open and grinning , his utter helpless- 
ness, are rendered with a turbulence , and with an expenditure of 
means, which appear to us very much in excess of what is needed 
for clear expression, and which simply outrage instead of satisfying 
one's sense of the beautiful. The two art -stages to which these 
reliefs, and the quaint rudeness of those of the Apollo Temple on 
the Acropolis belong, offer a certain analogy. In both cases all 
available means are applied with recklessness and in excess. Those, 
however , at the disposal of the later artist were infinitely richer 
and more perfect. While his predecessor had not altogether mastered 
the forms of art, he had acquired a certain familiarity with them, 
though at the cost of much toil and trouble ; but his power was so 
new and unwonted that he could not refrain from abusing it. The 
Metopaefrom the Heraeum on the other hand, which mark the maturity 
of archaic art, show a command of expression ennobled by a fine 
perception of the beautiful. These qualities declare themselves most 
felicitously in the two compositions which represent the meeting 
of Zeus and Hera on Mount Ida and Artemis' punishing Actson 
The expression of godlike serenity and joy which pervades the first 


scene transcends all similar efforts whether of earlier or later art : 
while the second is scarcely less admirable from the way in which 
the unmistakable wildness of the subject is subdued to something 
like softness by modulation of movement and occupation of allotted 
space. The technical method employed in the more recent metopes 
is peculiar. In the antique vases with black figures on a red ground 
the men are usually black, and the women, as far as the body itself 
is visible, white. Here the indication of the lighter and darker flesh 
colour of the two sexes has superficially supplied a necessary char- 
acteristic. But the perfected art also resorted to this distinction in 
rendering flesh-colour. In the paintings of Pompeii the bronzed, 
sunburnt bodies of the men form an effective contrast to the deli- 
cate and fairer forms of the women. Something of the same kind 
is found in the metopes of the Herseum. As the entire temple is of 
tufa, they too are of the same material. Owing to the rugged and 
faulty nature of the material the architect resorted to a coating 
of stucco upon which he displayed his gaudy decoration. In the 
reliefs on the other hand the nude forms of the women are given 
in white marble. The harmony of the different portions of the 
reliefs, multiform as they were , was restored by a profuse appli- 
cation of colour, which the purely architectural accessories also re- 

These beautiful reliefs, which may appear somewhat primitive 
in our eyes, are contemporaneous with, or perhaps even more recent 
than the building and plastic decoration of the Parthenon in Athens. 
Compared with the works of Attica they exhibit a distinctly dif- 
ferent order of art, a Doric fashion of sculpture, which we again 
meet with in the older metopes from Selinunto. At a time when 
Greek art was in the zenith of its splendour, the Western Hellenes, 
who like the Greeks of Asia Minor had been once in advance of the 
mother-country, lost their advantage. Magna Grsecia and Sicily can 
boast of no name comparable with those of Phidias and Polycletus. 
The reliefs of Selinunto have more in common with the works of 
Polycletus, than with those of the Attic school. In the National 
Museum at Naples there is a fine reproduction of the Doryphorus of 
Polycletus, from which we learn what Doric Peloponnesian sculp- 
ture" was at its best ; in like manner the Farnese Head of Juno 
(p. 68), surpassing all similar conceptions of the goddess in majestic 
severity and repressed energy, fitly affords an idea of the master- 
piece of Polycletus. In a well-known passage in his history of art, 
Winckelmann describes perfect beauty as twofold, as having a double 
grace : the one as winning, — 'she descends from her eminence, 
revealing herself to the observant eye with a suavity devoid of 
self-abasement: she is not over-anxious to please, but would 
not be overlooked'. The other is self-sufficient and would be sought 
rather than court attention, — 'she holds converse only with the 
wise, appearing to the populace inimical and austere, she conceals 


the emotions of her soul, and nearly attains to the blessed repose 
of the divine nature: and thus according to ancient writers the 
greatest artists sought to pourtray her'. To those who know how to 
observe will be revealed beneath the austere solemnity of this Far- 
nese Juno an impressive picture of godlike repose and majesty. 

The Old Attic School is represented in Naples by the group 
of the tyrant-slayers Harmodius and Aristogiton (p. 67), a copy of that 
work of Anterior which stood in the market-place at Athens. The 
two Athenians rush to the attack , the sword of the younger being 
raised to strike ; the older of the two (the head of this figure does 
not belong to it, the original was bearded) is at hand to protect his 
brave comrade, as soon as the time comes for him to interfere ; and 
here the words of the great authority already quoted, in reference to 
the attributes of a severe style , are applicable : 'The drawing was 
impressive but hard , powerful but devoid of grace. The force of 
expression detracts from the beauty' . . . 'Art was hard and severe as 
the justice of the timewhich punished the most trifling offence with 
death'. Those who can retain in the eye a correct impress of forms 
may compare the two metopes of Temple F with this Attic group 
of the murder of Hippias. The same violence of action and render- 
ing of form are observable in both. But the reliefs appear wild, 
almost disordered and devoid of beauty, beside the symmetrical ac- 
curacy and precision , the concentrated power, the beautiful flow of 
lines in the group of statues. Farther, a comparison of the finest 
metopes from the Hera temple with this and other Attic works will 
give an insight into the various phases of subtlety and grace which 
find a place in the collective Greek character. Above all, such a 
comparison will direct attention to the widely differing conditions 
requisite for the execution of reliefs intended for architectural de- 
coration from those imposed upon the author of a self-contained 
work in the round on the grandest scale. This distinction must 
neither be overlooked nor too lightly estimated. 

Though in the National Museum there may not be found any 
very pure or important example of the Attic school of Phidias' time, 
a succeeding school is most happily illustrated by the Orpheus Relief 
(p. 72). Orpheus is permitted to bring his consort Eurydice out of 
Hades and to restore her once more to the light of the sun on con- 
dition that he shall not look upon her during the passage. He has 
failed to fulfil this condition. Hermes, the conductor of departed 
souls, with gentle measured gesture takes the hand of Eurydice to 
consign her anew to the realm of shades. In contemplating this com- 
position, beautiful in its simplicity as it is, hope and dismay altern- 
ately possess us. The advance of the train , Orpheus in the act of 
casting the fatal glance , the confiding communion of man and weif 
are quite unmistakable , as well as the interruption of their pro- 
gress and the subsequent return of Eurydice. And here we may 
pause to wonder how antique art could present powerful effect 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

clothed in persuasive beauty, or, if subdued , yet with striking ex- 
pression : and with what a modest expenditure of means she could 
assert 'this noble simplicity and grandeur of repose'. Even in its 
own time this work must have enjoyed a considerable reputation, 
as replicas are still to be seen in the Villa Alhani at Rome and in 
the Louvre at Paris. The Neapolitan example is the most beauti- 
ful, and the severest too, of those extant. It may be remarked, by 
the way, that the inscriptions introduced, though they may be cor- 
rect in the explanation they give , must be of doubtful antiquity. 
— By far the greater number of sculptures in Naples belong like 
those in Rome to a more recent period of Greek art. The prostrate 
Amazon stretched out in death, a Dead Persian, a Dead Qiant, and 
the Wounded Qaul, which will be readily recognised from its 
resemblance to a master-piece of the Pergamenian school, the 
Dying Gaul in the Museum of the Capitol (the so-called dying 
gladiator), are parts of a votive offering of King Attalus of Perga- 
mum at Athens, of which single figures are to be seen in Venice 
and in Rome. 

The colossal group of the so-called Farnese Bull (p. 65), which 
brilliantly represents the Rhodian School, is more likely to arrest 
attention. This group will produce a powerful impression upon 
most beholders, and this not by force of its material bulk alone. 
The effect would have been even more impressive, had the work of 
restoration been successful, particularly in the standing female 
figure. It will be worth our while to analyse the nature of this 
effect, as well as the forces which contribute to it. An occurrence 
full of horror is presented to our view. Two powerful youths are 
engaged in binding on the back of a furious bull the helpless form 
of a woman. The mighty beast is plunging violently, and in another 
moment will be away, hurrying the burden he is made to bear to 
the terrible doom of a martyr. As soon as we have attained to an 
accurate conception of what is passing before us, horror and dismay 
rather than pity take possession of us. What impels the youths 
to the deed? How is it that they are allowed to effect their purpose 
undisturbed? The answer is to be found outside the work itself. 
Antiope, expelled by her father, has given birth to Amphion and 
Zethus and abandoned them. The sons grow up under the care 
of an old shepherd. Antiope has yet other sufferings to endure at 
the hands of her relation Dirce who maltreated her. Dirce wander- 
ing on Mount Cythaeron in bacchanalian revel would slay the 
victim of her persecutions. She bids two young shepherds bind 
Antiope to a bull that she may thus be dragged to her death. The 
youths recognise their mother before it is too late : they consign 
Dirce to the doom prepared for Antiope. The ancient Greeks were 
familiarised with this myth by a celebrated tragedy of Euripides ; 
the subordinate work on the base, the mountain-god Cythaeron 
decked with Bacchic ivy, and the Bacchic Cista on the ground, 
Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. c 


would help to recall all the minor incidents of the story. A doom 
pronounced by the gods is executed ; the fate Dirce had prepared for 
another recoils upon herself. But all this, or at least as much as 
will suffice for a satisfactory understanding of the work of art as 
such, cannot be gathered from the work itself. In the Orpheus 
relief we recognise without extraneous aid the separation of two 
lovers calmly resigned to their fate, their severance by the conductor 
of souls. An acquaintance with the exquisite legend will merely 
serve to enhance the thrilling emotions evoked by the sculptured 
forms. The Bull will excite our abhorrence if the story be not 
known to us ; while the knowledge itself and such reflections as it 
would suggest could scarcely reconcile us to the cruelty of the 
deed, nor help us to endure without something akin to petrifaction 
these moments of horror. But when our thoughts are sufficiently 
collected to allow of our realising the event, we are again lost in 
admiring wonder at the aspiring courage, at the command of all 
artistical and technical resources possessed by the author of this 
sculpture which uprears itself with such unfaltering power. The 
base is adorned with suggestions of landscape and appropriate 
animal-life more elaborately than was then usual in works of this 
kind, although analogies are not wholly wanting. But the landscape, 
the figure of the mountain-god Cythaeron, together with all minor 
accessories, are far surpassed in interest by the principal figures 
and their action. The lovely feminine form of Dirce vainly im- 
ploring the powerful youths whose utmost exertions scarcely suf- 
fice to restrain the infuriated beast , the vivid reality of the whole 
scene , the artistic refinement in the execution have scarcely yet 
been sufficiently admired. We readily concede to one like "Welcker, 
who brought the finest perceptions to bear on the exposition of 
antique art, 'that it is impossible to attain to the highest excellence 
in any particular direction without at the same time postponing 
one or other consideration of value'. That which was esteemed as 
the highest excellence , the goal which must be reached at the cost 
of all other considerations, has varied with successive epochs of 
Greek art. In the present case repose and concentration are sacri- 
ficed to the overwhelming effect of a momentary scene. Even at 
a time when restoration could not have interfered with the original 
design , the impression of a certain confusedness must have been 
conveyed to the spectator, at least at the first glance. It is emin- 
ently characteristic of this group 'that it powerfully arrests the 
attention at a point where an almost wild defiance of rule declares 
itself. The contrast presented in the scene — the terribly rapid 
and unceasing movement as the inevitable result of a momentary 
pause, which the artist with consummate boldness and subtlety has 
known how to induce and improve , give life and energy to the 
picture in a wonderful degree'. But Welcker himself, from whom 
these words are borrowed , reminds us how this group first arrests 


attention 'by the uncommon character of its appearance'. The 
growp of the Bull assuredly displays excellences which belonged 
to the antique of every epoch , especially the intuitive perception 
that truth in the sphere of art is not identical with an illusory 
realism. The conception of this group proceeds from a complete 
apprehension of the subject to be embodied. But this fulness of 
apprehension is derived from the Tragedy. From the very beginning 
plastic art and poetry have been as twin streams springing from 
one source and flowing separately, yet side by side. Often indeed 
their waters have met and mingled. But it was long e'er the tide 
of poetry seeking a separate channel helped to feed the sister 
stream. The scene presented to us by this Farnese group was 
illustrated by Euripides long before its embodiment by plastic art 
in his tragedy, where Dirce's death is related by the messenger. The 
artist found material for his inventiveness at hand, which his fancy, 
passionately stimulated, presently endowed with plastic form and 
life at a moment which promised 'an uncommon appearance', a 
majestic and overpowering effect which should command astonish- 
ment and admiration. We have already attributed theFarnese group 
to the Rhodian School in speaking of the origin and development 
of art. It was the work of two sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus 
of Tralles in Asia Minor ; for, according to the Roman author Pliny, 
the group is identical with one by these artists which was brought 
to Rome from Rhodes, and in all probability found its way thence 
to Naples. — The colossal group of a man who bears away the dead 
body of a boy on his shoulders is usually ascribed to the Rhodian 
School. It has been described as Hector with the body of Troilus. 
But the corpse of a beloved brother saved from the battle-field 
would hardly be seized in such fashion. It would rather appear 
to be that of a victim borne away in triumph by a ruthless victor. 

In Naples we have a number of instructive examples of the 
two styles which are frequently designated as an antique Renais- 
sance, the New-Attic School, and the School of Pasitklks ; of 
the latter in the bronze figure of Apollo playing the Lyre from Pom- 
peii, and in the archaic simplicity of the affecting group of Orestes 
and Electra ; of the former in the Vase of Salpion, or better still in 
the Aphrodite from Capua, the so-called Psyche, and similar works. 
In Naples abundant opportunity will be found for continuing the 
study begun in Rome of the heroes of an ideal world, of portraits 
(among which the mild and melancholy head of M. Brutus, the 
murderer of Csesar, is conspicuous), sarcophagus-reliefs, or whatever 
else may especially engage the attention. Probably, however, 
curiosity and interest will be most excited by the appearance of 
antique paintings from Pompeii and the neighbouring cities of Cam- 
pania buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

The history of Greek Painting presents a problem difficult 
of solution. Happily we have outlived the superstition that the 


people amongst whom the Parthenon arose , and who gave birth to 
a sculptor such as Phidias, should have contributed in painting 
nothing worthy of record. What we most desire, however, is still 
wanting. We are not in possession of any work by a master of the 
art ; but only of the products of a subordinate and mechanical art, 
and these only from a single and comparatively recent period. 

The greatest painter of the older time — and probably one of 
the greatest artists of all times — was Polygnotus , a native of 
Thasos. He lived for the most part in Athens, where he was pre- 
sented with the rights of citizenship, and was, though a contemporary 
of Phidias, his senior. As Phidias was a favourite of Pericles and 
employed by him, it would appear that Polygnotus was a protege of 
Cimon. Pausanias, the Greek author of travels (in the time of 
Antoninus), had seen two large paintings by Polygnotus covering 
the wall in Delphi, and has minutely described them. In the one 
the fall of Troy was represented, in the other scenes from the nether 
world. In the first the Trojan Cassandra is the centre figure. Ajax 
has offered violence to her : she sits on the ground, in her hand the 
image of the insulted Athena ; around her the Greek heroes are 
sitting in judgment upon Ajax. In the background is the citadel 
of Troy, the head of the wooden horse reaches above its wall, which 
Epeios, the builder of the horse, is about to demolish. Right and 
left of the central group are scenes of destruction ; heaps of the 
slain, the savage Neoptolemus still persisting in his work of 
slaughter, captive women, and terrified children ; nor were more 
inviting scenes wanting. Close to the captive Trojan women ^Ethra 
was seen , the liberated slave of Helen , and farther back the tent 
of Menelaus is taken down and his ship equipped for departure. 
On the other side of the picture was recognised the house of An- 
tenor, which the Greeks had spared, while he himself and his 
family make ready to quit their desolated home and depart for 
foreign lands. Thus the entire centre of the composition has refer- 
ence to the crime committed after the conquest, which called aloud 
for punishment by the gods ; these scenes of death and horror were 
enclosed at the extremities by more peaceful incidents — the 
horror of the lower world whose shades envelope renowned heroes 
and heroines ; Odysseus compelled to descend to the abode of the 
departed — all this Polygnotus combined in one grand picture, 
skilfully alternating peace and the torments of hell, prodigious 
ghastliness and tender grace. Polygnotus had not only embodied in 
these pictures the mythical matter with which religious rites, epic 
poem, vulgar tradition and humour, as well as the earlier works of 
plastic art, could furnish him ; not only had he animated this 
material with captivating motives strongly appealing to the be- 
holder's imagination; but he had, as may still be recognised, while 
painting, asserted his power as a poet and supplied much that was 
original in the realm of fancy. The technical means at the disposal 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

of Polygnotus were so limited, so simple and antiquated , that in 
the Roman times admiration of his pictures was ridiculed as a con- 
ceit of dilettantism — just as at one time it was customary to scoff 
at the admirer of Giotto. Nevertheless with these simple means, 
Polygnotus could express himself with so much clearness, so nobly 
and sublimely, that Aristotle boasted of Mm that his forms were 
more noble and grander than were commonly seen in life , while 
the painter Pauson presented men worse than they really were, and 
Dionysius was true to nature. Having regard to these separate qua- 
lifications he suggested that the youthful eye should receive its im- 
pressions from Polygnotus and not from Pauson. In later times the 
beauty of Polygnotus' pictures continued to charm : in the second 
century A. D. his Cassandra supplied an author of refinement and 
penetration, like Lucian, with the material for a description of fe- 
minine beauty. 

"While the fame of Polygnotus and his contemporaries rested 
principally on wall - paintings , later critics would maintain that 
those of his successors who first produced artistic effect in portable 
pictures were the only true painters. As the first painter in this 
sense the Athenian Apollodorus may be named. The work which 
he began was completed by Zeuxis of Heraclea and Parrhasius of 
Ephesus. We still possess a description by Lucian of the Centaur 
family by Zeuxis. The female Centaur reclines on the grass, the 
human upper part of the body being raised and supported by the 
elbow. One of her two infants she holds in her arms giving it 
nourishment in human fashion ; the other sucks as a foal her teats. 
The male Centaur looks down from above. He holds in his right 
hand a lion-cub which he swings over his shoulder as if jokingly 
to frighten his young ones. 'The further excellences of the picture,' 
modestly continues Lucian, though evidently an accomplished 
connoisseur, 'which to us laymen are but partly revealed, but 
nevertheless comprise the whole of art's resources, correct draw- 
ing, an admirable manipulation and mingling of colour, man- 
agement of light and shade, a happy choice of dimension, as 
well as just relative proportion of parts to the whole, and the com- 
bined movement of the composition — these are qualities to be ex- 
tolled by one of art's disciples who has mastered the subject in its 
detail'. This eloquent description by Lucian has been made the sub- 
ject of a spirited drawing by Genelli. Unfortunately no such record 
of Parrhasius' works remains. The credit of having first applied 
symmetry, i.e. probably the systematic regard for the proportion 
recognised by later leaders in art, to painting, is claimed for Par- 
rhasius, as well as delicacy and grace in the artistic rendering of the 
countenance and hair. He is said, too , to have been supreme in 
the management of contour. But in later times Parrhasius was 
esteemed simple as a colorist compared with Apelles. 

The authors to whom arc ascribed most of the notices of painters 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

that we possess, distinguish different schools. The Helladic 
School included the painters of Athens and those of the mother- 
country of Greece along with those of Sicyon. But owing to the 
pre-eminence achieved for Sicyon by the painter Eupompus, the 
Helladic school was again subdivided under the title of Sicyonie 
and Attic or Attic-Theban , after certain artists of these schools. 
To this, or these schools rather, was opposed the Asiatic (Ionic). 
Pausias , whose name is known to us by Goethe's exquisite poem, 
was one of the Sicyonian School, and, so, it appears, was that spirited 
painter Timanthes, whose best-known work was his Iphigenia. She 
stood at the altar ready to be sacrificed , surrounded by the heroes 
of the Grecian camp, in whose persons, according to the character 
of each and with due regard to appropriateness, was pourtrayed 
every degree of mental anguish. Agamemnon himself veiled his 
head. Nicomachus, Aristides, Euphranor, likewise renowned as 
sculptor and master of heroic representation, and Nicias the friend 
of Praxiteles belong to the Theban-Attic school. Amongst the pic- 
tures of Aristides was one of a woman wounded during the siege. 
She is dying while her infant still clings to her breast. In the ex- 
pression of the mother's countenance could, it was thought, be read 
the fear lest her blood should be mingled with the milk the child 
was sucking. — The most brilliant master of the Ionic school — 
though he had had the advantage of studying his art in Sicyon — 
the most renowned indeed of the painters of antiquity, was Apbllbs, 
the contemporary of Alexander the Great, and incomparable in his 
power of expressing grace in all its forms. As yet we are not in pos- 
session of any distinct clue to the character of his most esteemed 
works, of Artemis , with her band of attendant Nymphs clustering 
around her, hurrying to the chase, nor of Aphrodite rising from the 
sea. We are more fortunate in the instance of two younger painters, 
Aetion and Timomachus. Of the nuptials of Alexander by Aetion 
we have again a masterly description by Lucian, with which all are 
acquainted who have seen the beautiful Raffaelesque composition in 
the Palazzo Borghese at Rome. The Medea of Timomachus is to 
be traced in a series of imitations or reminiscences, on monuments 
of different kinds, but most remarkably in a mutilated picture from 
Herculaneum, and again in another perfectly preserved from 

The services thus rendered us by the Campanian towns in 
bringing to light the works of Timomachus encourage us to hope 
that they may be repeated in the case of other Greek celebrities. 
It is in fact concluded with a considerable show of probability that 
in the Pompeian representations of the liberation of Andromeda by 
Perseus are to be recognised influences of a picture by Nicias. It 
has frequently been attempted with much pains, and with aid of 
more or less audacious assumptions and combinations, to contrive 
copies of these renowned Greek masters, and when after all it has 


been found that such efforts are for the most part vain and futile, 
it has been urged in explanation of the failure that our acquain- 
tance with celebrated cabinet-pictures is too limited. We must, 
then, however unwillingly, accept the conclusion that anything more 
than a very qualified belief in Pompeian pictures is impossible. 
They are invaluable as a clue to many qualities which were com- 
mon to the painting of antiquity ; invaluable , too , because they 
assuredly possess , in obedience to the unvarying traditions of an- 
tique art — which having taken a theme in hand would work it out 
to the last possible variation — a wealth of imagery and redundance 
of lineament which connect them more or less closely with the works 
of the great masters. But it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
authenticity of copies from celebrated cabinet-pictures of the best 
period should be so rarely established, or wear even the appearance 
of probability ; it were a wonder indeed if so much could be accom- 

Demosthenes reminds his countrymen in scathing words how 
in the palmy days of Athens the noblest edifices were erected in 
honour of the gods, while the dwellings of the most distinguished 
Athenians were simple and inconspicuous as those of their neighbours. 
Even at the time these words were spoken a change had come over 
Greek life. For the stern sublimity of the creations of an earlier time, 
Art had substituted a milder and more effeminate type of divinity, 
nor did she now disdain to enter the abodes of men. The splendour 
which had been reserved for the gods, now found its way into pri- 
vate dwellings. What at first had been a bold innovation and an 
exception , presently grew into a universal requirement. From the 
epoch of culture inaugurated by Alexander onwards , sculptor and 
painter alike contributed to the artistical beauty and sumptuous 
adornment of dwelling-houses. Inventiveness, displayed in the 
designing and ornamentation of household furniture of every kind, 
followed as a matter of course , and though in Athens and Hellas 
expenditure in this way remained moderate, in other great cities, as 
Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria , artist and handicrafts- 
man alike vied with the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants, not 
only in beautifying the cities externally, but in lavishing upon the 
dwelling-houses of the rich the utmost attainable splendour. Plans 
were extended and adapted to the employments and highest enjoy- 
ment of life ; floors, walls, and ceilings were arranged and decorated 
in ever new and varying style. Then decoration in stucco and 
painting was supplemented by mosaic work which enlivened the 
floors with an effect as charming as that of painting ; nor was it 
long restricted to the floors. Along with other elements of culture 
the Roman world had borrowed from the Greek the beautifying of 
their houses , and as movement is never absolutely suspended, this 
taste received in Roman times a farther impetus in its original 
direction. We may safely assume, however, reasoning from analogy, 


that it departed farther and farther from the purity and harmony of 
the Greek pattern. 

In the picture which Pompeii presents as a whole we see the 
last trace of that combined art and beauty which with the later 
Greeks permeated life in every vein and in all its phases : a feeble 
and faded picture it must remain, howeveT active the fancy may 
be in investing it with attributes belonging to Hellenic art in the 
zenith of its splendour. From an earlier period, when the influence 
of the Greek was more directly felt, we have not received much from 
Pompeii that is instructive. The general impression is derived 
from the restorations consequent on the earthquake of the year 
A.D. 63. The great mass of decoration is the work of the sixteen 
years intervening between A.D. 63 and the town's final destruction 
in A.D. 79, and was in the newest fashion then prevailing in Rome, 
but necessarily on a scale commensurate with the resources of a pro- 
vincial town. As the Roman senate had ordered the rebuilding of the 
town, the pay of handicraftsmen would doubtlessly be attractive 
enough. The houses were made habitable with the utmost de- 
spatch, and received their decorations with the same haste. It is im- 
possible but to believe that the greater number of houses were thus 
completed by a comparatively small number of masters with their 
staffs of workmen. They had their pattern-books for the decoration 
of entire rooms and walls, as well as for simple pictures, and they 
resorted to these pattern-books more or less according to their need 
or fancy. The favourite motives and forms were so familiar to 
them that they had them literally at their fingers' ends : with incre- 
dibly certain and facile hand, and without concerning themselves 
about means or method, they fling their gaud and glitter over the 
naked walls. And very captivating is this stirring picture-pattern 
world which moved obedient to their will. Vistas of airy fantastical 
forms architecturally disposed and decked with wreaths and gar- 
lands delusively mask the narrow limits of the allotted space ; 
while, by way of completing the illusory effect of this mock archi- 
tecture, graceful figures move in the midst, or from the open window 
look in upon the chamber. Arabesques, sprays and borders of 
foliage and flowers, and garlands gracefully enliven and divide the 
walls; while in the midst of the enclosed spaces, from a dark back- 
ground, figures single or in pairs stand out in dazzling relief, and 
whether winged or otherwise are always lightly and surely poised. 
Here and there lovely maidens are seen dancing in mid-air; Eros 
tinkles on the strings of the lyre which Psyche holds ; Satyrs and 
Nymphs, Centaurs and Bacchantes, female figures with candelabra, 
flowers and fruits people this airy realm of fancy. Separate pic- 
tures at intervals engage the attention. They tell the story of the 
handsome but unsusceptible Narcissus, of Adonis the favourite of 
Aphrodite, whose early loss the goddess bewails with Eros, of Phae- 
dra's shameless passion for Hippolytus; the loves of Apollo and 


Daphne , of Ares and Aphrodite , Artemis and Acteon , Ariadne 
abandoned by Theseus , the story of Leda , the life and pursuits of 
Bacchus and his followers, of the god finding the forsaken Ariadne, 
and of Satyrs pursuing Nymphs. Scenes of terror, too, there are : 
Diree bound to the Bull, Medea meditating the murder of her 
children, the sacrifice of Iphigenia — but even these are rendered 
with an effect of sensuous beauty so entrancing that they are lost 
in the gladsome world of exuberant life about them. Mere tragedy, 
mere convulsive effort, acquired no enduring power over the senses: 
they are rather beguiled by the remembrance of some captivating 
legend, some transient impulse, a throb of compassion, which infuse 
a wholesome element into pictures abounding with expressions of 
rapturous delight. Where passion exerts itself it is but for the 
moment — the power of love for good or evil, the beauty of the 
human form , moments of bliss whether of mortals or the immor- 
tals — such is the material for an ever-recurring theme. Bits of 
landscape , houses with trees, rocks, or a grotto on the strand are 
suggestive of idyllic delights. And around these more conspicuous 
figures are grouped an accompaniment of small friezes with pic- 
torial accessories grave and gay, still life, animals and incidents of 
the chase, pygmies, masks, fresh fruit, and household vessels. 

The liveliest impression is made by the best examples of 
figures separately poised on the walls. Curiosity is most excited 
by the separate pictures ; they are the last remnant of the historical 
painting of the old world. They cannot, however, enable us to 
form a just estimate of the works of the greatest ancient masters. 
If genuine and adequate copies of celebrated cabinet-pictures from 
the best period were to be found amongst Pompeian decorations it 
would be by an accident altogether exceptional and capricious. 
The artist-bands who subsequently to the earthquake of A.D. 63 
pushed their work so easily and so rapidly had neither these ca- 
binet-pictures nor the genuine and adequate copies to guide them, 
but simply the drawings of their pattern-books, t Thoroughly trained 
as they were mechanically to the work , they turned their sketches 

t There have been long-standing differences of opinion about the me- 
chanism of painting practised in Pompeii. A solution of the problem is 
the result of researches conducted by the painter O. Donner (in a work 
published by Prof. Helbig, entitled 'Wall-paintings of the cities of Cam- 
pania destroyed by Vesuvius', Leipsic, 1868). According to this authority it 
is certain that the greater number of the pictures as well as wall-decora- 
tions were painted in fresco , i. e. upon a newly prepared and moistened 
surface — and only in exceptional cases and as a makeshift upon a dry 
ground. Conclusive evidence of this is afforded by the presence, to which 
Donner refers, of so-called Fresco-edges, i.e. of spots where the newly 
prepared surface came in contact with what was already dry. The sur- 
face intended for the reception of colour was prepared by the painters of 
antiquity with such care that it retained the moisture much longer than 
in recent times has been found attainable. They were thus enabled to 
cover large wall-spaces without interruption and in this respect had a con- 
siderable advantage over us moderns. — In 1873 Professor Helbig pub- 


to the best possible account, transferred them on the required scale, 
making additions or omissions as the case might be, varying, modi- 
fying and curtailing, as necessity, fancy, and the measure of their 
capacity might prescribe. The enclosed pictures, which in graceful 
inventiveness and execution often enough surpassed the forms oc- 
cupying the open spaces, cannot be considered apart from the 
general decoration with which in manner and method they are 
identical. They betray moreover in spite of all that is beautiful 
and admirable about them, symptoms of degeneracy, just as the 
wall -decorations of Pompeii descending from elegance to the 
trivialities of mock architecture exhibit a degeneracy which must 
not, however, be regarded as inherent in the art of which we see 
here but a feeble reflection. Thus we learn that the way from the 
great painters of Greece to the wall-pictures of Pompeii is neither 
short nor straight, but long and too often hard to find. Many of 
the forms and groups so gracefully poised in the open wall-spaces 
may in their origin have reached back so far as to the happiest 
period of Greek art ; it is also possible, that, when framed pictures 
were for the first time painted on the walls of houses in the epoch 
of Alexander, or at whatever other period this style of decoration 
came into vogue, celebrated easel-pictures were copied or laid 
under contribution. The designers of the pattern-books may have 
betaken themselves to a variety of sources , they may have ap- 
propriated and combined, as old and new patterns, entire de- 
corations together with separate figures and finished pictures. Like 
the pattern-books for the sarcophagus-reliefs, they must have been 
full of ideas and motives derived from an earlier and nobler art. 
And as wall-painting is more akin to high art we may encourage 
the hope that patient research will often be rewarded by discovering 
— as hitherto amidst a tanglement of conflicting evidence — not 
the works themselves of the great masters, but those traces of their 
work which we so eagerly seek. In Pompeii, however, we learn the 
necessity of caution, for we there find examples of a much earlier 
style of decoration than the 'Pompeian'. 

No one could overlook the solemn dignity of aspect which makes 
the Casa del Fauno conspicuous amidst the mass of habitations in 
Pompeii. Here beauty reveals itself in column and capital, cornice 
and panelling, favourably contrasting with the gaudy frippery of a 
fantastical mock architecture with its pictorial accompaniments. 
The wealthy family which occupied this mansion may have rejoiced 
in the possession of many a costly cabinet -picture. But at the 
time the house was built it was not yet the custom, or it was not the 
owner's pleasure to follow the newest fashion. In their place a 

lished a supplement to Ms earlier work (Leipsic), and in 1879 a con- 
tinuation of his list of mural paintings appeared in Italian, under the 
title '£e Pitture Murali Campune scoverte nigli aniti 1867-79 , descritle da 
Antonio Sogliano\ 


complete series of the finest mosaics formed a part of the general 
decoration of the house. These are still partly preserved and to 
be seen on the spot. Here the celebrated Battle of Alexander was 
found, grand in composition, and a genuine example of high art, in 
which we recognise once more the magic touch of Greek genius: 
how with the simplest possible means the loftiest excellence was 
achieved; here, too, we gain an insight into the method pursued by 
the great painters in their works. A very different and far grander 
art declares itself in these mosaics than in the wall-paintings. The 
other mosaics found in this mansion also rank high in point of 
beauty as well as in precision and purity of drawing, and owing to 
the difficulties of reproduction in mosaic consequent on the nature 
of the material the fact becomes doubly suggestive that in effectual 
and complete mastery of drawing there is nothing in the whole 
range of Pompeian pictures to surpass the border of masks, garlands, 
foliage and fruits of the Casa del Fauno or the mosaics attributed 
to the artist Dioscorides. But we may well delight in the air of 
cheerful airy grace pervading these pictorial decorations of Pom- 
peii , in this precious heritage of Grecian — and in part old Gre- 
cian — life and beauty which a licentious posterity has scattered 
over its dazzling walls. 

History of the Kingdom of Naples. 

The former kingdom of Naples contained at the end of 1879 
10,414,000 inhab. (including Benevento) , and is divided into 16 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, 
Samnites, Oscans, Companions, Apulians, Lucanians, Caldbrians, 
Bruttians , Siculians , and a number of others of less importance, 
all of whom were characterised by the most marked peculiarities 
of language, custom, and political constitution. The Oscan lan- 
guage , the one most generally spoken , predominated in Samnium, 
Campania, Lucania , and Bruttium. On the W. and S.W. coast, 
and especially in Sicily , Greek colonists settled in such numbers 
that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula received the name of 
Magna Graecia. After the war against Pyrrhus , king of Epirus, 
in the 3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of the 
land, but the Greek language and customs continued to predominate 
until an advanced period in the Christian era. That this was the 
case in the time of the early emperors has been distinctly proved 
by the character of the antiquities of the excavated Oscan towns of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the Western Empire 
this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards, then by 
Romans from the E. Empire , who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea , and who 
finally succumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The 
Hohenstaufen family next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 
1265 Charles of Anjou gained possession of Naples and established 
his dominion, which was secured by the cruel execution in 1268 
otConradin, the lawful heir. His power , however, having been 
impaired by the Sicilian Vespers, 30th May, 1282, rapidly declined 
in consequence of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family 
and of disastrous wars with the island of Sicily, then in possession 
of the Arragonese. Charles VIII. of France, as heir of the Anjou 
family, undertook a campaign against Naples and gained possession 
of the kingdom in a few days, but was unable to retain it. His 
successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the Catholic of 
Spain with a view to conquer Naples , but in consequence of dis- 
sensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
Oonsalvo da Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, 
then yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion 
till 1713. Gonsalvo da Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish 


viceroys , many of whom , such as Don Pedro de Toledo under 
Charles V. (1532-54), did much to promote the welfare of the 
country. The rule of others, especially during the 17th cent., was 
such as to occasion universal distress and dissatisfaction , a mani- 
festation of which was the insurrection under Masaniello at Naples 
in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. of Spain, of 
the house of Bourbon , ceded Naples and Sicily to the house of 
Hapsburg , but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son 
Charles in 1734, under the name of the '■Kingdom of the Two Sici- 
lies'. Notwithstanding revolutionary disturbances, the Bourbons 
continued to reign at Naples until the close of the century. In 
1806 Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples , who 
was succeeded in 1808 by his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. 
In June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English 
had meanwhile maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to 
Naples , and in his person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. 
The following October, Joachim Murat ventured to land at Pizzo 
in Calabria, but was captured, tried by court-martial , and shot, 
15th Oct. 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, still continued, 
and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily , but it was 
speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821 , who 
occupied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded 
in 1825 by his eldest son Francis 1. , and the latter in 1830 by 
Ferdinand II., whose reign was characterised by an uninterrupted 
succession of internal struggles, partly in Naples and partly in Si- 
cily , especially after the year 1848. In the spring of 1859, when 
the war between Sardinia and Austria broke out in N. Italy, which 
by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely changed the inter- 
nal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son Francis II. 
(married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to yield 
to the storm which burst forth afresh. In May, 1860, Garibaldi 
began his victorious march through Sicily and. Calabria , which 
ended at Naples in August. In the meantime the Piedmontese 
troops, at the instigation of Cavour, had also entered the kingdom 
of Naples. On 1st Oct. Francis II. was defeated at a skirmish on 
the Volturno. On 7th Oct. King Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 
entered Naples side by side amid the greatest popular enthusiasm. 
Francis was then besieged at Gaeta from 4th Nov., 1860, to 13th 
Feb., 1861, and at length compelled to surrender and retire to 

In a land , whose history , like its volcanic soil, has been dis- 
turbed by a long succession of internal struggles , and where so 
many and so different nations have ruled, repose and the develop- 
ment of civilisation must necessarily be difficult of attainment. 
The present government has adopted a wise course in endeavouring 
to raise the standard of national education , in energetically sup- 
pressing the brigandage in the provinces , and the 'Camorra' and 


gangs of thieves in the city , and in introducing a number of re- 
forms well adapted to improve the condition of the nation. 

Dates. The following are the most important dates in the 
history of the Kingdom of Naples (comp. pp. 251, 252). 

I. Period. The Normans, 1042-1194: 1042, William, son of 
Tancred of Hauteville , Comes ApulUe. — 1059, Robert Guiscard 
(i. e. 'the Cunning') , Dux Apulise et Calabriae. — 1130, Roger, 
proclaimed king after the conquest of Naples and Amalfl, unites 
the whole of Lower Italy and Sicily. — 1154-66, William I. ('the 
Bad'). — 1166-89, William II. ('the Good'). — 1194, William III. 

II. Period. The Hohenstaufen, 1194-1268: 1194, Henry VI. 
of Germany, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. 

— 1254, Manfred. — 1268, Conradin. 

III. Period. House of Anjou, 1265-1442 : 1265, Charles I. of 
Anjou. From 1282 to 1442 Sicily formed an independent king- 
dom under the house of Arragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame'. 

— 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. — 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas 
of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. 

— 1414, Johanna II. ■ — 1435, Renato of Anjou, banished by Al- 
phonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Arragon, 1442-1496 : 1442, Alphonso I., 
'the Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again 
separated. — 1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495, 
Ferdinand II. — 1496, Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the 
last of the House of Arragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503-1707. — On 7th July, 
1707, during the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched 
into Naples and established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian Viceroys, 1707-1734. — Charles III. of 
Bourbon , crowned at Palermo 1734 , recognised by the Peace of 
Vienna 1738, defeats the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally re- 
cognised by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles 
was proclaimed king of Spain , and resigned the crown of Naples 
and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734-1860: 1734, Charles III. — 
1759, Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), mar- 
ried Caroline of Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of 
very different character from the latter. — 23rd Jan. 1799, the 
Repubblica Parthenopea proclaimed by General Championnet. — 
14th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction of Cardinal Ruffo. 

— 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by Masstfna. — 
15th July, 1808, Joachim Murat, king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 
1825, Francis I. — 1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. — 
21st Oct. 1860 , the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by 


VIII. Period. House of Savoy. Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878). 
— Since 1878, Humbert I. 

Art. In art , as in literature , the attainments of the natives 
of S. Italy have been insignificant. The Norman Period, however, 
under Arabian influence , produced both on the mainland and in 
Sicily (p. 257) works of architecture and sculpture which at least 
hold their own when compared with the contemporaneous monu- 
ments of Central Italy. These, however, are not found in the metro- 
polis, but at the seats of the princes and bishops, as Bari, Trani, 
Amalfi, Ravello, and Salerno. The art of decoration, as applied in 
mosaic flooring, pulpits, and choir-screens, was in particular 
brought to great perfection. The brazen doors , at first imported 
from Constantinople, were afterwards made in the country itself; 
thus those at Canosa were executed by a master of Amalfi, and 
those at Ravello and Trani are the work of a native of the place 
last named. The arts of mosaic composition and mural painting 
were sedulously cultivated in S. Italy during the whole of the 
early middle ages , a fact mainly due to the constant intercourse 
maintained with Byzantium. — In the Period of Giotto, during 
which great advances in painting were made throughout the rest 
of the peninsula, S. Italy remained nearly inactive, content to 
depend on foreign artists for the supply of her artistic wants. 
Thus Arnolfo di Cambio , the famous Florentine architect, also 
practised his profession in the South ; and Pietro Cavallini , the 
most celebrated Roman painter at the beginning of the 14th cent., 
Oiotto himself (in S. Ohiara) , and probably Simone Martini of 
Siena, all left memorials of their skill in S. Italy. — During 
the Fifteenth Cbntury the realism of the Flemish school of the 
Van Eycks produced a marked effect on Neapolitan art. The 
most important works of this period are the frescos, unfor- 
tunately in poor preservation, in the cloisters of S. Severino at 
Naples. They are associated with the name of Antonio Solario, 
Ho Zingaro\ an artist of whose life and work we possess most im- 
perfect and in part misleading accounts. To judge from these 
paintings he was related in style to the Umbro-Florentine school. 
Piero and Ippolito Donzello and Simone Papa are said to have 
been pupils of Lo Zingaro, but Piero Donzello at any rate learned 
his art at Florence. 

In the Sixteenth Century Raphael's influence extended even 
to Naples, as is apparent from the works, among others, of Andrea 
Sabbatini of Salerno, known as Andrea da Salerno, who flourished 
in 1480-1545. This artist studied under Raphael at Rome, and, 
like Polidoro da Caravaggio (1495-1543), was one of the foun- 
ders of the Neapolitan school of the 17th century. — In the Sev- 
enteenth Century the Neapolitan school is characterised by its 
'naturalistic' style. Among the most prominent masters were the 


Spaniard Giuseppe Rib era , surnamed lo Spagnoletto (1588-1656), 
a follower of Caravaggio; the Greek Belisario Corenzio (1558- 
1643), a pupil of the last; Oiambattista Caracciolo (d. 1641), and 
his able pupil Massimo Stanzioni (1585-1656). The school of 
Spagnoletto also produced Aniello Falcone (1600-65), the painter 
of battle-scenes, and the talented landscape-painter Salvator Rosa 
(1615-1673). In 1629 Domenichino came from Rome to Naples, to 
decorate the Cappella del Tesoro for the Archbishop , but seems 
to have exercised no influence upon Neapolitan art. He fled to 
Frascati in 1635 , to escape the plots laid for him by Ribera , but 
returned to Naples the following year and died there in 1641. In 
Luca Giordano (1632-1705), surnamed Fa Presto from his rapid- 
ity of execution , who also worked at Rome , Bologna , Parma, 
and Venice , Neapolitan painting reached a still lower level. — 
The history of Neapolitan art is as yet imperfectly investigated, 
but there seems little reason to doubt that farther research will 
serve to confirm the conclusion that Naples has never been able to 
dispense with the assistance of foreign artists. 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway. 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples : one along the coast by 
Terracina (E. 2), the ancient Via Appia; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Garigliano, the Via Latina; both uniting near Capua. The 
Railway, following the latter route (162 M. in length), is now the most 
important means of communication between Central and Southern Italy. 
Duration of journey 5 3 /4-10 hrs. ; fares by the through-trains, 32 fr. 35 c, 
22 fr. 65 c. ; by the ordinary trains, 29 fr. 40, 20 fr. 60, 13 fr. 25 c. — Comp. 
p. xvi. The finest views are generally to the left. — For a more detailed 
description of the stations between Rome and Segni, see Baedeker's Cen- 
tral Italy. 

Soon after leaving the city, the train diverges from the Civita 
Vecchia line. The Sabine and Alban mountains rise on the left. 
Stations : 9 M. Ciampino, where the line to Frascati diverges ; lO 1 /^ M. 
Marino; 18 M. Cecchina, whence a steam-tramway runs to Albano. 
To the right we obtain a glimpse of Monte Circello (1030 ft. ; p. 13), 
rising abruptly from the sea ; nearer are the Volscian Mts. — 20!/ 2 M. 
Civita Lavinia, the ancient Lanuvium. 

26 M. Velletri {Locanda Campana, Oallo, both good, with trat- 
torie), the ancient Velitrae, a town of the Volscians, which became 
subject to Rome in B.C. 338, is famous for its wine (pop. 8000). It 
stands picturesquely on a spur of the Monte Artemisio, 6 min. from 
the station. Velletri is the residence of the Bishop of Ostia. The 
loggia of the Palazzo Lancelotti commands a beautiful and extensive 
view. In the new cemetery, where Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitan 
troops on 19th May, 1849, a column of victory was erected in 1883. 
— From Velletri to Cori, see Baedeker's Central Italy; to Terra- 
cina, see R. 2. 

The train passes between the Alban Mts. on the left and the 
Volscian Mts. on the right, and turns E. towards the valley near 
the Mte. Fortino. 30!/2 M. Ontanese. — 35'/ 3 M. Valmontone, a 
small town on an isolated volcanic eminence, possessing a hand- 
some chateau of the Doria Pamphili. 

The train now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus or Tolerus, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with 
the ancient Via Latina. This well-cultivated valley , bounded on 
both sides by mountains rising to a height of 4000 ft., was the ter- 
ritory of the Hernici (see p. 2). To the right Monte Fortino, 
picturesquely situated on the hillside. 

40i/ 2 M. Segni, situated on a hill to the right, about 5'/2 M. 
from the railway, a very ancient place, the Signia of the Romans, 
and still possessing huge remnants of the ancient walls and gate- 
ways, see Baedeker's Central Italy. 

46 M. Anagni (*Locanda Oallo), once a flourishing town, and 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1 . ANIGKT. From Rome 

in the middle ages frequently a papal residence, lies on the heights 
to the left, 5M. from the station (omnibus 1 fr.). Pope Innocent III., 
Count of Segni, was born here in 1161 (d. 1216). At Anagni 
on 7th Sept. 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years , was taken prisoner by the French chancellor 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Colonnas, by- 
order of King Philippe le Bel, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The *Cattedrale di S. Maria, a well- 
preserved edifice of the 11th cent. , and pure in style, is adorned 
with a mosaic pavement by the master Cosmas , and in the crypt 
with ancient frescoes. The treasury contains ancient papal vest- 
ments, etc. A walk round the town is interesting. The ancient 
wall, which probably dates from the Roman period, is well pre- 
served, particularly on the N. side. Remains from the middle ages 
are abundant. 

The next towns, with the imposing ruins of their ancient 
polygonal walls, are also situated on the hills at a considerable 
distance from the line. This is the territory of the Hernici, with 
the towns of Anagnia, Aletrium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, which 
allied themselves with Rome and Latium in B.C. 486, but were 
subjugated by the Romans, after an insurrection, in B.C. 306. The 
environs of these towns are picturesque. 

49 '/2 M. Sgurgola (from which Anagni may also be reached: 
3 3 / 4 M.) is a village on the hill to the right, above the Sacco ; still 
higher is Carpineto. 

55y. 2 M. Ferentino. The town (poor Locanda), situated on the 
hill (1450 ft.) to the left, 3 M. from the line, the ancient Ferenti- 
num, a town of the Hernici, was destroyed in the 2nd Punic War, 
ami afterwards became a Roman colony (pop. 11,000). The ancient 
town-wall, constructed partly of enormous rectangular blocks and 
partly in the polygonal style, is still traceable throughout nearly 
its whole circuit; a gateway on the W. side especially deserves 
notice. The castle, the walls of which now form the foundation of 
the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground within the town. 
The Cathedral is paved with remains of ancient marbles and mosaics. 
The font in the small church of S. Giovanni Evangelista is ancient. 
Interesting antiquities and inscriptions will also be observed in 
other parts of the town. 

Higher up among the mountains, 9V:jM. from Ferentino (carriage 6-8 fr.), 
and about the same distance from the next station Frosinone, lies the town 
of Alatri (Locanda of Lucia d'Arpino, near the market-place, rustic), the 
ancient Aletrium, picturesquely situated on an eminence, and presenting 
an admirably preserved specimen of the fortifications of an ancient city. 
The town with its gates occupies the exact site of the old town. The "Walls 
of the castle, constructed of huge polygonal blocks, are still entire ; the 
gateway attracts special attention on account of the stupendous dimensions 
of the stones of which it is composed. The town and castle were provided 
with an aqueduct — At a distance of 3 M. is the famous 'Qrotta di Colle- 
pardo , extending upwards of 2000 ft. into the limestone rock, with 
beautiful stalactites. About 3 /< M- farther is observed an extensive depres- 

to Naples. CEPRANO. 1 . Route. 3 

sion in the soil, called II Pozzo oVAntullo , several hundred yards in cir- 
cumference and 200 ft. in depth, overgrown with grass and underwood. 

On a hill , about 5 M. to the S. E. of Alatri , is situated Veroli , the 
ancient Verulae, from which a pleasant road leads to Isola (p. 199; carriage 
from Alatri to Isola 10-12 fr.). 

60 M. Frosinone. The town (Locanda de Matteis; pop. 11,000), 
situated on the hill, 2 M. to the N.E. of the railway, is identical 
with the ancient Hernician Frusino, which was conquered by the 
Romans in B.C. 304. The relics of walls and other antiquities are 
scanty, but the situation is very beautiful. 

64 M. Ceccano. The village is most picturesquely situated on the 
hillside , on the right bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the foot of the hill, to the left of the river, 
once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions from 
which are built into the walls of the church by the bridge. A 
road leads from Ceccano over the hills to Piperno and Terra- 
cina (p. 13). 

69 M. Pofi. — 75 M. Ceprauo [Rail. Restaurant, the last of any 
size before Naples). Outside the station a pleasing glimpse is ob- 
tained of the valleys of the Liris and the Tolerus. The town of Ce- 
prano is 2*/ 2 M. from the station. — The train now crosses the Liris, 
which descends from the N., forming the old boundary of the States 
of the Church. — 77 M. Isoletta. 

In the vicinity, on the right bank of the Liris, in the direction of 
S. Giovanni in Carico , are the scanty ruins of the ancient Fregellae, a 
Roman colony founded in B. C. 328, and a point of great military im- 
portance, as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed 
by the Romans in B. C. 125, in consequence of an insurrection, and Fabra- 
teria Nova was founded in its stead. A number of antiquities may be 
seen in the Giardino Cairo, at the village of J3. Giovanni in Carico, 6 M. 
from the station. 

The train now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the Liris, 
or Gariyliano, as it is called after its union with the Sacco. 82 M. 
Roccasecca ; branch-line to Arce, which is to be carried on to Sora 
and Avezzano (p. 200). 

85'/2 M. Aquino, the ancient Aquinum , a small town pic- 
turesquely situated to the left on the hill and on a mountain-stream, 
is celebrated as the birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Nero) 
and of the philosopher Thomas Aquinas. The illustrious 'doctor 
angelicus', son of Count Landulf, was born in 1224 in the neigh- 
bouring castle of Rocca Secca, and was educated in the monastery 
of Monte Cassino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger was also a 
native of Aquinum. By the side of the Via Latina may be distin- 
guished the relics of the ancient Roman town : inconsiderable frag- 
ments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. Lorenzo), a theatre, remains 
of temples of Ceres (S. Pietro) and Diana (S. Maria Maddakna), and 
a triumphal aTch. Near the stream are the ruins of S. Maria Libera, 
a basilica of the 11th cent., commonly called 11 Vescovado, occupying 
the site of an ancient temple , and consisting of handsome nave 
and aisles. Above the portal is a well-preserved Madonna in mosaic. 

y * 

4 Route. 1 . 


From Rome 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain to the left, the cele- 
brated monastery of Monte Cassino (p. 5) becomes visible. 

92 M. Cassino. — Carriage from the station to the town >/ 2 fr. (tariff 
in the waiting-room). — Inns, outside the town: Alb. Pompei, l j%M. from 
the station, prettily situated, R., L., <fe A. 3, pens, from 5>/2 fr. ; Alb. Var- 
rone, on the site of the villa of M. Terentius Varro (p. 5). 

A Visit to Monte Casino requires about one day. (Luggage may be left 
at the station in exchange for a receipt.) Carriage to the monastery and 
back, 7-15 fr., according to tariff; donkey I1/2 fr - Tne ascent takes about 
172 hr. The excursion should be so arranged that the traveller may return 
to the town a considerable time before sunset ; at the same time it must 
be borne in mind that visitors are strictly excluded from 12 to 3.30 p.m. 
The monastery affords good quarters for the night, although the fare is 
sometimes of a frugal description. No payment is demanded, but the trav- 


eller should give about as much as he would have paid at a hotel. Ladies 
are of course admitted to the church only. Travellers who wish to spend 
the night or dine here should apply immediately on arriving to the padre 
forestieraio. Letters of introduction will be found very useful. At an 
early hour on Sundays and holidays the church and courts of the mon- 
astery are crowded with country - people from the neighbouring mountain 
districts , whose characteristic physiognomies and costumes will be scanned 
with interest by the traveller. Those who return to Cassino to pass the 
night should allow 5 hrs. for the whole excursion. 

Cassino, formerly called San Oermano, a town with 13,500 
inhab. , is picturesquely situated in the plain at the foot of the 
Monte Cassino, on the small river Rapido (Lat. Vinius), 3 / 4 M. from 
the station, and is commanded by a ruined castle, called La Rocca. 
It occupies nearly the same site as the ancient Casinum, which was 
colonised by the Romans in B. C. 312, and was afterwards a flourish- 
ing provincial town. On its ruins sprang up San Germano during 

to Naples. MONTE CASSINO. 1. Route. 5 

the middle ages. Pillars of great antiquity are still to be seen in 
the churches. Various courts have been held here by popes and em- 
perors, and in 1230 peace -was concluded here between Gregory IX. 
and Frederick II. The foggy character of the climate is alluded to 
by the ancients. 

The town presents few objects of interest. Following the Ro- 
man road to the S. for ^2 M., we see, on the right, the colossal re- 
mains of an ^Amphitheatre, which, according to an inscription pre- 
served at Monte Cassino , was erected by Ummidia Quadratilla at 
her own expense. The foundress is mentioned by Pliny in his letters 
(vii. 24) as a lady of great wealth, who even in her old age was an 
ardent admirer of theatrical performances. Farther on, and a little 
higher up, stands a square monument built of large blocks of tra- 
vertine, with four niches, and surmounted by a dome, now convert- 
ed into the church *Del Crocefisso (custodian 3-4 soldi). Opposite, 
on the bank of the Rapido, lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, 
where, as we are informed by Cicero (Phil. ii. 40), M. Antony 
afterwards indulged in his wild orgies. — The path leading back 
to the town from the Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina, 
and traces of ancient pavement are occasionally observed. From this 
path, by keeping to the high ground to the left, we may proceed 
to Monte Cassino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of *Monte Cassino, situated on a lofty hill to 
the W. of the town, is reached in l'/g nr - The new road affords 
exquisite views of the valley of the Garigliano and the surrounding 
mountains. The monastery was founded by St. Benedict in 529, on 
the site of an ancient temple of Apollo, to which Dante alludes 
(Parad. xxii. 37), and from its magnificent situation alone would 
be entitled to a visit. 

The extensive edifice, the interior of which resembles a castle rather 
than a monastery, is approached by a new entrance , to the right of the 
low passage through the rock which was formerly used; near the latter 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell, which has lately been restored 
aud decorated with frescoes. Several Coukts are connected by arcades. 
The first one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with statues 
of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space higher 
up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo , stands the 
Church , erected in 1727 to replace the ancient edifice founded by St. 
Benedict. The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin above the 
entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of bronze 
and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions of the 
abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the Abbot 
Desiderius, afterwards (1086) Pope Victor III. The interior is richly de- 
corated with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On each side of the high- 
altar is a mausoleum ; one to the memory of Piero de' Medici (p. 19), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo by 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Mignano. Beneath the high-altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Marco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescoes by Luca Giordano (1677), representing the 

6 Route 1 . MONTE CASSINO. From Rome 

miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of the church. The organ is 
one of the finest in Italy. In the refectory is a 'Miracle of the Loaves', 
hy Bassano. 

At a very early period the Library was celebrated for the MSS. 
executed by the monks. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation of Varro, and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printer's art. The MSS. and documents are preserved in the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are: the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Romans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; a Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet); the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work ; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of Leo of Ostia and Riccardo di San Germano. 
The 'Archives comprise a still rarer collection, consisting of about 800 
documents of emperors, kings, dukes, etc., and the complete series of 
papal bulls which relate to Monte Cassino, beginning with the 11th cent., 
many of them with admirable seals and impressions. Among the letters 
are those exchanged by Don Erasmo Gattola, the historian of the abbey, 
with learned contemporaries. At the end of an Italian translation of 
Boccaccio's 'De Claris Mulieribus' is a letter of Sultan Mohammed II. to 
Pope Nicholas IV., complaining of the pontiff's preparations for war and 
promising to be converted as soon as he should visit Rome, together 
with an unfavourable answer from the pope. An ancient bath-seat in 
rosso antico, found on the bank of the Liris, is also preserved here. The 
tower in which St. Benedict is said to have lived contains pictures by 
JYovelli, Spagnoletto, and others. 

The monastery, which has been declared to be a 'National Mon- 
ument', and -which continues its existence in the form of an edu- 
cational establishment, has ever been conspicuous for the admirable 
manner in which its inmates have discharged their higher duties. 
They are the intelligent keepers of one of the most precious libraries 
in the world , and they educate about eighty students of theology. 
The monks at present number about thirty, and there are ten lay 
brethren, twenty pupils of the upper classes, and numerous ser- 
vants. The institution also comprises a telegraph-office and a print- 
ing-office. The revenues once amounted to 100,000 ducats per an- 
num, but are now reduced to about 20,000. 

The monastery commands a magnificent * Prospect in all di- 
rections, which the visitor should not omit to enjoy from the 
different points of view. To the W. and S. extends the broad 
valley of the Garigliano with its numerous villages, separated from 
the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of hills, and the sea is occasionally 
distinguishable. To the E. is the valley of S. Germano, ■com- 
manded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the N. a wild 
mountainous district. 

Close to the monastery rises the Monte Cairo (5480 ft.), which may be 
ascended in 3-4 hrs.; the view from the summit is considered one of the 
finest in Italy. 

Continuation of Journey to Naples. To the left, beyond 
S. Germano, we perceive the villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore, and 
S. Pietro in Fine. 98 M. Rocca d'Evandro. The train quits the 

to Naples. CAPUA. 1. Route. 7 

valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cultivated defile, beyond 
which the country towards the right becomes flatter. 103 M. Muj- 
nano. The train now runs through a a barren, undulating tract. 
107J/2 M. Presenzano, which lies on the slope to the left. 

112V2 M. Caianello-Vairano, whence a high-road leads via Sol- 
raona (R. 12) to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice, and to Aquila and 
Terni. A railway has been opened as far as Rocca Ravindola (p. 193). 

117 M. Riardo ; the village, with an old castle, lies on the left. 

120 M. Teano ;■ the town (Locanda dell' Italia; 5000 inhab.) 
lies at some distance to the right, at the base of the lofty Rocca 
Monfina, an extinct volcano (3420 ft.), which may be visited from 
this point. The extensive, but dilapidated old castle was erected 
in the 15th cent, by the dukes of Sessa. Ancient columns in the 
cathedral, inscriptions, remains of a theatre, and other antiquities 
are now the sole vestiges of the venerable Teanum Sidicinum, once 
the capital of the Sidicini, which was conquered by the Samnites 
in the 4th cent. B.C., afterwards subjugated by the Romans, and 
in Strabo's time the most flourishing inland city of Campania after 

124 1 /-2 M. Sparanise, whence a road leads to Gaeta (p. 17). 

To the left, about 4 31. to the ST. E. of the railway, lies Calvi, the 
ancient Cales, a Roman colony founded B. C. 332, the wine of which 
(vinum Calenum) is praised by Horace. It now consists of a few houses 
only, but contains an ancient amphitheatre, a theatre, and other anti- 
quities. Carriage with one horse from Capua, and back, 2-3 fr. 

As the train proceeds we obtain for the first time a view of Mt. 
Vesuvius in the distance to the right, and then of the island of 
Ischia in the same direction. 128'/2 M. Pignataro. The train here 
intersects the plain of the Volturno, a river 94 M. in length, the 
longest in Lower Italy. We now enter upon the vast plains of the 
ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro), one of the most luxuriant 
districts in Europe, which is capable of yielding, in addition to 
the produce of the dense plantations of fruit-trees and vines, two 
crops of grain and one of hay in the same season. 

134 M. Capua. — Albergo <fc Trattoria del Centro, in the 
Piazza de' Giudici. — Carriage from the station to the town with one 
horse (cittadina) 30, with two horses (carrozza) 50 c. ; per hour, 1 or 2 fr. : 
to Caserta 1 fr. 90 or 3 fr. 90 c. ; to Aversa 3 or 6 fr. ; to S. Maria di Capua 
Vetere 90c. or 2 fr.; to S. Angelo in Formis 1 fr. 20 or 2 fr. 50 c. ; to Xaples 
35 or 40 fr. 

Capua, a fortified town with 14,000 inhab. , the residence of 
an archbishop, lies on the left bank of the Volturno, by which the 
greater part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., 
after the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casi- 
linum, a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an obstinate 
resistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. 

Turning to the right on entering the town, and taking the first 
street to the left, we reach the Piazza de' Giudici, or market-place, 
in 6 mill., and then enter the Via del Duomo to the right. 

8 Route 1. S. MARIA DI CAPUA VBTEEE. From Rome 

The Cathedeal, dating from the 11th cent., possesses a hand- 
some entrance-court with ancient columns, but in other respects 
has been entirely modernised. 

Interior. 3rd Chapel on the left: Madonna della Rosa of the 13th 
century. 3rd Chapel on the right: Madonna with two saints hy Silvestro 
de' Buoni. The Cktpt, dating from the Romanesque period, but now mod- 
ernised, contains Mosaics from an old pulpit, a Roman Sarcophagus with 
a representation of the Hunt of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre by Ber- 
nini, being one of his best works. 

The Via del Duomo, passing through an archway, leads to the 
Corso Museo Campano. (Proceeding thence in a straight direction, 
we may reach the ramparts, which command a pleasing view of 
the Volturno.) In this street, on the right, is situated the Museo 
Campano, which is entered from the first side-street on the right. 
It is open to the public daily, 9-3 o' clock, except on Sundays and 

The Court contains reliefs from the amphitheatre of Capua (see p. 9); 
inscriptions; ancient sarcophagi, including one of the period of Con- 
stantine; mediaeval tomb-monuments; a sitting statue of Frederick II. 
(sadly mutilated and without its head), which formerly surmounted the 
gateway of the tete-de-pont constructed by him on the right bank of 
the Volturno about 1240, and destroyed in 1557 ; heads of statues of Petrus 
de Vineis (?) and Thaddseus of Suessa (?)i and a colossal head of 'Capua 
Imperiale' (casts at the Museo Nazionale in Naples), also from Frederick II. 's 
tete-de-pont. The rooms in the Interior contain ancient terracottas, vases, 
coins, a few pictures of little value, and a small library. 

The bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc. Beyond it is an inscription in 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. The Torre Mignana within, 
and the Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the 
sanguinary attack made on Capua by Csesar Borgia in 1501, on 
which occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On our left after the train has crossed the Volturno, lies the 
battle-field on which King Francis II. was defeated by the Gari- 
baldians and Piedmontese on 1st Oct., 1860. 

137 M. S. Maria di Capua Vetere (Loc. Roma; Trattoria Ver- 
mouth di Torino, Via Alessandro Milbitz, p. 9) is a prosperous town, 
on the site of the ancient Capua, containing considerable ruins. 

Capua, founded by the Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Samnite 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Romans B.C. 343, for the sake of protec- 
tion against theattacks of theSamnites of the mountains. Owing to the luxur- 
iant fertility of the district, the power and wealth of the city developed them- 
selves at an early period. It was the largest city in Italy after Rome, but soon 
became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. In the 2nd PunicWar, after the 
battle of Cannse (B. C. 216), it entered into an alliance with Hannibal, who took 
up his winter-quarters here. That his soldiers became so enervated by their 
residence at Capua as no longer to be a match for the Romans, is doubtless a mere 
hypothesis. Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon obtained the su- 
periority, and after along siege reduced the town, B. C. 211. Its punishment 
was a severe one, and the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic pri- 
vileges. It was rescued from its abject condition by Csesar, and under his suc- 
cessors regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars 
of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by the 
Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 7). 

Proceeding straight from the station, taking the first street to 

to Naples. OASERTA. 1. Route. 9 

the left, and following the Via Alessandro Milbitz in nearly the same 
direction to its farther end (5 min.), we turn to the left into the 
Via Anflteatro which leads in a curve round the town to (10 min.) 
the ancient amphitheatre. Before reaching it, we cross an open space 
where we observe on the left the ruins of a Roman Triumphal Arch 
now a gate, through which the Capua road passes. 

The *Amphithbatbb of Capua (adm. 1 fr. for each pers.), which 
is said to be one of the largest and most ancient in Italy, is con- 
structed of travertine. The longer diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 
152 yds. in length. The arena measures 83 yds. by 49 yds. 

Three of its passages are tolerably well preserved, but of the 80 en- 
trance-arches two only. The keystones are decorated with images of gods. 
The Arena, with its substructures, passages, and dens for the wild beasts 
(to which a staircase descends from the passage to the left), is, like that 
of Pozzuoli, better denned than the arena of the Colosseum at Borne. The 
Passages contain remains of ancient decorations , fragments of columns, 
bas-reliefs, etc. To the right, near the entrance, the visitor may ascend 
to the upper part of the structure, in order to obtain a survey of the ruins 
themselves, and of the extensive surrounding plain. Large schools were 
once maintained at Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here 
in B.C. 83, that the dangerous War of the Gladiators under Sparlacus the 
Thracian broke out, which was with difficulty quelled by Crassus two 
years later. 

Above Capua rises Mons Tifata, once the site of a temple of Jupiter, 
now crowned by a chapel of <S. Nicola. At its base, about 4 1 /* M. from 
S. Maria, stands the old church of S. Angelo in Formis, with frescoes of 
the 11th cent, (valuable in the history of art), occupying the site of a cel- 
ebrated temple of Diana, around which a village had established itself. 

The high-road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) via S. Maria, 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic; and a drive by 
carriage (p. 7) through this garden -like district is preferable to 
the railway-journey. The road from S. Maria to Caserta (a drive of 
3 /t hr.) passes two handsome Roman tombs. 

141 M. Caserta. — Hotels. "Vittokia, with garden, R. 2, B. 
f/2, pens. 7-10 fr.; Villa Reale, well spoken of; both in the Via Vittoria; 
Villa di Fikenze , near the palace; all with trattorie. — In the round 
piazza with its colonnades, at the entrance to the town from the palace, 
is a favourite Cafe". 

Carriage with one horse, per drive 35 c. ('vettura semplice' still 
cheaper), with two horses 60 c. ; to S. Maria di Capua Vetere 1 fr. 40 or 
2 fr. 30, to Capua 2 fr. 25 or 3 fr. 90 c. 

For a Visit to the Palace (interior only on Sun. and Thurs., 12-4; the 
garden till sunset) a permesso from the royal intendant at the Palazzo 
Reale at Naples (p. 37) is required, but it may if necessary be obtained 
through one of the hotel-keepers at Caserta. Fee 1 fr. ; for the chapel 25 c. 

Caserta, a clean and well-built town with 19,000 inhab. ('com- 
mune' 30,600) and a large garrison, may be called the Versailles 
of Naples. It possesses several palaces and barracks, and is the 
residence of the prefect of the province of Caserta. It was founded 
in the 8th cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the hill, but the 
modern town stands on lower ground. 

The * Royal Palace of Caserta, opposite the station, was erected 
in 1752, by Vanvitelli, by order of King Charles III., in the richest 
Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side is 830 ft. 

10 Route 1. MADDALONI. 

long and 134 ft. high, with thirty-seven windows in each story. 
The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from the 
centre of which ascends the handsome marble staircase, with 116 
steps. The marble statue of Vanvitelli , by Buccini , was erected 
in 1879. The palace is at present unoccupied. 

The Chapel, lavishly decorated with marble, imitated lapis lazuli, 
and gold, contains a 'Presentation in the Temple' by Mengs, five paintings 
by Gonca, and an altar-piece by Sonito. — The Theatre is adorned with 
twelve Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of Sera- 
pis at Pozzuoli, and contains forty boxes, besides that appropriated to 
the royal family. 

The *Garden, with its lofty pruned hedges, contains beautiful 
fountains and cascades, adorned with statues. The grand terrace 
above the cascade (2 M. from the palace) affoTds beautiful points 
of view. The Botanical Garden is interesting as proving that the 
trees of the colder north can be grown here with success. The Ca- 
sino Reale di S. Leiccio, in the park, about 2 M. to the N., near some 
large silk-factories, commands another fine prospect. 

About 3 M. to the N.E. of the palace, on an elevated site, is 
Caserta Vecchia, with several interesting deseTted palaces and the 
12th cent, church of S. Michele. 

From Caserta and from Capua there are roads to Caiazzo (about 9 M.) 
and on to Piedimonte cTAlife (rustic Inn), prettily situated about 15 SI. 
from Caiazzo, with flourishing mills, founded by Swiss merchants, at the 
foot of the Malese, the highest summit of which (Monte Miletto, 6725 ft.) may 
be ascended from Piedimonte in 5-6 hrs. On the top there is a lake sur- 
rounded by woods. View as far as the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea. 

Caserta is the junction of the Naples and Foggia railway 
(K. 17) , which runs above our line as far as Maddaloni , the next 
station , and for the branch - line to Castellammare (304/2 M. , in 
2 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 55, 3 fr. 90, or 2 fr. 50 c). The latter follows the 
main line as far as Cancello, where it diverges to the left and runs 
round the E. and S. sides of Mt. Vesuvius, past the stations of 
Marigliano , Ottaiano, 8. Giuseppe, Terngno, and Boscoreale, to 
Torre Annunziata , the junction of the railway from Naples to 
Castellammare and Gragnano (pp. 120, 156). 

144 M. Maddaloni. The town (20,000 inhab.), situated to the 
left, with an extensive deserted palace of the Caraffa family, is 
commanded by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line, 2'/ 2 M. distant, 
are situated the Ponti delta Valle (see p. 215), a celebrated aque- 
duct constructed by Vanvitelli to supply the gardens of Caserta 
with water, and usually visited from Maddaloni. 

148i/ 2 M. Cancello, whence branch-lines diverge to Castellam- 
mare (see above) and to Avellino (R. 11). 

About l'/zM. to theS.W. of Cancello, among the woods (Bosco d^Acovia), 
are the insignificant ruins of the ancient Oscan Suessula. The rich se- 
pulchral remains found here, chiefly vases and bronze ornaments, are 
preserved in the neighbouring Villa Spinelli. 

Since the opening of the railway (R. 17) the high-road from Cancello 
to Benevento (25 M.) has been used for the local traffic only. It leads 
by S. Felice and Arienzo, and then passes through a narrow defile, con- 
sidered by many to be identical with the Furculae Caudinae which proved 

VIA APPIA. 2. Route. 1 1 

so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, whence it ascends to the village of 
Arpaia. It next passes the small town of Montesarchio (the ancient °Cau- 
dium according to some), with its castle, once the residence of the d'Avalos 
family, and recently used as a state prison, in which, among others, the well- 
known Poerio (d. 1867) was confined (comp. p. 43). 

To the left we observe Monte Somma (p. 122), which conceals 
the cone of Vesuvius. 15272 M. Acerra (14,500 inhab.) was the 
ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was accorded as 
early as B. C. 332. The train crosses the trenches of the Beyi 
Lagni , which drain the marshes of Pantano dell' Acerra, the 
ancient Clanius, now I'Agno, and form the boundary between 
the provinces of Caserta and Naples. 155 M. Casalnuovo. Vesu- 
vius becomes visible on the left. 

162 M. Naples. Arrival, see p. 20. 

2. From Rome to Naples via, Terracina and Gaeta. 

This road, formerly the principal route between Central and South- 
ern Italy, is the most ancient in the peninsula. During the Samnite 
war, B. C. 312, the Via Appia from Rome to Capua (p. 1) was constructed 
by the censor Appius Claudius, and with it the present road is nearly identical. 
Since the opening of the railway it has been used for the local traffic 
only , but it is still strongly recommended to the notice of the traveller, 
as it traverses a singularly attractive district, and is one of the most beautiful 
routes in Italy. The drive by carriage from Rome to Naples is also prefei- 
able to the railway journey in this respect, that the transition from the 
one city to the other is thus rendered less abrupt. In the height of sum- 
mer the journey is not recommended. The malaria which prevails then 
in the marshy districts is considered especially noxious during sleep. 
The diligence conductors regard tobacco smoke as the most effectual anti- 
dote to the poison of the atmosphere. No risk need be apprehended 
during the colder seasons. Since the annexation of the States of the Church 
by the Italian government, the brigandage which formerly flourished in these 
districts has been suppressed, though part of the stage beyond Velletri is 
still considered to be not always quite safe. 

The whole journey occupies three days : — 1st Day. Railway to Vel- 
letri in 1-1 '/« hr. (fares 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c; express, 6 fr. 40, 
4 fr. 30 c.) ; thence by diligence (starting on the arrival of the first Roman 
train; fare 7fr. ; provisions should be taken) or in separate carriages (one- 
horse carr. at the Societa di Bonis-Fasselli, Strada Vittorio Emanuele 117, 
25 fr., incl. driver's fee, prepaid in exchange for a receipt) in 7 hrs. to 
Terracina (visit Theodoric's palace). — 2nd Day. Diligence (5'/2 fr.) to For- 
mia in 5 hrs. If the diligence does not start before noon , the excursion 
to Gaeta is more easily made on the same day by hiring a carriage from 
Terracina to Formia. — 3rd Day. Diligence (starting at 6 p.m. ; 3 3 /4 fr.) to 
Sparanise in 3'/2 hrs., and railway thence to Naples in l'/2-2'/4 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 45,4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10 c. ; express, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 75 c). The diligence from 
Sparanise starts very early in the morning. 

To Velletri, 2b 1 / 2 M., see p. 1. The high-road here descends to 
the plain to the right. About l'/ 2 M. before reaching Cisterna the 
road again unites with the ancient Via Appia. The extensive 
oak-forests here were once a notorious haunt of banditti. On the 
height to the left we observe the villages of Cori and Norma (see 
Baedekers Central Italy). 

Farther on, on an eminence below Norma, stands Sermoneta, 
with an ancient castle of the Gaetani family, who thence derive 

12 Route 2. PONTINE MARSHES. From Rome 

their ducal title. Towards the sea, to the right, rises the isolated 
Monte Circello (p. 13). Cisterna (SignoraPainas Inn, poor), 7 l /% M. 
from Velletri, a small town with a castle of the Gaetani, situated on 
the last hill before the Pontine marshes are reached, was called 
Cisterna Neronis in the middle ages, and is believed to occupy the 
site of the ancient Tres Tabernae. 

17 M. (from Velletri) Torre ire Ponti, a solitary post-house 
(miserable tavern), where the diligence halts for an hour and changes 
horses. Terracina is 22!/2 M. distant. (Sermoneta, 5M. distant from 
Torre tre Ponti, may be visited thence; see above.) About t/ 2 M. 
farther the road crosses the Ninfa by an ancient bridge, restored, 
as the inscription records, by Trajan. 

We now reach the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontini), which 
vary in breadth between the mountains and the sea from 6 to 
11 M., and from Nettuno to Terracina are 31 M. in length. A 
considerable part of them is now cultivated ; particularly, however, 
they afford extensive pastures , the most marshy parts being the 
resort of the buffaloes. Towards the sea the district is clothed 
with forest (macchia). The malaria in summer is a dreadful 

According to Pliny (Hist. Nat. iii. 5) , these marshes were anciently 
a fertile and well-cultivated plain, occupied by twenty-four villages, but 
towards the close of the republic gradually fell into their present con- 
dition owing to the decline of agriculture. A want of fall in the sur- 
face of the soil is the cause of the evil. The streams and canals are 
totally inadequate to carry off the excess of water which descends from 
the mountains during the rainy season, and its escape is further impeded 
by the luxuriant vegetation of the aquatic plants. Attempts to drain the 
marshes were successively made by the censor Appius Claudius in B. C. 
312 (so says tradition), by the consul Cornelius Cethegus 130 years later, 
by Csesar, Augustus, Nerva, Trajan, and finally by Theodoric, King of the 
Goths, all of which were of temporary benefit only. Similar operations were 
undertaken by the popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., and Pius VI. 
To the last is due the present admirably constructed road across the 
marshes, the cost of which amounted to 1,622,000 scudi (350,000(. sterling). 
At present the drainage is carried out in a most practical and comprehen- 
sive manner by the proprietors themselves , under the direction of the 
'Ufficio della bonificazione delle paludi Pontini 1 at Terracina. 

For some distance the road follows the track of the ancient Via 
Appia in a straight direction, skirting the Canal delle Botte, 
which was constructed before the time of Augustus, and on which 
Horace performed part of his journey to Brundisium (Sat. i. 5). 

About 4 M. from Torre tre Ponti is Foro Appio , the ancient 
Forum Appii, described by Horace as 'differtum nautis cauponibus 
atque malignis'. Here, and at Tres Tabernte, the Apostle Paul met 
his friends from Rome (Acts, xxviii). 

The road pursues a perfectly straight direction, shaded by a 
double or quadruple avenue of stately elms. But for the moun- 
tains to the left, where Sezza has for some time been visible, the 
traveller might imagine himself transported to a scene in Holland. 

A conveyance in correspondence with the diligence from Velletri runs 
from Foro Appio to Sezza, the ancient Volscian Setia, which yielded a 

to Naples. PIPERNO. 2. Route. 1 3 

favourite wine. It is situated above the marshes on a hill which the old 
road to Naples skirted. The fragments of the old walls and of a so-called 
Temple of Saturn are still to be seen. — Instead of ascending the hill of 
Sezza, we may follow the road skirting its base to — 

Piperno (6 M.), the ancient Privernum of the Volsci, which long with- 
stood the attacks of the Romans, and afterwards a Roman colony, the traces 
of which are seen 3/» M. to the N. in the plain, on the way to Frosinone. 
This plain is enclosed by lofty mountains, studded with ruined castles 
and villages : Rocca Gorga, Maenza, Rocca Secca, Prossedi, etc. About 3 M. 
farther, in the valley of the Amaseno, is situated the Cistercian monastery 
of Fossa Nuova, where Thomas Aquinas died in 1274 while on his way to 
the Council of Lyons. Sonnino, 4'/2 M. distant, and San Lorenzo, in the 
valley of the Amaseno, about 9 JI. distant, are both famous for the 
picturesqueness of the costume of the women, and were formerly notorious 
for the audacity of the brigands. 

The road pursues a straight direction on a raised embank- 
ment, and leads to Bocca di Fiume and Mesa. At the entrance 
of the post-house at Mesa are two ancient milestones of Trajan. In 
the vicinity are the ruins of a tomb on a square basement of mas- 
sive blocks of limestone, obtained from the neighbouring Volscian 

Ponte Maggiore is the next post-station. Beyond it the road 
crosses the Amaseno, into which the Vfente empties itself a little 
lower down. 

A little farther on, the ancient and modern roads divide. The 
Via Appia ascends the hillside to the left, where palms and pome- 
granates, interspersed with orange-groves and aloes , apprise the 
traveller of his entrance into Southern Italy, to the old town of 
Terracina; while the other road, to the new quarters of the town, 
skirts the sea. About l^M. before Terracina we pass the locality 
which Horace mentions as the site of the grove and fountain of 
Feronia (Sat. i. 5, 23) , but no traces of either are now visible. 

To the right, towards the sea, thePromontorioCirceo, or Circello (1030ft.), 
which was visible even before Velletri was reached, now becomes more 
conspicuous. This was the Circeii of the ancients, the traditional site of 
the palace and grove of the enchantress Circe, daughter of the sun, described 
by Homer. It is an isolated limestone rock, partly overgrown with wood, 
and may be reached in 3-4 hrs. (11 M.) from Terracina by a good path 
along the shore. Accommodation of a rustic character may be obtained at 
S. Felice. The hill is strewn with the ruins of several mediaeval towers, 
and also with a few fragments of the ancient town of Circeii, which 
became a Roman colony in B. C. 393 and still existed in Cicero's time. 
Thus, about halfway up the hill, under a group of lofty trees, is a low 
parapet of Roman workmanship enclosing a well called the Fontanel 
di Mezzo Monte. At another point is the Fonte delta Bagnaia , also with 
fragments of Roman masonry, and on the summit are the remains of a 
Temple of Circe. The 'View from the top is magnificent: to the S.E. 
Ischia, Capri, and Mt. Vesuvius are distinctly visible ; to the N. the dome 
of St. Peter's can be distinguished ; to the E. and N.E. we see the moun- 
tains as far as Velletri ; to the W. and S.W. is the sea, with the Pontine 
Islands (p. 14). The rock is honeycombed with grottoes, some of which 
are of great extent. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian frequently 
resorted to this spot. — Remains of Roman palaces and aqueducts have also 
been found at Lago di Paola, a small lake at the N. base of the promon- 
tory, where large oyster-beds were maintained by the Romans. 

Terracina. — Hotels : Grand Hotel Royal , the stopping-place of 
the diligence, at the S. entrance to the town, with a view of the sea 

14 Route 2. TEHHATHNA. From Borne 

at the back, R. & L. 1 fr., well spoken of; Locanda Nazionale, in the 
Piazza, less expensive. 

Terracina, situated conspicuously on a rocky eminence (Hor. 
Sat. i. 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volsci, and the Tarra- 
cina of the Romans , was formerly on the confines of the papal 
dominions, and still constitutes the natural frontier town between 
Central and Southern Italy. Pop. 7500. It is an ancient episcopal 
residence, and is one of the most picturesque spots in Italy. The 
high-road intersects the extensive but thinly peopled quarter of 
the town which was founded by Pius VI., while the old town is 
built on the slope of the hill. Above the latter extend the ruins of 
the ancient city, crowned by the remains of the palace of Theodoric 
the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cattedrale S. Cesareo, in a large square, the ancient 
Forum, the pavement of which is well preserved, occupies the site 
of a Temple of Roma and of Augustus, dedicated to that emperor 
by A. iEmilius, who also caused the forum to be paved. In the 
travertine slabs the inscription 'A. ^Emilius F. F.' is distinctly 
legible in large letters. The vestibule of the cathedral rests on 
ten ancient columns, with recumbent lions at their bases. On the 
right is a large granite basin, which, according to the inscription, 
was used in torturing the early Christians. The beautiful fluted 
columns of the canopy in the interior belonged to the ancient 
temple. The pulpit, with its ancient mosaics, rests on columns 
with lions at their bases. — The clock tower (ascended by 91 steps) 
commands an extensive prospect. 

The summit of the promontory may be attained in 3 /jhr., di- 
rectly from the new town but more conveniently from the old town, 
by ascending to the right, under the archway adjoining the cathe- 
dral. The latter route is partly by an ancient road passing remains 
of tombs and ancient walls, and then to the right by a gap in the 
wall encircling the olive-plantations, and through the latter along 
the dividing wall. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary. The so-called *Palace of Theodoric, King of 
the Ostrogoths, erected about 500 A.D. and afterwards converted 
into a castle, occupies the summit. A corridor of twelve arches 
opens towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the dif- 
ferent parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. *View ad- 

Towards the W. the prospect embraces the plain as far as the Alban 
Mts., then the Monte Circello; towards the S. are the Pontine or Ponza 
Islands, the N.W. group of which comprises Ponza (Pontise, once a Ro- 
man colony), Palmarola (Palmaria) , and Zannone , all of volcanic origin, 
and the S. group Ventotene and S. Slefano; between the groups lies the 
small island of La Bolte. The islands are still used, as in ancient times, 
as a place of detention for convicts. (Steamer from Naples, see p. 112.) 
Ventotene is the Pandateria of melancholy celebrity, to which Augustus 
banished his abandoned daughter Julia, and Tiberius relegated Agrippina, 
the daughter of Julia, and where Nero is said to have caused his divorced 
wife Octavia to be put to death. Towards the E. the plain of Fondi is 

to Naples. FONDI. 2. Route. 15 

visible; the village on the sea is Sperlonga (p. 16); farther off is the pro- 
montory of Gaeta with the Torre d'Orlando (p. 18), and finally the island 
of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but is 
now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indiffferent 
shelter to coasting-vessels. The galley-convicts at the bagno here 
are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in the quarries. 

At the S. egress of the town is the Taglio di Pisco Mon- 
tano, an interesting piece of Roman engineering. Beyond the 
Hotel Royal the Monte Angelo with its picturesque and massy 
rocks approaches close to the sea, in consequence of which Ap- 
pius originally conducted his road over the hill. At a later 
period the rocks were removed for the construction of a new 
and more spacious road. On the perpendicular wall thus pro- 
duced the depth is indicated at intervals of 10 Roman feet, be- 
ginning from the top; the lowest mark, a few feet above the 
present road, is CXX. On the top, on a detached rocky pro- 
tuberance, is a hermitage, now abandoned. 

Beyond Terracina the road follows the direction of the Via 
Appia, and is flanked by remaius of ancient tombs. The moun- 
tains which we skirt approach so near the sea as occasionally 
to leave barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient 
Lautulae. Here, in B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with 
the Samnites, and in the 2nd Punic War Fabius Maximus kept 
Hannibal in check at this point. On a hill about l /. 2 M. to the 
left is situated the monastery of Retiro, on the site of the villa 
in which the emperor Galba was born. Then to the right is the 
Lake of Fondi, the Lacus Fundanus or Amyclanus of the ancients, 
named after the town of Amyclae which is said to have been founded 
here by fugitive Laconians. The village towards the E. on the slope 
facing the sea is Sperlonga (see p. 16). 

The papal frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafia. We 
next reach the gateway of the tower de' Confini, or La Portelln, 
4 M. from Terracina. On a height to the left is the village of Monti- 
celli; by the roadside are fragments of tombs. We now enter the 
extremely fertile Terra di Lavoro (p. 7). 

The next place (11 M. from Terracina) is Fondi (5000 inhab.), 
the ancient Fundi , where Horace derides the pride of a civic of- 
ficial 'with broad purple border and censer' (Hor. Sat. i. 5 , 34). 
Change of horses, and halt of l / i hr. (tolerable inn). The Chateau, 
part of which adjoins the cathedral, is miserably dilapidated. Some of 
the window-frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renais- 
sance style testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, it 
belonged to the Colonnas, and in 1534 it was occupied by the beau- 
tiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga. One night the countess narrowly 
escaped being captured by the daring pirate Haireddin Barbarossa, 

1G Route 2. ITRI. from Rome 

who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Roliman II. Exasperated 
by his failure , he wreaked his revenge on the town , as an in- 
scription in the church records. The town was again destroyed 
by the Turks in loOi. In the vicinity is the church of 8. Maria 
in the Gothic style, with an ancient facade and portal, disfigured 
in the interior by whitewash. It contains an ancient pulpit adorned 
with mosaic, and on the right a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. 
A chapel is shown in the Dominican monastery in which Thomas 
Aquinas once taught. Considerable remains of the ancient town- 
walls are preserved. The principal street coincides with the an- 
cient Via Appia. In other respects the town is a sombre-looking 
place, and like Itri (see below) was for centuries a haunt of bri- 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain -ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle , where remains of sub- 
structures of the ancient Via Appia, built into the houses, are 
visible from the road. Itri was once notorious for the robberies 
committed there. It was here that the robber - chief Marco 
Sciarra promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet 
Tasso ; and Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was 
also a native of Itri. He was at last captured by the French 
near Salerno and executed. Anecdotes are still related of this 
daring brigand, and Washington Irving's sketch 'The Inn of 
Terracina', the foundation of Auber's opera, has greatly contri- 
buted to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path leads from Itri, to the right, in 2'/i hrs. to the 
fishing-village of Sperlonga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving 
its name from I lie grottoes (spelnneae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one 
of these, as Tacitus informs us (Ann. iv. 59), Sejanus saved the life of Ti- 
berius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. On the way to the grotto 
we observe Roman ruins, and the grotto itself contains benches and stucco 
ornaments. The exeursinn may hist he made by boat from Oaeta , from 
which S peril tnga is about 9',^ M. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and finally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are Ischia and Procida ; 
still further oil rise the Monte S. Angelo (p. 15S) and Vesuvius. 

Farther on, we perceive to the right, in the middle of a 
vineyard, on a square base, a massive round tower, believed 
lo be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not far 
from his Fonnianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs (ictavian, Antony, and 
l.epidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Lynas. 7th Dec, It.C 41-J , in the (>4th year of his age. On a 
height abo\e the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 

to Xaples. FORMIA. 2. Route. 17 

lies of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which, 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles, 
and was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition has 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to Formia. 

Formia (* Hotel dei Fiori , on the coast. R. l 1 /., fr.. pre- 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae, a town with 
10,000 inhab., was called Mola di Gaeta under the former regime. 
The beauty of its situation constitutes its sole attraction. The 
mountain-range on the N. side of the bay rises abruptly from the 
sea, the lower slopes being clothed with gardens of lemons, oranges, 
and pomegranates, and with vineyards and olive-plantations. 

One of the most delightful points is the so-called Villa of 
Cicero , or Villa Capotele , above the town , formerly a favourite 
residence of the kings of Naples. It now belongs to Sign. Gaetano 
Rubino (permission to visit it obtained by leaving a card at his palazzo 
opposite the prefecture; boy to act as guide 1 /o fr.)- 

At the entrance are ancient inscriptions anil statues. The lower 
part of the garden contains considerable remains of an ancient villa, 
supposed to have belonged to Cicero, lint evidently from its construction 
dating from the 1st or 2nd cent, of the Roman imperial era. Among the 
vaulted halls is one with eight columns and a semicircular apse, now 
converted into offices. During the siege of Oaeta, General Cialdini es- 
tablished his headquarters here. The upper terrace commands an un- 
interrupted survey of the charming bay, Gaeta, Ischia, the promontories 
of the Bay of Naples, and the mountain range to the S. of the Liris. which 
separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 

Excursion to Gaeta, 4-5 hrs. there and back. 

Formia carries on a brisk traffic with Gaeta. 4 3 * 31. distant. Seat 
in public conveyance V- fr. ; one-horse carr. there and back, according 
to tariff, 2 fr., or with a stay of some hours 3 fr., a drive of 3 /i hr. ; by 
boat somewhat longer, 34 fr. 

The road ascends through Formia, and beyond it descends 
to the coast, which it then skirts. Numerous remains of villas, 
which the Romans were in the habit of building out into the sea 
as far as possible, are passed. Among them a spot is pointed 
out as the scene of the assassination of Cicero ( see p. 16). Country 
attractive. Outside the town extends a long row of houses, called 
the Borgo. The road next passes the fortifications, and reaches 
the Piazza. 

Gaeta (Alberyo Villa Gaeta , well spoken of; Italia : Gaffe 
Nazionale), the ancient Portus Caieta, with 19,000 inhab., is an 
important fortress, but insignificant as a commercial town. The 
promontory of Gaeta resembles the cape of Misenum in formation, 
presenting from a distance the appearance of a gigantic tumulus. 
Tradition has pointed it out as the tomb of Caieta. the nurse of 
^Eneas , and Munatius Plancus . a contemporary of Augustus and 
founder of Lyons ( d. after 22 B. C), accordingly erected a con- 
spicuous and imposing monument on its summit. From this eminence 

Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 2 

18 Route 2. GAETA. From Rome 

projects a lower rock which bears the citadel with the Torre Angio- 
vina and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of the Germanic 
invaders, and with Amalfl and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It afterwards became a free city, presided over 
by a doge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese , by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo da Cordova, in 1734 to 
the Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out for nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under Massena. Pope Pius IX. when banished in Nov., 1848, sought an 
asylum here, and remained at Gaeta until his return to Rome in April, 1850. 
In Nov., 1860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bourbon kings, sought 
refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, took a prominent 
part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at length compelled 
to capitulate by the Italian fleet on 23rd Feb., 1861. The king was conveyed 
to Rome by a French man-of-war. 

The Cattedrale di 8. Erasmo has a remarkable campanile ; at 
the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of old sculptures. 
The modernised interior and the crypt are uninteresting. At the 
back of the high-altar (covered) is the banner presented by Pope 
Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the hero of Lepanto, representing 
the Saviour with SS. Peter and Paul. — Opposite the principal portal 
of the church is a sculptured Gothic column resting on four lions. 

Near the Piazza is the modern Gothic church of 8. Francesco, 
begun in 1849, completed after I860. — Among the antiquities of 
the town may be mentioned the remains of an amphitheatre and of 
a theatre, and also a column bearing the names of the twelve winds 
in Greek and Latin. 

The so-called *Torre a" Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus 
(see p. 17), situated on the summit of the promontory, is now en- 
closed by the new fortifications (permission of the commandant of 
Gaeta necessary, now rarely granted). It consists of a huge circular 
structure of travertine blocks, resembling that of Caecilia Metella at 
Rome, 160 ft. high and as many in diameter. At the top is a frieze 
with military emblems. Instead of this tomb the Torre Angiovina, 
or Anjou Tower, of the citadel overlooking the town, may be visited 
(adm. usually granted by the officer on duty; ascent too difficult 
for ladies). The view embraces towards the N.W. the coast as far as 
Mte. Circeio, to the W. the sea with the Ponza Islands, to the B. 
and S. the bay of Gaeta, Ischia, Procida, Capri, and the mountains 
of Misenum. 

Leaving Formia, the road now turns into the plain of the 
Oarigliano, the Liris of the ancients, which falls into the Bay 
of Gaeta. To the left, before reaching the bridge, we observe 
a long series of arches of the ancient aqueduct; then, nearer 

to Naples. SESSA. 2. Route. 19 

the road, by the post-house, remains of the theatre and amphi- 
theatre of the venerable city of Minturnae, on the ruins of 
which, on the hill to the left, has sprung up the small town 
of Traetto. In the plain towards the Liris are situated the marshes 
where Marius once sought to elude the pursuit of the hirelings 
of Sulla. On the right bank of the Garigliano, 27th Dec. 1503, 
Don Gonsalvo da Cordova fought the decisive battle with the 
French which placed Naples in his power. Piero de' Medici , who, 
having been banished from Florence, had followed the French, 
endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in a boat with four field-pieces. 
The boat, however, sank, and all its occupants were drowned. 
Pietro was buried at Monte Cassino (p. 5). 

The suspension-bridge over the Garigliano (7i/ 2 M. from 
Formia), constructed in 1832, is the oldest in Italy. Before 
it is reached the present road quits the Via Appia, whioh is 
distinctly traceable on the right bank as far as Mondragone, near 
the Sinuessa of Horace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th 
cent.), where to his great joy he was met on his journey (Sat. 
i. 5, 39) by his friends Plotius, Varius, and Virgil. Horace then 
crossed the Savo (Savone) by the Pons Campanus and proceeded 
to Capua. The present road, however, turns to the left towards 
the heights of Sant' Agata (change of horses, halt of y 4 hr.), 
a busy post-station, where it is crossed by a road leading from 
Sessa to Mondragone. The volcanic peaks of the Campagna Felice, 
and among them the lofty Rocca Monfina, now become visible. 

The Rocca Monfina, 4>/2 M. from Sant' Agata, is easily visited thence. 
On the way thither, 1 /z M. from Sant' Agata, on a volcanic eminence, lies 
Sessa, the ancient Suessa Aurunca, with interesting ruins of a bridge, 
amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved in the ancient cathedral 
and the churches of S. Benedetto and S. Giovanni. In the principal street 
are memorial stones with inscriptions in honour of Charles V., above 
which is an old crucifix with a mosaic cross. From the hills of Sessa to 
Mondragone, towards the S., extends Monte Massico, whose wines Horace 
and Virgil have immortalised. In the vicinity, towards the Volturnus, 
was the Ager Falernus, where excellent wine is still produced. 

The road from Sant' Agata to Sparanise passes the village of 
Cascano, noted for the beauty of its women. The same repu- 
tation might indeed be fairly extended to the whole district around 
the Bay of Gaeta. About 3 M. from Cassano a road to the left 
leads to Teano (see p. 7). The road then crosses the Savone, not 
far from the picturesque castle of Francolisi, and (f/2 M.) reaches 
the railway-station of Sparanise (seep. 7), whence Naples is readied 
by railway via Capua in about 2 hrs. 


3. Naples. 

a. Arrival, Hotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. 

Arrival, (a) By Railway. The station (Stazione Centrale; PI. H, 3) is 
situated at the E. end of the town. The principal hotels all send Omnibuses 
(l'/2 fr.) to meet the trains. Cabs: with two horses (nearest the entrance) 
i fr. 40 c, each trunk 20c. ; with one horse (outside the railings, farther 
distant; seats for two persons only) 80 c, each trunk 20 c. ; no charge is 
made for smaller articles of luggage. The Facchini who take the luggage 
to the cab are paid, according to tariff: 10c. for a travelling-bag or a hat- 
box, 20 c. for heavier articles, 40 c. for boxes weighing 200-400 lbs.; but 
a few soldi more are usually given. As a long delay often takes place 
before the delivery of the luggage, it is perhaps the best plan to take a 
cab direct to the hotel and send some one for the luggage, though, of 
course, this incurs a little extra expense. The services of officious by- 
standers should be declined. The formalities of the municipal douane are 
soon terminated , the declaration of the traveller that his luggage con- 
tains no comestibles liable to duty being generally accepted. 

(b) By Steamboat. As soon as permission to disembark is granted, 
a small boat (1 fr. for each person , with luggage I1/2 fr.) conveys the 
passengers to the Dogana near the Immacolatella (PI. G, 5), where luggage 
is examined. This done, one of the 'facchini della dogana' places the 
luggage on the fiacre or other conveyance (40 c. for each trunk, 10 c. for 
each small article). The offices of the steamboat-companies are close to 
the harbour. 

Police Office (Questura), Palazzo S. Giacomo (Municipio ; PI. F, 6), 
on the side next the Via Paolo Emilio Imbriani. The guardians of the 
public peace consist of Carabinieri (black and red coat with three-cornered 
hat), the Guardie di Pubblica Sicurezza (dark uniform with white buttons 
and military cap), and the Cuardie Municipals (with yellow buttons and 
numbers on their caps). The latter are specially entrusted with the super- 
vision of vehicles. — Complaints about cabmen should be made at the 
Ufflcio Centrale del Corso Pubblico, in the Municipio, 1st floor (p. 39). 

Hotels (comp. also Introd. xii : Climate and Health of Naples). 
Families visiting Naples in spring, when the influx of visitors is at its 
height, had better secure rooms by letter, some time before their arrival. 
In summer the principal hotels are comparatively empty, and therefore 
cheaper. The average charges at the 1st class houses during the season 
are about as follows: R. 3-6 fr. and upwards, B. l'/2-2, D. 4-6, A. 1 fr. ; 
pension at some of the hotels 10-12 fr. and upwards, if a stay of several 
days is made. 

In the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the adjoining Rione Principe Amedeo 
(PI. B, C, D, 7, 6), in a healthy situation and with a splendid view: 
"Hotel Bristol (PI. a; D, 6), with good sanitary arrangements, R. 3-6, 

B. l'/2i lunch 3, D. 5, L. 1, A. 1, pension 10-12 fr. ; ''Parker's Hotel (late 
Thamontano-Beaurivage; PI. b; C, 6), patronised by the English, R. 
from 2'/2, D. 5, B. IV2, pens. 10-12 fr. , these two both in the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele; Grand Hotel Nobile (PI. c; C, 6), Via Principe 
Amedeo, with view from the upper floors, R. 3-6, B. l'/2, lunch 3^/^, D. 5, 
pension from 12 fr. 

Lower Town, near the sea. In the Piazza Umberlo: "Grand Hotel 
(PI. d; B, 7), a large and highly praised establishment in an open and 
healthy situation close to the sea, with a splendid view, R. 3-6, B. I, lunch 
3-4, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr. — In the Riviera di Chiaja (PI. D, C, B, 7), near the 
Villa Nazionale , with a view of the Villa and the sea : No. 276 , "Gran 
Bretagna (PI. e; D, 7); No. 127, Hotel-Pension de la Riviera (PI. f; 

C, 7), R. 2-3, L. 1, B. I1/4, lunch 21/2, D. 4, omn. 1, pens. 8-10 fr. - 
In the Slrada Chiatamone, at the foot of the Pizznfalcone : "Hotel du 
Vesuve (PI. g; E, 7), with lift, It. 4-6, B. l'/ 2 , lunch 3-4, D. 5, pens, in 
winter 12-15, in summer 10-12 fr. ; "Hotel Metropole, newly fitted up, 
R. from 2, A. 3 /t, B. IV2, lunch 2V2, D. 4 fr.; 'Hotel Royal des Etran- 
gers (PI. i; E, 7), with lift and electric lighting, R. from 3, B. IV2, 



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Hotels. NAPLES. 3. Route. 21 

lunch 3, D. 41/2, L. & A. I1/2, omn. l»/2, pens. 11-12 fr. ; Washington 
(PI. h; E, 7), with garden; "Hotel Hasslee, pension 10-12 fr., patronised 
by Germans. — In the new Via Partenope: Hotel Vittoria, R. from 
3, E. I1/2, lunch 2>/2, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 9-12 fr. , new. — In the 
Strada S. Lucia, to the B. of the Pizzofalcone (PI. E, 7): 'Hotel de 
Rome, close to the sea, with good bathing arrangements, R. 4, B. l l /2, 
lunch 3'/2, D. 5, A. 1, L. 1, pens, from 9 fr. (in winter from 10 fr.) up- 

The following second-class hotels are chiefly visited by commercial 
men. In the busy Strada Medina (PI. F, 5), not far from the harbour: 
"Hotel de Geneve (PI. o ; F, 5), entrance by No. 13 Strada S. Giuseppe, 
with lift, R. 3, B. IV2, D. incl. wine 4i/ 2 , L. & A. H/2, pens. 10 fr. ; Albergo 
della Pateia, Strada S. Giuseppe 32, R. 2 ] /2, lunch 2'/2, D. incl. wine 
3'/2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, unpretending; Antica Ceoce di Malta, Gradini S. 
Giuseppe 6, R. 3-4 fr. — In the Piazza S. Ferdinando, at the beginning of 
the Toledo (PI. E, 6): Hotel d'Europe and Hotel d'Orient, belonging to 
the same landlord , entrance by Strada Nardones. — In the Largo delta 
Carita: Hotel de l'Univers, moderate. — In the Ouantai Nuovi: Hotel 
de Naples, Palazzo Serena, No. 102, new, R. from l l /2, D. 3, pens. 6 fr. — 
Near the railway-station , in the new Del Vasto quarter : Alb. e Trat- 
toria Bella Napoli, Str. Firenze 11. 

Pensions. The following may all be recommended for a stay of from 
3-4 days upwards (comp. p. xix). — 8. Lucia: No. 92 (1st floor), Pens, de 
Geneve, patronised by Germans, well spoken of. — Riviera di Chiaja: 
No. 118, Hot. & Pens, de la Ville, 7 fr. — Near the Chiaja: PensIon 
de Famille, Villa Alicorno, Strada Posilipo 8, near the tramway-terminus, 
pension 7fr. — In the Higher Quarters of the Town (comp. p. 20): "Hotel & 
Pens. Beitannique (Mme. Macpherson; PI. q; C, 6), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
38, near the large hotels, with a magnificent view, 7-11 fr., patronised 
by the English; Hotel & Pension Bellevue (PI. r; C, 7), Corso Principe 
Amedeo 14, small, but well spoken of; "Maison Bourbon, Rampe Bran- 
caccio 20, with furnished rooms to let (30 fr. a month and upwards); 
Pens. Pinto-Storet, Parco Margherita3, pens, from 5 fr.; Pens. Sohach- 
meier, Via Nardones 60, well spoken of, — On the Posilipo: Villa Posti- 
glione, pension 8-12 fr. ; ViLLA Cappella (Miss Baker), pension from 7 fr., 
both patronised by the English. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration (10 days and upwards) 
the traveller may prefer to take rooms at a private hotel, where he will 
be more independent than at a hotel or a pension. Charges vary with the 
season , culminating on unusual occasions , such as an eruption of Mt. 
Vesuvius, which invariably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are 
generally large and fitted up for two persons : with one bed 2'/2-4 , with 
two beds 4-6 fr. per day. The number of days for which the room is 
engaged should be expressly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required 
to leave unexpectedly, and a distinct bargain should be made as to charges 
(c. g. : A. V2 fr., L. 30 c. per day). Breakfast may usually be obtained in 
the house, but better at a cafe. The best lodgings are in the new houses 
in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the Rione Principe Amedeo, with 
splendid view (50-60 fr. monthly, incl. attendance): e. g. in the Case 
Amedeo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 138-160; "Frau Schlegel, Rampe Brancaccio 
20 (PI. D, 6). Also in the quiet and handsome Corso Umberto (PI. 
B, 7; best rooms on the right, coming from the Piazza Umberto); in S. 
Lucia, Nos. 28, 31, 92 (1st and 3rd floor); in the Chiaja, Nos. 171, 260, 
263; S. Caterina a Chiaja 67, etc. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie) very numerous. Italian cuisine. Dinners usually 
a la carte ; three dishes with fruit and wine 2-272 fr. ; iced water (acqua 
gelata) 5 c. ; good table-wine 30-40 c. per half-litre (when only the half is 
used, 15-20 c); bread 15 c. (best the pane mecanico, or bread made by 
machines; comp. Introd. p. xxi). Most of the restaurants also give dinners 
at a fixed price (prezzo fisso) varying from 2'/2 to 5 fr. (im pasto da 
2'/2-5 fr.); gratuity 5-10 c. for each franc of the bill. — Smoking universal; 
ladies, however, may visit the better of these establishments. 

22 Route 3. NAPLES. Restaurants. 

In the Toledo or Via Roma : '-Grand Cafi- Restaurant d'Europe, Largo 
S. Ferdinando, table d'hote at 5, 5.30, or 6 p.m. according to the season, 
5 fr. ; "Restaurant d'Europe, above the cafe' of that name at the corner of 
the Strada di Chiaja and the Toledo, much frequented for lunch about 
noon (oysters from the Lago del Fusaro, p. ill) ; "Antica Trattoria dei Qiar- 
dini di Torino, at the corner of the Vico Tre Re, moderate; Restaurant 
delta Regina d" Italia, Toledo 319, entrance in the Vico S. Sepolcro, much 
frequented; Trattoria Comfortabile , close to the Largo della Carita. 
Then, Restaurant du Chiatamone, at the Hotel Metropole (p. 21); Restaurant 
Continental, Strada Medina 61, much frequented; Birreria Dreher, see 
below; Trattoria del Falcone, Strada Guantai Nuovi 9; Restaur. & Bir- 
reria di Monaco, Piazza del Municipio 37-43 Trattoria Milanese, opposite 
the post-office ; Cafe di Napoli, in the Villa Nazionale , with line terrace, 
expensive; Alia Torretta, at La Torretta (p. 24); Trattoria della Sirena, 
S.Teresa a Chiaja 53; Cafi Santangelo, in the Galleria Principe di Napoli 
(p. 43), lunch 2-3, D. 4-5 fr. ; Cafi al Museo, corner of the Piazza Cavour, 
mediocre ; the last two convenient luncheon-rooms for visitors to the 

Good Fish may be procured at the Trattorie di Campagna, by the Po- 
silipo, close to the sea; e. g. "Trattoria della Sirena, close to the ruins 
of the Palazzo di Donn 1 Anna (p. 88), l'/2 M. from the W. end of the 
town; two Trattorie in the Palazzo itself; about '/4 M- beyond it is the 
Antica Trattoria dello Scoglio di Frisio , expensive ; all these are much 
visited on summer-evenings and command superb views, especially by 
moonlight. The following are somewhat cheaper houses : Trattoria del 
Figlio di Pietro, Strada Nuova del Posilipo ; Trait, della Stella di Posilipo, 
Allegria, Au Petit Paradis , all beautifully situated on the Posilipo, near 
the tramway-terminus. The Trattoria Pallini (p. 96), on the Posilipo (ex- 
quisite view), and the Trattoria Pastafina, at the W. extremity of the 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele, near the station of the line to Cumee (p. 99), are also 
much frequented. 

Wine. The wine of the environs is generally excellent, 50-80 c. per litre, 
such as Salerno, Gragnano, Ischia, Vino di Procida, del Monte di Procida, 
and di Posilipo; whereas Marsala, Falerno, Capri, and Lacrima Christi 
are generally adulterated. Wine-stores : Str. di Chiaja 136, 146, 238; Via 
Paolo Emilio Imbriani 42, etc. Good Neapolitan, Sicilian, and S. Italian 
wines may also be obtained at numerous small and very unpretending 
wine-stores, such as the Cava de" Oesuiti, Str. S. Sebastiano 19 (PI. F, 4). 
Foreign wines sold by Luigi Cafiisch, Toledo 315, etc. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxi). The best cafe's are at the S. end of the Toledo, 
near the Piazza del Plebiscite. Here are situated: "Grand Cafi-Restau- 
rant d'Europe (see above) ; opposite, at the corner of the Str. di Chiaja, 
"Cafi d % Europe, with restaurant (see above). There are also several smaller 
cafes in the Toledo : No. 316 , Gran Cafi d' Italia. — Italia Meridionale, 
Str. di Chiaja 85. — At the Villa Nazionale : "Cafi di Napoli, adjoining the 
Aquarium, concerts in the afternoon or evening (according to the season). 

— Coffee prepared in the Oriental style, at the Gaffe Turco, in the Piazza 
del Plebiscito. 

Beer. ' Birreria di Monaco , see above ; Cafi-Reslaurant Continental 
see above; Sedlmayr zum Spaten (Munich beer in bottles), Strada Guantai 
Nuovi 46, 3rd floor ; Birreria Dreher, Piazza S. Francesco di Paola 1-3, 
near the Piazza del Plebiscito, Vienna beer. 

Confectioners: "Cafiisch, Toledo 253-255; Van Bol cfr Feste, Piazza S. 
Ferdinando 51 ; Ferroni, S. Brigida 3. — • Boulangerie Francaise, S. Brigida 2. 

— English Grocery Stores (Smith <£• Co.), Piazza dei Martiri 56 & Str. di 
Chiaja 83. 

Cigars. The government-shop (Spaccio normale) is in the Toledo, No. 248, 
on the left coming from the Piazza del Plebiscito. Imported Havannahs 
from 25 c. upwards. 

Cabs. NAPLES. 3. Route. 23 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Boats. 

Information about cab-fares , and the tramway and railway communi- 
cations in the environs of Naples will be found in the Orario, published 
monthly, and sold everywhere in the streets (5 c). 

Carriages. The distances in Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate , and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing , that most tra- 
vellers will prefer driving to walking. A private two-horse carriage for 
excursions costs 20-25 fr. per day, or 12-15 fr. for half-a-day, besides a 
gratuity of 2-3 fr. Carriages may be hired at the hotels , etc. — The 
ordinary cabs are of course the cheapest conveyances. In choosing a carriage 
for a longer drive, some attention should be paid to the appearance of the 
horses, those of a small and stout build being the most durable. In order 
to avoid imposition, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not a 
single soldo more. Those who are disposed to pay liberally are sure to be 
victimised. In order to avoid misunderstandings , the driver should be 
asked to repeat the given direction before starting ('avete capito dove dovete 
andare'). In case of altercations, application should be made to the nearest 
policeman (p. 20), or at the office of the Corso Pubblico on the first floor 
of the Municipio. — A careful study of the tramway and omnibus routes 
given below will render the traveller practically independent of cabs. 

Cab Fares. — a. Within the City proper, extending W. to the Mer- 
gellina, N. to the Tondo di Capodimonte (PI. D, E, 1), and E. to the Ponte 
della Maddalena (to the E. of the Castel del Carmine; PI. H, 4). 

Open one-horse carriage ('carrozzella', for two By day By night 
persons, or three at most): (Midnight to 

Per drive — 70 c. 1 fr. 10 c. 

By time (generally disadvantageous), first hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. 10 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 10 c. 1 fr. 50 c. 

Closed one-horse carr. (vetture-coupe'e), per drive 1 fr. — 1 fr. 50 c. 

By time: first hour 2 fr. — 2 fr. 50 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. — 

With two horses: per drive 1 fr. 40 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

First hour 2 fr. 20 c. 3 fr. 20 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 70 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

Each box from the station to the town 20 c, smaller articles free, 
(b) Outside the Citt -. — One-horse Two-horse Coupee 

Villaggio di Posilipo 1. 50 2. 25 1. 75 

Villaggio di Fuorigrolla 1. 20 1. 75 1. 50 

Bagnoli and Lago d'Agnano (Dog Qrolto) 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Arenella, Antignano, Vomero, S. Martino, 

or Villaggio di Capodimonte .... 1. 50 2. 25 1. 75 

Miano, Marianella 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Campo di Marie or Cim<-tero Nuovo . . 1. 50 2. 25 2. 25 

Portici 1. 75 2. 50 2. 10 

Resina 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Torre del Greco 2. 50 3. 75 3. — 

S. Giorgio a Cremano or Barra ... 1. 75 2. 50 2. 10 

These are the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Un- 
less a special bargain be made, the fares from other stands are 70 c. to 1 fr. 
20 c. in excess of the above. For longer excursions, an agreement should 
be made with the driver beforehand. On being informed of the distance 
of the intended drive , he generally makes an extravagant demand. In 
answer , the hirer offers what he considers a fair sum , and quietly with- 
draws if the driver objects. This course seldom fails to produce the de- 
sired result. On Sundays and holidays the fares are somewhat higher. 

Tramways in the town. — Fare 15-30c, according to the distance. 
The 2nd class seats, which are cheaper by 5 c, should be avoided. 

1 (Horse Cars). From the Post Office (PI. F, 5) across the Pi- 
azza del Municipio (PI. F, 6), by the Via S. Carlo, the Piazza or Largo 
S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 38), Piazza del Plebiscite, Strada S. Lucia (PI. E, 
J?,l),Chiaja, past La Torretta (junction of the tramway to Pozzuoli, see 

24 Route 3. NAPLES. Tramways. 

p. 24) through the Mergellina, and past the Palazzo di Donn? Anna to the 
trattoria Stella di Posilipo (p. 22)..: 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Largo S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 38), by 
the Piazza del Municipio (PI. F, 6), Strada del Piliero (PI. F, G, 6, 5), etc., 
past the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 4; p. 41), to Portici(\>. 117; every 10 
min.) and Torre del Oreco (p. 119; every 2Umin.). 

3 (Horse Cars). From the Largo S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 38) as 
above to the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 4; p. 41), then to the N. through 
the Corso Garibaldi past the Central Station (PI. H, 3) to the Porta Capu- 
ana (PI. H, 3; p. 54), and by the Strada Carbonara (PI. G, 3), Slrada 
Foria, and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, F, 3 ; p. 60). 

4 (Horse Cars). From the Reclusorio (PI. G, H, 2, 1) by the Strada 
Foria and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, F, 3; p. 60). 

5 (Horse Cars). From the Reclusorio (PI. G, H, 2, 1) through the 
Borgo S. Antonio and the Corso Garibaldi (PI. H, 3, 4), and past the Castel 
del Carmine, to the Torretta (see below). 

6 (Steam Tramway). From the Museum (PL E, F, 3) by a rack-and-pinion 
line through the Via Salvator Rosa (PI. E, D, 3) to the Piazza Salvator 
Rosa (PI. E, D, 3, 4) ; then by ordinary steam-tramway along the whole 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PL D, 4, 5 ; E, 5, 6 ; D, C, B, 6 ; B, 7) to La Torretta 
(PI. B, 7). Trains (24 daily in each direction) about every 40 min., from 
6.40 and 7 a.m., performing the journey in 50 min. (fare 15-30 c.). The 
train stops as required, but there are fixed stations at the Piazza Salvator 
Rosa, Vico Cariati (PI. E, 5), and Rione Amedeo. 

A Cable Tramway (Ferrovia Funicolare) from S. Pasquale (PI. C, 6) 
to the top of the Vomero (PI. C, 5) was opened in 1889. Another from 
Monte Santo (PL D, 4) to S. Elmo (p. 93) is under construction. 

Tramways in the Environs. — 1 (Horse Cars). The line mentioned 
above (No. 2) to Portici and Torre del Greco. 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Porta CapUana (beside the railway-station 
for Nola, PI. H, 3) by the Strada Nuova di Poggio Reale (PL H, 3, 2) 
to the Camposanto (p. 55). 

3 (Steam Tramway). From the Porta Capuana to the Tiro a Segno 
(PI. H, 1), and via Capodichino, S. Pietro a Patierno, Casoria, Afragola, 
and Cardito to Caivano (every l-l'/a hr.). 

4 (Steam Tramway). From the Porta Capuana (as in No. 3) to Capo- 
dichino, and via Secondigliano, Melito (branch to Giugliano), to Aversa 
(p. 214), every 2 hrs. 

5 (Steam Tramway). From La Torretta (PL B, 7 ; steam-tramway 
from the Museum, see above) through the new Grotte di Pozzuoli to Poz- 
zuoli (p. 101). The cars are drawn from the Largo S. Ferdinando (p. 23) by 
horses and are attached to the locomotive at La Torretta, so that 
passengers need not alight. To make sure of a seat it is advisable to take 
the car from the Largo S. Ferdinando. 

Omnibuses. Fare on all the lines , 20 c. for a whole route , 10 c. for 
half. The chief starting-point is the Largo S. Ferdinando (PL E, 6; 
p. 38), whence among others start the omnibuses (every 5 min.) ascend- 
ing the Toledo to the Museum (PL E, F, 3), and plying thence to Capodimonte 
(PL E, 1); those skirting the harbour and passing through the Strada del 
Duomo to the Museum, or under the Ponle della Sanita (PL E, 2) to S. 
Maria della Vita; and those (ev. 20 min.) by the Via Amedeo to the Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele. Another line plies from the Post Office (PI. F , 4) via 
the Largo Vitloria to the Mergellina. — The omnibuses plying from the 
Piazza del Municipio to the environs are not recommended to strangers. 

Boats. Charges vary according to circumstances. Boat with four row- 
ers about 15 fr. per day. Row in the harbour I-IV2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. 
for each additional hour. A previous agreement should be made. Boats to 
the mail-steamers, 1 fr. ; to the Ischia, Sorrento, and Capri steamers 30 c. 
— A large steamer, starting at the new wooden bridge in the Via Carac- 
ciolo, makes Circular Tours in the Gulf of Naples on Sun. evenings in 
summer (weather permitting). Fares from 6.30 till 8, 1 fr. ; from 9.30 
till midnight, 2 fr. 

Baths. NAPLES. 3. Route. 25 

c. Bankers, Money Changers, Consulates, Physicians, Hospitals, Baths, 
Post and Telegraph Office, English Church, etc. 

Bankers. A. Levy et Comp. , Palazzo Cavalcante, Toledo 348; W. J. 
Turner & Co., S. Lucia 64; Meuricoffre et Comp., Piazza del Municipio 52; 
Minasi & Arlotta, Strada Montoliveto 37; Holme & Co., Strada Flavio 
Gioia 2; Felice Hermann, Piazza del Municipio 15. ; Th. Cook & Son, Piazza 
dei Martiri 52. Bills of exchange and foreign cheques must be stamped 
on presentation 'for payment with a 'bollo straordinario\ obtainable at 
the Uffizio del Bollo Straordinario in the Municipio. 

Honey Changers, employed by the banks for public convenience, 
are stationed at several of the most frequented parts of the streets. Small 
amounts of 1-2 fr. may be exchanged here gratuitously for copper. In 
changing silver, the traveller should beware of false or obsolete coins (see 
p. xi). No other banknotes should be taken than the Biglietti di Stato, 
or those of the Banca Nazionale and the Banco di Napoli. The change 
should of course be counted. In order to avoid imposition and many a trial 
of patience, the traveller should always be well provided with copper coins. 

Consulates. American (Mr. Camphausen), 04 Strada S. Lucia (11-3); 
Austrian, Via Medina 5; British (Capt. Hartwell, R.N.), 4 Monte di Dio, 
Pizzofalcone (10-3); Danish, Pal. Fraia, Via Amedeo; Norwegian and Swe- 
dish, Str. Vittoria29; Dutch, Piazza del Municipio 52; French, Via Poerio 
34; German, Str. Brigida 6; Russian, Via Umberto I. 16; Swiss, Piazza 
del Municipio 15- 

Physicians. Dr. C. Wright Barringer, Riviera di Chiaja 267; Dr. Johnston 
Lavis, Chiatamone 7; Dr. Gairdner , Pal. Fraia, Via Amedeo 128; Dr. Can- 
tani (of Prague), director of the Clinica Medica at the university, Str. 
Fuoriporta Medina 23 ; Dr. Malbranc, Via Amedeo 145, Palazzo Grifeo ; Dr. 
Schriin, professor of anatomy at the university, Palazza Montemiletto, (Jorso 
Vitt. Emanuele 440 (hour of consultation 9-10); Dr. Obenaus, physician of 
the German hospital (see below), Palazzo Cassano, Str. Monte di Dio 14 a 
Pizzofalcone ; Dr. Imfeld, Eldorado, Piazza Mondragone ; Dr. Scotti (oculist), 
physician to the International Hospital (see below); Dr. Tommasi, S. Potito 
22 ; Dr. Cardarelli, Strada Costantinopoli 33 ; Dr. De Martini, Strada Trinita 
Maggiore, Pal. Cassaro ; Dr. Ernesto Chiaradia, 31 Bisignano (speaks English). 
— Dentists. Dr. Kessel, Piazza dei Martiri 19; Dr. Atkinson, Piazza S. Fer- 
dinando 48; Dr. Middleton (American), Hotel Royal des Etrangers. 

Chemists. Kernot , Strada S. Carlo 14; Farmacia Inter nazionale, Via 
Calabritto 4; Anglo-American Pharmacy (J. Durst), Piazza Garofalo a 
Chiaja 31 ; Berncastel, Piazza Carolina 24 (above the Piazza del Plebis- 
cito). Homeopathic Druggist, Toledo 388. — Drug-dealers, Fratelli Hermann, 
Piazza del Municipio 73. — Surgical and Hygienic Articles, Mineral Water, etc., 
H. Petersen, Strada S. Anna dei Lombardi 49, near the post-office. 

Hospitals. In the event of serious illness travellers are strongly re- 
commended to procure admission to one or other of the following hospi- 
tals: (1) Ospedale Internazionale, Villa Bentinck, Via Tasso (PI. B, 6), in 
a most healthy situation, supported by voluntary contributions, and open 
to strangers of all nationalities, under the superintendence of Dr. Scotti 
(1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 6 fr. perday); (2) Ospedale Tedesco, Cappella Vecchia 
18, superintendent, Dr. Obenaus. 

Baths. Warm: "Bains du Chiatamone, also Russian and Turkish baths ; 
Bagni delta Pace, entrance between Nos. 16 and 18 Strada della Pace, 
near Chiatamone (bath in summer 1 fr., in winter 1 fr. 50 c; six baths 
in summer 4 fr., in winter 6 fr. ; gratuity for each bath 2 soldi). Others 
near the Hotel de Rome at S. Lucia; Vico Belle Donne a Chiaja 12 and 
Loggia Berio alia Speranzella, both belonging to a Swiss proprietor; Via 
Bellini 44-46; Calata S. Marco a Fontana Medina 6. — Sea-Bathing in sum- 
mer. The most frequented place is beyond the Villa Nazionale, but as the 
drains of the town empty themselves in the vicinity, the water is not very 
clean. A better place is at the Posilipo near the Villa Monplaisir, imme- 
diately beyond the precincts of the city; large cabinet l'/z fr. with towels, 
small cabinet 60 c. ; fee 5 c. 

Lieux d'Aisanoe {Latrine Pubbliche ; 10 c.) at the Villa, by the egress 

26 Route 3. NAPLES. Shops. 

towards the sea, near the large fountain ; also by the promontory of S. 
Lucia, to which a flight of steps descends, to the left; at the harbour, 
near the Immacolatella; in the Toledo, to the left of the Museum; at the 
Eeclusorio ; in the Piazza del Plebiscito , to the left of the colonnades; 
on the stairs ascending to the Ponte di Chiaja. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Gravina (PI. F, 4), Strada 
Montoliveto. Branch Offices in the Piazza S. Caterina a Chiaja, the rail- 
way-station, Str. del Duomo 58, at the Immacolatella on the quay (PI. Gr, 5), 
in the Ospedale del Sacramento , Via Salvator Rosa 287, in the Torretta 
(PI. B, 7), opposite the Museo Nazionale (p. 60). Letters should be posted 
at the branch-offices 2 hrs., and at the general post-office 1 hr. before the 
departure of the mail-train for which they are intended. — The chief 
Telegraph Office, on the first floor of the Palazzo Gravina, is open day 
and night. Branch Offices: Str. S. Giacomo 42, Str. del Duomo 136, 
Corso Garibaldi 45, nearly opposite the station, and Piazza Garofalo a 
Chiaja 12. 

English Church (Christ Church), in the Strada S. Pasquale, leading out 
of the Riviera di Chiaja, on the site presented to the English residents 
by Garibaldi when dictator in 1860; service on Sun. at 11a.m. and 3. 
15. p.m. ; on Wed., Frid., and festivals at 11 a.m. ; chaplain, Rev. H. T. Barff, 
Villa Scoppa, Parco Grifeo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele. — Presbyterian Church 
(Chiesa Scozzese), Vico Cappella Vecchia 2 ; service on Sun. at 11 a. m. 
and 3.30 p. m., on Wed. at 3 p. m. (Rev. T. Johnstone Irving). — Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church, Vico S. Anna di Palazzo; English service at 11 
(Rev. T. W. S. Jones). — Baptist Church, Strada Foria 175 (Rev. R. Walker; 
service at 11). — Floating Bethel ('Victoria''), in the harbour; service at 
b.30. • — Italian Service of the Waldensian Church, S. Tommaso d' Aquino, 
Vico Portaria a Toledo, on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 7 p. m. — French and 
German Protestant Church , Strada Carlo Poerio , Piazza dei Martiri 
(PI. D, 6). 

The Evangelical Schools for Italian children (supported by the Evan- 
gelical Aid Committee), in the building connected with the Presbyterian 
Church (see above) and at the Waldensian Church (see above) , may 
be visited on Monday forenoons , 9-12. — A visit to the Kindergarten 
School in the Ex-Collegio Medico, Largo S. Aniello, may also be found 

English Reading Room, Terza Traversa Partenope 1. — The Naples 
Observer is a small English newspaper, published weekly (price 10c.) and 
sold by FurchlH'im (see below). 

d. Shops. 

Gloves, coral, tortoise-shell, and lava ornaments may be mentioned 
as specialities of Naples. Copies of ancient bronzes, Etruscan vases, 
etc., are also well executed here. Bargaining is absolutely necessary in 
order to prevent extortion. If a number of different articles are bought 
in one shop, a round sum should be offered for the lot, 25-30 per cent 
below the aggregate of the single prices. Those who know something of 
the language will of course buy to the best advantage. The buyer should 
be careful to maintain a polite and unexcited demeanour. 

Antique Bronzes. Copies may be obtained in the photograph-shops 
of Sommer, Scala, Amodio, etc. (Narcissus 100-150 fr. ; Dancing Faun 130- 
160 fr.). The bronzes executed by Sabalino de Angelis, Strada Nuova di 
Capodimonte , are said to be especially good; specimens may be bought 
in the GaJleria Principe di Napoli (p. 43), near the Cafe Santangelo. — 
The green bronzes are cheaper than the copper-coloured. 

Antiquities. Large store in the Palazzo Nunziante, in the Piazza dei 
Martiri; Baron e , Str. Trinita Maggiore 6, first floor, nearly opposite S. 
Cliiara; Scognamiglio, Via Gigante 20, etc. 

Booksellers. Furchheim, Piazza dei Martiri 59, English and foreign 
books, newspapers, photographs, etc. ; Delken & Rocholl, Piazza del Ple- 

Bookrindkr, Bianconeini, Toledo 149. 

Shops. NAPLES. 3. Route. 27 

Bronzes, see Antique Bronzes. 

Chemists, see p. 25. 

Coral and Lava, Cameos, Gold Ornaments. Achille Squadrilli, Piazza 
Vittoria, opposite the entrance to the Villa Nazionale, an old-established 
house with a large assortment and fixed prices (5 per cent discount allow- 
ed). "Casalta, Piazza dei Martiri 7, gold ornaments after Pompeian 
models ; Rocco Morabito , Piazza dei Martiri 32 ; Merlino , Strada del 
Gigantel8; M. Piscione, Riviera di Chiaja 271; N. Piscione, Str. Calabritto 
35; Giacinto Melillo, Riviera di Chiaja 286; Be Caro, S. Lucia 70. — 
Cameos : Stella, Str. Pace 9 (portraits in lava, coral, etc.). — The so-called 
lava-ornaments are manufactured of a kind of calcareous tufa, also found 
on Mount Vesuvius, having been probably thrown up by former erup- 
tions, and presenting various tints of grey, brown, greenish, and reddish 

Gloves. Numerous shops in the Strada di Chiaja. 

Haberdashers & Hosiers. Ville de Londres, Strada Chiaja 198; Haardt 
<t Fits, Toledo 189 & Via Calabritto. 

Hairdresser, see Perfumer. 

Marbles op Vitulano. These beautiful coloured marbles, from the 
quarries which furnished the adornments of the grand staircase at Caserta 
(p. 10), may be seen at Piazza Cavour 54, near the Museum. 

Millinert. Ricco, Piazza dei Martiri 30, 1st floor; Gutteridge d- Co., 
Toledo 192 and Salita Museo 92-94; Goudstikker d Fils, Piazza S. Orsola a 
Chiaja; Jourdan, Strada di Chiaja 209, first floor; Shilton d Co., in the 
prolongation of the Strada S. Brigida; AW Unione delle Fabbriche, Strada 

Mcsic, see Pianos. 

Opticians. Heinemann, Toledo (Via Boma) 213; Tayeor, Chiaja 4; Angela 
Ochs, Toledo 314; Schnabel, Toledo 231 ; Talbot, Chiaja 215; Betlanini, 
Toledo 381 and 146. 

Perfumers. Zempt, Str. Calabritto 33 (the pleasant, soft Neapolitan 
soap is sold here); Fwlai, Strada di Chiaja; Aubry, adjoining the Cafe 
d'Europe (p. 22). 

Photographs. Furchheim (p. 26); Sommer, Largo Vittoria; Scala, 
S. Lucia 73; Amodio, Via Vittoria 16; all of these also sell bronzes, terra- 
cottas, etc.; Achille Mauri, Toledo 256; Giac. Brogi of Florence, Strada 
Chiatamone 19bis. 

Pianos (also for hire). G. Helzel, Strada di Chiaja 138; Wilhelmi, Str. 
di Chiapa 31 ; Vitt. Giuliano, Via Montoliveto 61 ; Be Meglio , Vico Lungo 
Celzo 53. — Music : Societa Musicale Napoletana (German manager), Strada 
Chiaja 226; Cottrau, Chiaja 73; Ricordi, Toledo 229. — Music Masters, very 
numerous; addresses obtained at the music-shops. 

Shoemakers. Finoja, Strada Gaetano Filangieri (Str. Alabardieri) 53 ; 
Baldelli, Strada di Chiaja 169; De Notaris, Str. di Chiaja 189; Calzoleria 
Reale di M. Forte, Toledo 259, Piazza del Municipio 4, etc. 

Stationers. Richter (lithographer), Colonnade di S. Francesco di Paola 
10-12 and Toledo 309; Battes, Via S. Giuseppe 25 and Strada di Chiaja 81 ; 
Tipaldi, Str. Montoliveto 51 (artists' requisites); Furchheim (p. 26). 

Straw - Plaiting from Ischia, where this industry has been intro- 
duced since the earthquake of 1883 : Bavoro e Caritd, Chiaja 84. 

Tailors. Bennon & Murray (English), Str. Calabritto 2; Scocca, Via 
Gennaro Serra 24 (ascending at the back of the Birreria Dreher); Kieper, 
Str. Montoliveto 61 ; Plassenel, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 72. 

Tortoise Shell. Squadrilli, Piazza Vittoria (see above) ; M. Babriola, 
Via Calabritto 41 ; B. Babriola, Str. Chiatamone 23bis ; Tagliaferri, Strada 
Calabritto 43. Also at the numerous and attractive little shops in the 
street near the Teatro S. Carlo, leading to the Piazza del Municipio. 

Umbrellas and Fans. Gilardini, Toledo 335; Be Martina, Strada di 
Chiaja 210. 

Vases, Majolica, Terracottas, and Statuettes (of Neapolitan fig- 
ures, very characteristic): Industria Ceramica Napoletana, Via Chiaja 5; 
Caceiapuoli, Via Chiaja 84; Ginori, No. 31 in the continuation of the Strada 

28 Route 3. NAPLES. Theatres. 

S. Brigida; Scala, S. Lucia 73; Mollica, Strada del Gigante 17. Also at 
several of the photograph-shops (see p. 27). 

Watchmakers. Gutwenger, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 66; Wyss, Str. S. 
Brigida 47; Chinet, Strada Guercia 20; Ricci <t Franconeri, Piazza S. Fer- 
dinando 47; Lista, Via S. Brigida 7. 

Wood Carvings from Sorrento: Gargiulo (p. 161), Via Calabritto 5. 

Goods Agents. Hugo Petersen, Via Santa Anna dei Lombardi 
49; G. Questa d- Co., Grande Piliero 32; H. Humbert, Via Vittoria 29; 
Grimaldi, S. Brigida 15; in the last two railway and steamboat-tickets are' 
also issued. 

e. Theatres, Street Scenes, Religious and National Festivals. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxii). The *Teatro S. Carlo (p. 3), one of the 
largest theatres in Europe, contains six tiers of boxes, 32 in each. Operas 
and ballet only ; Parterre 6 fr. (fauteuil 12 fr.); boxes, 1st tier 55 fr., 
2nd tier 65 fr., 3rd 40 fr., and so on. — Teatro del Fondo (or Merca- 
dante), in the Piazza del Municipio. Pieces in dialect; opera in summer. 
Parterre 2 fr. (fauteuil 4 fr.); boxes, 1st tier 15 fr., 2nd tier 20 fr., etc. — 
Teatro Nuovo, in the Vico del Teatro Nuovo, a side-street of the To- 
ledo. Comic opera. — Teatro Bellini, Strada Bellini (P1.E,F,3), entrance 
by the Via Conte di Ruvo. Dramas and operas. Parterre 2 fr.; boxes 6, 10, 
14 fr., etc. — Teatro Rossini, Strada fuori Porta Medina. Comedies and 
operas. — Teatro Sannazako, Str. di Chiaja. Dramas and comedies; a 
good company. Parterre 3 fr. — Teatro Politeama, Strada Monte di Dio. 
Musical entertainments, operettas, circus. — Teatro Fiorentini (PI. 
F, 5), in the street of that name. Dramas. Parterre 1 fr. 20 c, fauteuil 
2 fr. 70c, boxes, 1st tier 11 fr., 2nd tier 12 fr., etc. — Teatro delle 
Follie, at the Castello del Carmine (PI. H, 4). Farces. — Teatro Fenice, 
Piazza del Municipio; Teatro S. Carlino, Piazza del Porto, at the end of 
the Str. del Castello ; Teatro Petrella, Str. Flavia Gioia. At these farces 
and dialect pieces. The Mercadante, Fenice, Nuova, and some other 
theatres give two performances daily : at 7 (lower charges) and at 9.30. — 
The visitor may become acquainted at two Popular Theatres in the 
Strada Foria (PI. G, 2) with 'Pulcinella', the 'Punch and Judy' of the 
Neapolitans, to whom the spectacle is an unfailing source of amusement. 
These performances are said to derive their origin from the ancient Oscan 
comedy of Atella. Those who have some knowledge of the Neapolitan 
dialect will find them not beneath their notice. Acerra (p. 11) is said to 
be the original home of Pulcinella. At Christmas and Easter curious reli- 
gious plays are performed in these theatres. — The numerous Marionette 
Theatres, in the Strada Foria and elsewhere, with their bloodthirsty plays 
of melodramatic chivalry, are also characteristic. 

Street Scenes. — The life of the people in Naples is carried on with 
greater freedom and more careless indifference to publicity than in any 
other town in Europe. From morning till night the streets resound with 
the cries of the vendors of edibles and other articles. Strangers especially 
are usually besieged by swarms of hawkers, pushing their wares, and all 
eager and able to take full advantage of the inexperience of their victims. 
The most medley throng is seen in the Toledo (p. 42), especially towards 
evening and after the lamps are lit. At fixed hours the importunate 
tribe of [Giornalisti or newsvendors makes itself heard , and late in the 
evening appear the lanterns of the Trovatori, hunting for cigar-ends and 
similar unconsidered trifles. The Strada del Castello or di Porto (PI. E,5), 
opposite the Castello Nuovo (p. 41), is another centre of popular life. 
A double row of awnings stretches in front of the houses, and itinerant 
cooks set up their stoves and drive a brisk trade in fish, meat, or maccaroni, 
while in the Calata di S. Marco (to the left) other dealers tempt the crowd 
with fragments from the trattorie or trays of carefully assorted cigar-ends. 
The narrow side-streets between the Mercato (p. 41) and the Mercato del 
Pendiuo (PI. G, 4), especially in the forenoon, also afford most character- 
istic studies of the humbler city life. Every Monday and Friday morning 
the streets in the neighbourhood of the Porta Nolana (PI. H, 4) break 

Festivals. NAPLES. 3. Route. 29 

out in a curious and animated rag-fair, where all kinds of old clothes 
change hands. The vicinity of the Porta Capuana (PI. H, 3) is another 
centre of variegated life and bustle. This is a haunt of the Public Readers, 
who are also to he regularly seen about 4 p.m. at the Villa del Popolo 
(p. 41), opposite the Castello del Carmine; Quack Doctors extol their nos- 
trums in interminable harangues, which they punctuate by drawing teeth ; 
and not seldom Funeral Processions pass, escorted (as at Rome, Flor- 
ence, etc.) by the fantastically disguised members of the brotherhood 
to which the deceased has belonged. The gorgeous coffins, however, 
which appear in the processions, are usually empty, the corpse having 
as a rule been previously conveyed to the cemetery. During the weeks 
before Christmas hundreds of so-called Zampognari perambulate the streets, 
playing their bag-pipes and flutes before the shrines of the Madonna, but 
all disappearing before Christmas Day. — The Corso, mentioned at p. 85, 
takes place in the afternoon in winter, and in the evening in summer, in 
the Via Caracciolo, near the Villa Nazionale. — The numerous restaurants 
and eating-houses on the Posilipo (p. 93), at Fuorigrotla (p. 90), etc., are 
filled every fine Sunday afternoon with gay crowds , amusing themselves 
with songs and careless merriment. — The herds of goats which are 
driven into the town every morning and evening will also attract 
the stranger's interest. The animals enter the houses and ascend even 
to the highest story to be milked. Cows are also driven through the 
streets at the same hours, and are milked by the herdsmen at the doors of 
the houses. 

Shoe-blacks ('lustrini' or 'lustrascarpe'), whose knocking is intended to 
attract passers-by, 10 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (cerini , 5 c.) is a desirable acquisition , as 
matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of Iced Water (acquaiuoli) in summer are usually provided 
with two large tubs filled with snow, in which the water is cooled, and 
a supply of lemons, etc. (2-10 c). The excellent Serino water (p. 46). 
however, is to be preferred to these beverages, the water in which is of 
unknown origin. — There are also several mineral springs in the town, 
containing sulphur, iron, and carbonic acid gas; the best known is at S. 
Lucia. The water has a slightly medicinal effect, but the smell is dis- 
agreeable (5 c. per glass). 

Newspapers (5 c. each). The most important are: the Corriere di 
Napoli, published morning and evening, and the Roma, about noon; in 
the evening II Piccolo and the popular II Pungolo (il pungolo = a goad 
for driving cattle). 'E uscit 'o pung', or 'volit 'o pice' (the o being strongly 
emphasised), i. e. 'e uscito lo Pungolo', or 'volete lo Piccolo' (lo being the 
Neapolitan form of the article il) are calls which resound everywhere 
between 8 and 10 p. m.). 

The Religious and National Festivals have lost much of their former 
significance, but the more important are still extremely interesting. The 
Festival of the Veegine di Piedigkotta (p. 89 ; Sept. 7-8th), celebrated 
until 1859 with great magnificence in memory of the victory of Charles III. 
over the Austrians at Velletri in 1735, was formerly the greatest of all, 
but has now become chiefly a night-festival, celebrated, sometimes in an 
uproarious manner, in and around the Grotta di Posilipo (p. 93). — A more 
interesting sight is now presented on Whitmonday by the Return of the 
Pilgkims from the shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vergine near Avellino 
(P- 187)^ The Neapolitan pilgrims (often 20,000 in number) return to the 
town via Nola in a gay procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians 
of old, and is welcomed by crowds which take up position about 5 p.m. 
in the streets skirting the harbour. On the following day the pilgrims 
proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna dell' Akco, 6 M. from 
Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they again return in pro- 
cession in the most exuberant spirits. — On Maundy Thursday until late 
at night, and on Good Friday morning, the Toledo is thronged with ped- 
estrians taking part in a sort of ceremonial promenade, known as Lo 
Stbuscio, from the rustling of the silk garments. The shops are all bril- 
liantly dressed and lighted, and no carriages are allowed to enter the street. 

30 Route 3. NAPLES. Disposition of Time. 

— On Ascension Day the festival of the Madonna of the baths of Scafati 
( p. 173) takes place near Pompeii. — On 15th Aug. is celebrated the festival 
of Capodimonte. — On the last Sunday in August the Fishermen's Festival 
at S. Lucia (p. 36) presents many interesting scenes. — The so-called 
Ottoorate (excursions with gaily decorated horses and carriages) take place 
every Sun. and Thurs. in October. — The Horse Races, which take place 
on the Tuesday and Thursday after Easter, in the Campo di Marte, are 
practically another great popular festival, at which the Neapolitan nobility 
appear in handsome four-horse drags and coaches. — An enormous crowd 
assembles in the cemeteries on 2nd Nov. (All Souls 1 Day). — Other festi- 
vities of a more strictly ecclesiastical character are celebrated at Christ- 
mas, Easter, on Ascension Day, on the festivals of Corpus Christi (Fete de 
Dieu), St. Anthony, and above all on that of St. Januarius in May, Sep- 
tember, and December. The Good Friday procession at Sorrento (p. 163) 
and the procession on Corpus Christi Day at Torre del Greco (p. 119) are 
particularly worth seeing. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Festa dello Sta(uto), of more 
recent origin, is celebrated throughout Italy on the first Sunday of June. 
In the forenoon military parade in the Piazza del Plebiscite; in the even- 
ing illumination of public buildings. 

The Carnival, which, however, does not take place every year, is seen 
to best advantage in the Toledo and near the Royal Palace. On the after- 
noon of Ash Wednesday merry entertainments take place in the trattorie 
at Posilipo and the other environs. 

The drawing of the Tombola or Lotto, which takes place every Sat. 
at 4 p.m., in the Via Mezzocannone (PI. F, 4), always attracts a large con- 
course of spectators. 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult to 
offer a suggestion-, the taste and inclination of the individual must here 
more than almost anywhere else . decide the question. Suffice it to ob- 
serve that within a period of ten days all the most interesting points 
may be visited, whilst many months may be delightfully spent in explor- 
ing the incomparable beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, 
it should be devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town con- 
tains few objects of interest, with the exception of the Museum and one 
or two of the churches. Choice of season, see pp. xxiii, xxiv. 

The Chief Sights of the city may be seen hastily in 3-4 days. The 
mornings may be devoted to the churches, the middle of the day to the 
Museum, and the afternoons to walks or drives in the neighbourhood. 
The evening may then be spent at the Villa Nazionale or in the theatre. 
The following are specially worthy of mention: — 

"Museo Nazionale (p. 60), daily 9-3 o'clock, in winter 10-4, admission 
1 fr., Sundays until 1 p.m. gratis. 

Museo Filangieri (p. 59), Tues. & Sat. 10.30-1.30 free; other times 1/2-I fr- 

Museum and Church of S. Martina (p. 97), with *View, 10-4, admission 
1 fr., Sun. 9-2 free. 

"Aquarium (p. 87), adm. daily 2 fr., in July and August 1 fr., on Sun- 
day and holiday afternoons half-price ; season-tickets at the office. 

Catacombs (p. 44) daily, admission 1 fr. 

Palaces: Reale (p. 37), Capodimonte (p. 45). 

Churches: 'Cathedral, best seen about noon (p. 56); *Sta. Chiara (p. 49); 
"S. Domenico, 7-11 a.m. (p. 50); 'Montoliveto (p. 48) ; "LTncoronata, 
early in the morning (p. 47); Cloisters of S. Severino (p. 53); S. Gio- 
vanni (p. 55); S. Maria del Carmine (p. 41); S. Lorenzo (p. 59); S. Paolo 
Maggiore (p. 59). 

Views : **Camaldoli (p. 96), ,: Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 93), Via Tasso 
(p. 93). — **S. Martino (p. 91), "Campo Santo (p. 55). — *Villa Nazionale, 
in the afternoon or (in summer) evening (p. 86). 

Most of the Excursions in the Environs (RR. 4-11) may be made 
from Naples in one day, but both time and money may often be econo- 

History. NAPLES. 3. Route. 31 

mised if the traveller combines several of them so as to avoid the ne- 
cessity of returning to Naples every evening. Those who intend to 
explore the surrounding scenery should therefore give up their rooms at 
Naples, hut leave behind them all superfluous luggage, in order that 
they may start on their tour unfettered. In making these excursions it 
is generally advantageous to travel as a member of a party of 3-4 per- 
sons, hy whom carriage and boat fares, fees, and other expenses are shared. 
In this case too 'pension 1 charges may often be stipulated for at the hotels 
for a stay of even one or two days (6-10 fr. for board and lodging). 

Small Change is even more frequently required in the environs of 
Naples than in the city itself. Contributions are levied on the traveller 
on every possible occasion, whether for admission to a point of view, 
or for leave to cross a field, or for services rendered. An abundant supply 
of small silver and copper should therefore be procured at a money- 
changer's (p. 25) before starting. 

A week or a fortnight may be very pleasantly spent as follows : — 

Pozzuoli, Baiae, Capo Miseno (R. 4) I-IV2 day. 

Procida and Itchia (R. 5) IV2 ,, 

Ascent of Mt. Vesuvius (R. 7), Herculaneum (p. 115). 1 ,, 

Pompeii (R. 8) >/2-l ,, 

Castellammare, Sorrento, Capri (R. 9) 2-3 ,, 

Salerno, Paestum, Amalfi (R.. 10) 2-3 ,, 

Caserta and Capua (pp. 7-10) 1 „ 

~6y242 — daylT" 

A visit to the islands, especially those of Procida and Ischia, should 
not be undertaken in winter unless the weather be calm and settled. 

Commissionnaires charge 6 fr. a day, or for a single walk 1 fr. ; but 
travellers who intend making purchases had better dispense with their ser- 
vices. Some of the best guides are Swiss and Germans. Johann Huber, Errico 
Huber (Hotel du Vesuve), Akermann, Hefti, Slaub, and others organise ex- 
cursions in the environs. Thus Huber generally escorts a party weekly to 
Amalfi, Ravello, and Psestum, the excursion lasting from Monday morning 
to Tuesday evening, and the charge, including quarters for the night, being 
50 fr. for each person. Trustworthy information may be obtained at the 
book-shops (p. 26). 

The excursions arranged by the well-known firm of Thos. Cook <{■ Son 
(agent, M. Fserber, a Swiss; office in the Piazza dei Martiri 52, PI. D, 
E, 7; p. 41) are now much in vogue, especially among the English tourists. 
Enquiries as to fares, etc., should be made at the office. The traveller 
necessarily surrenders much of his independence in these excursions. Messrs. 
Cook are the proprietors of the Ferrovia Funicolare del Vesuvio (p. 121). 

' Vedi Napoli e poi mori ! ' 
Naples , the capital of the former kingdom of Naples , now of a 
province, the seat of a prefect , of an archbishop and of the com- 
mander-in-chief of the 8th Italian army-corps, with 505, 143 inhab. 
(31st Dec, 1885), is the most populous town in Italy, and occupies 
one of the most beautiful situations in the world. The magnificent 
bay has from the most ancient times been the object of enthusiastic 
admiration , and it is annually visited by thousands of strangers in 
quest of enjoyment or health. In historical interest this part of 
the Italian peninsula is singularly deficient. Nature, it would 
appear , has so bountifully lavished her gifts on this favoured 
spot, that the energy and strength of the most powerful nations 
have invariably succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, Oscans, 
Romans, Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spaniards have 
in succession been masters of the place ; yet it has rarely attained 

32 Route 3. NAPLES. History. 

even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, art, or lite- 
rature. Those who have recognised in Florence the focus of the 
Italian Renaissance, in Rome the metropolis of a bygone age, in 
Venice and Genoa, and even in Pisa and Siena, the splendour of 
mediaeval republics, cannot but experience a feeling of disappoint- 
ment on beholding Naples. The dearth of handsome buildings and 
indigenous works of art creates a void, for which Herculaneum and 
Pompeii with their matchless treasures of antiquity alone in some 
measure compensate. The domestic architecture of the older part of 
Naples, the narrow, dingy streets, the high and narrow houses, with 
flat roofs and balconies in front of every window, are far from attrac- 
tive. The never-ending noise , the clatter of wheels at all hours of 
the day and night, the cracking of whips, braying of donkeys, and 
shrill shouting of hawkers , render Naples a most distasteful place, 
especially to those whose stay is limited. To these annoyances 
are added the insolent importunities of drivers, guides, street-ven- 
dors, beggars, etc., who often combine the most cringing manners 
with the grossest attempts at extortion. 

The History of theCityof Naples extends back to a very remote age. The 
origin and name of the city are Greek. About theyear B.C. 1056 .lEolians from 
Cbalcis in Euboea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Cumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Cumse the colony of Phaleron or Parthe- 
nope (named after the tomb of a Siren of that name, Plin. H. N. iii. 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times re-inforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the Wea- 
pons (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was named Palaeopolis (old city). The latter was probably situated 
on the Pizzofalcone (p. 35), whereas the site of Neapolis is bounded towards 
the E. by the present Castel Capuano (PI. G, 3; p. 54), to the N. by the 
Strada Orticello (PI. G, 3), to the W. by the Strada S. Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), 
and to the S. by the declivity towards the present harbour, between S. Gio- 
vanni Maggiore (PI. F, 5) and S. Maria Maddalena(to the E. of PI. H, 4). 
This distinction was maintained till the conquest of Palaeopolis by the Romans, 
B.C. 326. After that period Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the 
wars against Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and owing to the beauty of its 
situation it soon became a favourite residence of the Roman magnates. Lu- 
eullus possessed gardens here on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, 
where, in A.D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble monarch of the 
Western Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, 
and Virgil composed some of his most beautiful poetry here. The emperors 
Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw ofl the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca' maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in UdO it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university (1224), but seldom made Naples his residence. It was con- 
stituted the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou (1265-85) and 
was greatly extended by subsequent princes, especially by Ferdinand I. ot 
Yrragon (1458-94), the viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo (1532-53), and Charles III. 
of Bourbon (1748-59). — Since the annexation of Naples to the kingdom 
of Italy the population has remained almost stationary (I860: 517,UUU). 
The town itself, however, has within the last few years expanded with 
the most remarkable rapidity, particularly along the slope of the Posilipo, 

Site. NAPLES. 3. Route. 33 

where the Corso Umberto and other magnificent streets have grown up ; on 
the Vomero , to the W. ; and on the E. near the railway-station. New 
quarters are also projected on the heights and slopes at Piedigrotta, at 
Lucia, and on the Marinella (comp. p. 35). 

Naples, situated in 40° 51' N. latitude, lies on the N. side of 
the bay, which extends for about 35 M. from the Capo di Mi- 
seno, its N.W. boundary, to the Punta della Campanella, its S.E. 
limit, and is separated from the open sea by the islands of 
Procida and Ischia towards the N., and Capri towards the S. The 
S.E. side of the bay is formed by the Monte Sant'Angelo, a spur of 
the Apennines, 5000 ft. in height, which is connected with the 
island of Capri by a submarine reef of rock. The other sides 
of the bay are bounded by the Campanian plain , the surface of 
which has undergone numerous changes in consequence of vol- 
canic agency. In the middle of the plain between the chain of 
Sant'Angelo and the hilly district N. of Naples rises Mount Ve- 
suvius , dividing it into two distinct districts , the southern of 
which is intersected by the river Sarno, and the northern by 
the Sebeto. The plain, as well as the slopes of Vesuvius itself, 
is luxuriantly fertile, and one of the most densely peopled districts 
in the world. At the S.E. base of Mt. Vesuvius are situated the 
Ruins of Pompeii ; at its W. base, covered by several populous 
villages, Herculaneum. The N.W. side of the bay has for many 
ages been the scene of powerful volcanic agency. Naples, which 
stretches E. towards the plain, nearly to the Sebeto, is to a great 
extent situated on a slight volcanic eminence. This tract is iden- 
tical with the Campi Phlegraei, so frequently mentioned by the 
ancients, which extended from Naples to Cumae. They commence 
with the hills of the Madonna del Pianto, Capodichino, and 
Miradois towards the E., and also embrace those of Capodimonte, 
Scudillo, and S. Eremo as far as Pizzofalcone and Castello delV Ovo, 
and beyond these extend to the Vomero and the eminence of Posilipo. 
Tufa, mingled with fragments of lava, trachyte, pumice-stone, etc., 
is observed in all directions. Mineral springs and gaseous exhal- 
ations testify to the volcanic nature of the district. The chain of 
Posilipo, separating the bay from that of Pozzuoli, is united by a 
subaqueous ridge with the small island of Nisida, an extinct crater. 
Farther inland are situated the craters of Lago d' Agnano, Astroni, 
and Solfatara. On a promontory lies the town of Pozzuoli; farther 
along the coast is the volcanic Monte Nuovo, then the Lago 
Lucrino with the ruins of Baiae, behind which is the crater of 
Lago Averno and the site of ancient Cumae. Lastly, towards the 
S., are the Lago Fusaro and the hill of Misenum, with the Mare 
Morto and Porto Miseno. This range is connected with the 
pre-eminently volcanic islands of Procida, Vivara, and the more 
important Ischia with the extinct volcano Epomeo. 

The City lies at the base and on the slopes of several slight 
hills, rising from the sea in amphitheatre-like form. It is divided 

Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 3 

34 Route 3. NAPLES. Site. 

into two unequal parts by the heights of Capodimonte, S. Elmo, and 
Pizzofalcone , which terminate in the narrow ridge surmounted by 
the Castello dell'Ovo. To the S. E. of Capodimonte, and eastwards as 
far as the Sebeto, lies the greater and most ancient part of Naples, 
now the business quarter, intersected from N. to S. by the Toledo 
(now Via di Roma), the main street, which is continued towards 
the N. by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte. The most important 
streets in this quarter are the three which intersect the Toledo — 
the Strada S. Trinita Maggiore with its prolongation 8. Biagio de' 
Librai, the Via de' Tribunali , and the Strada Forla, the contin- 
uation of the Piazza Cavour; then the new Strada del Duomo, to 
the E. of the Toledo and nearly parallel with it; and lastly sev- 
eral broad new streets recently constructed on the E. side of the 
town. The most important open spaces are the Piazza del Ple- 
biscite and the Piazza del Municipio, recently much enlarged, from 
which diverges the broad Strada Medina. A handsome quay, 
called the Strada del Piliero and the Via Nuova, runs eastwards 
along the harbour as far as the Castel del Carmine. Near the 
castle is the Piazza del Mercato. The population of the whole of 
this part of the town is densely crowded, and it is now the anxious 
endeavour of the authorities to remedy the consequent physical and 
social evils (to which the terrible cholera epidemic of 1884 again 
bore sad witness), by the construction of new streets ('sventra- 
mento', i.e. cutting up) and commodious dwellings. A hundred 
million francs are to be devoted to this purpose. The construction 
of spacious and airy quarters has meanwhile gone in advance of the 
removal of the narrow and unhealthy streets. Entirely new quar- 
ters are already approaching completion , to the E. near the rail- 
way-station, to the W. on the Vomero, and to the N. near the Ponti 
Rossi; while others are projected on and about the heights of Pie- 
digrotta (for which the name Parco Savoia is proposed) , near 
S. Lueia, and at the Marinella. But these districts, which it is 
estimated will accommodate 100,000 inhab., are of no interest to 
the tourist. — The western and more modern quarter of the city 
is much smaller than the eastern, and is preferred by visitors owing 
to the superiority of its situation, air, and views. A broad quay, 
named the Via Caracciolo, the grounds of the Villa Nazionale, and 
the spacious new district with the Piazza and Corso Umberto ex- 
tend along the coast, while the Riviera di Chiaja, connected by 
the Strada di Chiaja with the Toledo, forms the lower boundary of 
the parts of the town stretching up the hills. Halfway up is the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, whence the Via Tasso diverges, ascending 
to the right. From theW. end of the Chiaja the Mergellina extends 
to Posilipo. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina to the barracks at 
the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Capodimonte 
to the Castel dell' Ovo 2 M. The squares are now called Piazze, 

Divisions. NAPLES. 3. Route. 35 

formerly Larghi ■ the principal streets are called Strode, the cross- 
streets Vichi ; the narrow lanes ascending the hills, and generally 
inaccessible to carriages, Calate or Salite, or when so precipitous as 
to require steps, Gradoni orRampe. The streets are all well paved, 
except as regards accommodation for foot-passengers. In 1885 a 
large aqueduct, theAcqua diSerino, was opened, supplying the city 
with water from the neighbourhood of Avellino (see pp. 45, 187). 

The city itself can boast of almost no Grseco-Roman antiquities 
(p. 58) , but (besides the churches) it possesses five forts (Castello 
>S. Elmo, delf Ovd, Nuovo , del Carmine, Capuano) and four gates 
(Porta del Carmine, Alba, Nolana, and Capuana) of mediaeval con- 
struction. The town has on the whole a modern appearance. 

Our description of the sights is arranged in topographical 
order, and is divided as follows : — 

1. The Side of the City next the Sea, from the Largo della Vit- 
toria (PI. D, 6) eastwards, round the Pizzofalcone , by 
S. Lucia, the Piazza del Plebiscite, and the Piazza del Muni- 
cipio, and along the quay to the S. E. angle of the town. 

2. The Toledo, with its side-streets, and the Capodimonte. 

3. The Old Town , to the E. of the Toledo , and between that 
street and the harbour. 

4. The Museum. 

5. The Modern Quarters (Chiaj a, Villa Nazionale , and Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele); also S. Martino and the Castel S. Elmo. 

6. The Posilipo, with Camaldoli and other points in the im- 
mediate environs. 

The traveller may again be reminded here that, if his time is 
limited, he had better disregard most of the sights within the town. 

I. Side of the City next the Sea, to the E. of the Pizzofalcone. 

The Largo della Vittoria (PL D, 7), an open space adorned 
with trees and a fountain, and recently enlarged on the side next 
the sea, in front of the Villa Nazionale, may be regarded as the 
central point of the strangers' quarter. The Via Partenope (PI. 
E, 7), a handsome quay constructed within the last ten years, 
and flanked by a number of new buildings, extends hence towards 
the E. along the coast. On our left rises the Pizzofalcone, a spur 
of the hill of S. Elmo, entirely covered with buildings and walls, 
around the base of which runs the Strada Chiatamone, a street par- 
allel with the quay and a little above it , with a number of hand- 
some hotels and other buildings. 

Dr. Johnston- Lavis, Chiatamone 7, possesses an admirable collection 
of the rocks and minerals of Mt. Vesuvius, which he obligingly shows to 
visitors interested in geology and mineralogy. 

From the S. end of the Pizzofalcone run out an embankment 
and bridge, connecting it with a small rocky island, the Megaris 


36 Route 3. NAPLES. Caatel dell' Ovo. 

of Pliny. On this island rises the Castello dell' Ovo , which in its 
present form dates from the time of the viceroy Don Pedro de To- 
ledo (1532-53). The name is due to its oval shape. 

William I. began to erect the fort in 1154, but the completion of his 
design fell to Frederick II., who used the edifice as a place of safety for 
his treasures. Charles I. enlarged the castle and frequently resided there. 
Robert the Wise (1309) caused the chapel to be adorned with frescoes by 
Giotto, and superintended the work in person, but of these no trace is 
left. Here Charles III. of Durazzo (1381) kept Queen Johanna I. prisoner, 
and was himself besieged. In 1495 Charles VIII. of France captured the 
castle, and under Ferdinand II. it was dismantled. It is now chiefly used 
as a prison. Visitors are usually admitted without challenge by the sen- 
tries, but the interior is of little interest. 

Farther on we reach the Strada di S. Lucia (PI. E, F, 7), once 
a dirty street, but enlarged and converted into a broad and pleasant 
quay since 1846. Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed here in 
perfection. The female members of the community are seen work- 
ing in the open air, going through their toilette, and performing 
various unpleasing acts of attention to their children , regardless 
of the public gaze. In warm weather the children often run about 
quite naked. On the side next the sea the oyster-stalls are 
established , where sea - urchins , crabs , and other delicacies , so 
expressively called frutti di mare by the Neapolitans, are also sold 
(comp. Introd., p. xxvi). The focus of this animated scene, however, 
is on the Promontory below, which is reached by a flight of steps, 
and is adorned with a fountain with figures by Domenico d'Auria 
and Giovanni da Nola. On fine summer-evenings, especially on 
Sundays, this spot is densely crowded, and presents a highly 
characteristic picture of Neapolitan life. There is also a favourite 
sulphureous spring here (p. 29). Adjoining the promontory is the 
small harbour whence the steamers for Capri start (p. 165). 

At the N. end of S. Lucia is a fountain, whence we ascend to 
the left by the Strada del Gigante , a street named after an 
ancient colossal statue of Jupiter once placed here. To the right, 
farther on, we look down on the stores of cannon and ammuni- 
tion in the courts of the arsenal (p. 40). In a straight direction 
we observe Fort S. Elmo, rising above the town, and we soon 
reach the finest square in Naples, the — 

Piazza del Plebiscito (PI. E, 6), which assumed its present 
form in 1810, after the demolition of four convents. Since the open- 
ing of the new aqueduct (p. 35) this square has been embellished 
with a large fountain. A band sometimes plays here in summer, 
in the evening. On the right is the Royal Palace, opposite to us is 
the Prefettura di Napoli, with shops in part of the ground-floor; 
on the W. side, which forms a semicircle, is the church of S. Fran- 
cesco with its dome and arcades ; on the fourth side is the Com- 
mandant's Residence, formerly the palace of the prince of Salerno, 
where travellers obtain a permesso to visit the Castel S. Elmo on 
showing their passports or visiting-cards. (Ascend two flights of 

8. Francesco di Paola. NAPLES. 3. Route. 37 

stairs on the left side of the court, and turn to the right at the 
top ; best hours 10-11 or 12-2.) In front of the church of S. Fran- 
cesco are two Equestrian Statues of Neapolitan kings, both in Ro- 
man attire: on the right Charles III., on the left Ferdinand I. of 
Bourbon ; the two horses and the statue of Charles are by Canova, 
that of Ferdinand, by Call. 

S. Francesco di Paola, an imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, 
was constructed by Ferdinand I. from designs by P. Bianchi in 
1817-31. The Ionic vestibule is supported by six columns and two 

The Interior (open till about noon) contains thirty Corinthian columns 
of marble from Mondragone , which support the dome. The high - altar, 
transferred hither from the church of the Apostles, is entirely inlaid with 
jasper and lapis lazuli ; the two pillars at the sides are of rare Egyptian 
breccia from S. Severino. The gallery above is for the use of the royal family. 
The statues and pictures are by modern masters. To the left of the entrance : 
St. Athanasius by Angelo Salaro; Death of Joseph, Camillo Ouerra of Naples ; 
St. Augustine, a statue by Tommaso Arnaud of Naples ; Madonna della Con- 
cezione, Casparo Landi; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. Nicho- 
las, Natale Carta of Sicily ; St. John, a statue by Tenerani. In the choir : 
St. Francis di Paola resuscitating a youth, Camuccini ; St. Matthew, a statue 
by Finelli; Last Communion of St. Ferdinand of Castile, Pietro Benvenuti of 
Florence; St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Call of Sicily; St. Ambrose, by Tito 
Angelini of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino , Tommaso de Vivo; 
St. Chrysostom, a statue by Gennaro Cali. 

The Palazzo Reale (PI. E, F, 6), or royal palace, designed by 
the Roman Domenico Fontana, was begun in 1600 under the 
viceroy Count de Lemos , burned down in 1837, and restored 
between that year and 1841. The facade, 185 yds. ft. in length, 
exhibits in its three stories the Doric and Ionic styles combined ; 
most of the arches of the basement, however, are built up for the 
sake of increasing the strength of the building. The eight marble 
statues in the niches on the facade represent the Neapolitan dyna- 
sties of the last eight hundred yeaTs : from left to right, beginning 
at the Piazza S. Ferdinando, Roger of Normandy, Frederick II. 
of Hohenstaufen , Charles I. of Anjou, Alphonso I., Charles V., 
Charles III. (Bourbon), Joachim Murat, and Victor Emmanuel. 

Interior (Sun. and Thurs., 12-4; gratis). Visitors apply to the porter 
(50 c), who conducts them to the office of the Intendant in the palace 
(daily 10-12). Here they receive a permesso for six persons, which is avail- 
able also for the palaces of Capodimonte, Caserta, and the garden of Astroni, 
and must be shown at each place to the porter. Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

The visitor is first conducted to the "Garden Terrace, which affords 
a fine view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately below. In the 
centre is a handsome marble table. — The magnificent -Grand Staircase, 
constructed entirely of white marble, and adorned with reliefs and sta- 
tues, dates from 1651. — On the side towards the piazza are situated a 
small Theatre and a superb Dining Boom. — Beyond these is the "Throne 
Boom, gorgeously furnished with crimson velvet embroidered with gold, 
the embroidery having been executed at the extensive poor-house in 1818. 
Above are gilded figures in relief, representing the different provinces of 
the kingdom. — The rooms also contain large porcelain vases from Sevres 
and Meissen (Dresden china), an antique bust of Bacchus, a small bust of 
Hercules, and a bust of Marcus Aurelius, all found at Herculaneum, 
tapestry, and lastly a number of pictures. Among the last are: "Titian, 

OS Route 3. NAPLES. Teatro San Carlo. 

Pier Luigi Farnese (1547) ; Schidone, Carita; Lod. Carracci, John the Bap- 
tist; Guercino, St. Joseph; M. Caravaggio, Christ in the Temple, Be- 
trothal of St. Catharine, Orpheus; L. Giordano, The archangel Gabriel. 
There are also several works by Netherlandish masters: Quintin Massys (?), 
Usurer; "Van Dyck, Portrait; Venloet, Cathedral at Palermo, Market in 
Venice; two good portraits, by unknown masters, etc. The Adoration of 
the Magi, sometimes ascribed to Jan van Eyck and sometimes to Donzelli, 
a supposed pupil of Zingaro, was once considered a very important work, 
but has been treated slightingly by modern criticism. The pictures by 
modern Italian masters are of no great merit. 

On the N. side of the palace, which is connected here by a wing 
with the Theatre of S. Carlo, is a small garden enclosed by a 
railing, containing a Statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in commem- 
oration of the plebiscite of 21st Oct., 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

The small piazza which adjoins the Piazza del Plebiscito here 
is named Piazza (formerly 'Largo') S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6), after 
the opposite church. This is the starting-point of several of the 
chief tramway and omnibus lines (p. 24) , and there is also a large 
cab-stand here. To the left diverge the Strada di Chiaja and the 
Toledo, the principal street in Naples (comp. p. 42). 

We now turn to the right into the Strada S. Carlo, in which 
rises the principal facade of the Teatro San Carlo (PL E, F, 6), 
founded by Charles III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan 
architect Angelo Carasale from designs by the Sicilian Oiovanni 
Medrano. The interior was destroyed by fire in 1816, but has 
been restored in harmony with the original plan. It is one of the 
largest opera-houses in Italy, and the choicest works of the best 
Italian composers are admirably performed here. Many of the cel- 
ebrated compositions of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Mercadante 
were performed in this theatre for the first time. The chief fa- 
fade, Testing on an arcade, and surmounted by a series of col- 
umns, and the side next the Piazza S. Ferdinando are decorated 
with reliefs. The spaces under the arches are occupied by public 
writers, ready at a moment's notice to commit to paper the plead- 
ing of the lover or the expostulation of the creditor. 

A large block of houses opposite S. Carlo has recently been 
pulled down to make room for the new Galleria Vmberto I., which 
is to resemble, though on a larger scale, the Galleria Vittorio 
Emanuele at Milan. It will have another entrance from the Toledo. 
The dealers in coral, etc., who formerly occupied this block, have 
removed to tasteful stalls on the right side of the broad street 
leading to the Piazza del Municipio. 

Adjoining the theatre is the small garden belonging to the 
palace, and farther to the right are two Horse-tamers by Baron Clodt 
of St. Petersburg, presented by the Emp. Nicholas of Russia, and 
replicas of those in front of the palace at Berlin. 

We next reach the long Piazza del Municipio (PL F, 6), 
recently very considerably extended, in which a statue of Victor 

Castel Nuovo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 39 

Emmanuel is about to be erected. To the left is situated the hand- 
some Municipio, or town hall, the Palazzo de' Ministeri under the 
Bourbons, erected in 1819-25 from designs by Luigi and Stefano 
Oasse. On the principal entrance are inscribed the names of the 
Neapolitans who were executed for sedition under the Bourbon 
regime. In the gateway are the statues of the kings Roger and Fred- 
erick II. — From this point a passage , occupied by stalls of var- 
ious wares, leads through, under the flight of steps, to the Toledo; 
within it, to the right, is the entrance to the Exchange. 

In the N.W. corner of the piazza, immediately adjoining the 
Municipio, rises the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, erected 
in 1540 by Don Pedro de Toledo. 

Intekiok. We enter by a door adjacent to the gate of the Municipio 
and ascend the stairs. To the right of the entrance: "Andrea del Sarto, 
Holy Family. 3rd Chapel on the left: Gian Bernardo Lama, Descent 
from the Cross; also pictures by Bernardino Siciliano, Marco da Siena, 
and others. At the back of the high -altar is the sumptuous Tomb of 
Don Pedro de Toledo (d. 1553), by Giovanni da Nola, adorned with statues 
of the cardinal virtues, reliefs of the achievements of the viceroy, and his 
statue in a kneeling posture, with that of his wife. Behind this tomb is 
the monument of Hans Walther von Hiernheim, counsellor and general 
of Charles V. and Philip II. (d. 1557), with an inscription in German and 

The wide Strada Medina begins on the N. side of the Piazza del 
Municipio. The corner-house , on the left, the Palazzo Sirignano, 
is usually (though without absolute authority) described as Goethe's 
residence while at Naples in 1787. Farther on is the Incoronata 
church (see p. 47). 

On the E. side of the square rises the Castel Nuovo (PI. F, 6), 
the outer walls and bastions of which have been removed. This 
castle was begun in 1283 by Charles I. of Anjou from a design 
attributed to Oiov. da Pisa, and executed in the French fortification 
style of that period. The kings of the houses of Anjou and Arra- 
gon, and the Spanish vicereys successively resided here. Alphonso I. 
(1442) added five round towers, and the castle was enlarged by Don 
Pedro de Toledo (1546) and Charles III. (1735). 

The Entrance is on the N. side, in the Piazza del Municipio. Passing 
the sentry, we reach after a few hundred paces the lofty Triumphal Arch 
by which the castle is entered. It was erected in 1470 to commemorate 
the entry of Alphonso I. of Arragon (2nd June, 1442), probably by Pietro 
di Martino, a Milanese architect, assisted, according to Vasari, by Giuliano 
da Maiano of Florence. This is the finest monument at Naples. It con- 
sists of an archway with Corinthian columns on each side, now partly 
built into the wall, a frieze, and a cornice, above which is an attic 
with well-executed sculpture representing the entry of Alphonso, by Isaia 
da Pisa and Silvestro deW Aquila. Above are statues of St. Michael, St. 
Antonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian (half destroyed), below which are the 
four cardinal virtues in niches. The bronze doors are adorned with re- 
presentations of the victories of Ferdinand I. , by Gualielmo Monaco. A 
cannon-hall imbedded in the masonry of the left wing is a reminiscence 
of the wars of the time of Gonsalvo da Cordova. 

In the inner barrack-yard rises the church of S. Barbara, or S. Se- 
bastiano (custodian to the right, outside the triumphal arch, No. 223; 
V'-i fr.), with a Corinthian facade by Giuliano da Maiano, and a beautiful 

40 Route 3. NAPLES. Harbours. 

Madonna in relief above the door. The Adoration of the Magi formerly 
preserved here is now in the palace (p. 38). — A dark spiral staircase 
of 25 steps adjoining the sacristy ascends to a Loggia, where we enjoy 
an excellent survey of the government docks and the harbour. 

On the N. side of the Piazza, opposite the Castel Nuovo, is the 
Teatro del Fondo (Mercadante). The piazza is continued to the E. 
by the Strada del Molo , a pier 14 yds. in width, originally con- 
structed by Charles of Anjou in 1302. Adjoining are the exten- 
sive Harbours (PI. F, G, 6, 5), the Porto Militare being on the 
right and the Porto Mercantile on the left. On the right , at the 
beginning of the Molo , is the royal Arsenate di Marina , erected 
in 1577 by the viceroy Mendoza , with a dockyard , arsenal , etc. 
The neighbouring Porto Militare, or government harbour , shut 
off by a railing, was begun by Francis I. in 1826. On the S. side 
it is protected by a strong breakwater , which extends 429 yds. 
into the sea in a S.E. direction (now being lengthened) , and it is 
5 fathoms in depth. A number of men-of-war of the Italian navy 
are frequently stationed here. 

The mercantile harbour , the Porto Mercantile or Porto 
Grande, was constructed in 1302 by Charles II. of Anjou at the 
same time as the Molo, and enlarged by Charles III. in 1740. 
It presents an animated and busy scene, characteristic of a southern 
climate. An excursion on the bay, to which the boatmen invite 
passers-by, is very enjoyable in fine weather (bargaining necessary ; 
comp. p. 24). 

At the angle formed by the Molo rises the Lighthouse (Lanterna; 
PI. G, 6), originally erected in the 15th cent., but rebuilt in 
1843. The ascent is strongly recommended, as it enables the vis- 
itor to form an accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.). An easy marble staircase of 142 steps ascends to the 
gallery. — The magazines at the end of the Molo are used as 
bonded warehouses. The terminus of fhe new goods-railway be- 
tween the station and the harbour is also here. 

The handsome quay, called the Strada del Piliero , along 
which runs the railway just mentioned, skirts the mercantile har- 
bour. Adjoining the harbour, and connected with it by a channel 
under the street, is the Porto Piccolo, which is accessible to small 
boats only. This once formed part of the most ancient harbour of 
Neapolis. The Dogana Nuova is situated here. To the right, at the 
end of the Molo Piccolo is situated the Immacolatella with the of- 
fices of the custom-house and the Deputazione di Salute (PI. G, 5). 
Adjoining the Immacolatella is the quay at which travellers arriv- 
ing at Naples by sea disembark. This is also the starting-point of 
the Capri and Ischia steamers (see pp. 165, 112). 

The first side-stTeet to the left leads straight to the church of S. 
Pietro Martire (PI. G, 5), which contains a few monuments and pictures 
(Legend of St. Vincent, a good work in the Flemish-Neapolitan style). 

The last street but one to the left before S. Pietro is reached leads 

S. Maria del Carmine. NAPLES. 3. Route. 41 

into the Strada di Porto, a scene of the most motley bustle and confusion, 
especially towards evening (comp. p. 28). As this, moreover, is the dirtiest 
quarter of the town, the fumes which arise are intensely 'ancient and 

We continue to [follow the broad quay, farther on called the 
Strada Nuova(P1. G, H, 5), which is always full of life and hustle. 
At the end is the newly opened Villa del Popolo (PI. IT, 5), a 
public garden on the sea. Here in the afternoon after 4 p.m., 
public readers may often be seen, declaiming passages from Tasso, 
Ariosto, or otherpoets, to an audience of workmen, rag-pickers, 
and other humble folk, who each pay 2c. for the privilege of 
listening. Similar scenes occur also outside the Porta Capuana. 
The garden contains a marble nymphseum, formerly in the Imma- 
colatella (see p. 40). 

Opposite rises the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 4), a vast struc- 
ture erected by Ferdinandl. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion 
of Masaniello (p. 181) it was occupied by the populace. It was after- 
wards fortified, and is now used as barracks and a military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine, on the W. side of the Castel, leads to a 
piazza, in which, on the right, is situated the church of *S. Maria 
del Carmine (PI. H, 4) with its lofty tower. The edifice (open 
early in the morning, and after 4.30 p.m.), which is of early ori- 
gin, but was modernised in 1769, contains a celebrated miraculous 
picture of the Virgin ('La Bruna') , and the tomb of Conradin, 
the last of the Hohenstaufen. Festival on July 16-17th. 

The tomb was originally behind the high-altar, to the right, where 
its position is now marked by the inscription E. C. C. (Regis Conradini 
corpus). In 1847 Maximilian II. of Bavaria, when Crown-prince, caused 
a "Statue , by Schopf of Munich , from a design by Thorvaldsen , to be 
erected in the nave of the church to the memory of Conradin (born in 
1252). The pedestal bears a German inscription to the effect that — 
'Maximilian, Crown-prince of Bavaria, erected this monument to a scion 
of his house , King Conradin , the last of the Hohenstaufen'. The two 
reliefs represent the parting of Conradin from his mother, the Princess 
Elizabeth , and his separation from Frederick of Baden at the place of 
execution. Beneath this monument now lie the remains of the unfor- 
tunate prince. The whole is well-executed, and, placed as it is, most 
impressive. — To the right of the entrance is a block of marble, beneath 
which the remains of Masaniello are said to repose ; the monument which 
formerly marked the spot is now in the museum. 

We now turn to the left to the Piazza del Mercato (PI. H, 4), 
where the traffic is busiest on Mondays and Fridays. The fish- 
market is interesting. On the N. side of the piazza, which forms a 
semicircle, is the church of 8. Croce al Mercato. On the S. side 
are two fountains. On 29th Oct. 1268 , Conradin , the last scion 
of his princely house, then in his 17th year, and his relative Fred- 
erick of Baden , were executed here by order of Charles I. of An- 
jou. The sacristy of the church of S. Croce contains a column of 
porphyry which formerly marked the spot where the young prince 
was beheaded. This piazza was also one of the scenes of the in- 
surrection of Masaniello. 

42 Route 3. NAPLES. Piazza de' Martiri. 

The narrow lanes which lead hence into the heart of the town 
are alive with most characteristic scenes of Neapolitan life (comp. 
p. 28) , but though a visit to them with an experienced guide is 
interesting, the traveller is recommended not to attempt to penetrate 
farther alone and on foot. 

Returning to the church del Carmine, and following the street 
to the left, we may Teach the Porta Capuana (p. 54) in 8 min. ; or 
we may pass the church and proceed in a straight direction to the 
small Piazza Garibaldi , and turn to the left into the broad , new 
Corso Garibaldi, which begins near the coast, passes (5 min.) the 
Porta Nolana, the railway-station, and (5 min.) the Porta Capuana, 
and terminates in the Strada Foria (see p. 44). 

II. The Toledo. Capodimonte. 

Starting from the Largo della Vittoria (p. 35; PL D, 7), the 
broad Strada Calabritto, with its handsome shops, leads us to- 
wards the N. to the triangular Piazza be' Martiri, where the Co- 
lonna de' Martiri (PL D, E, 7), a lofty column of marble decorated 
with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in bronze, was erected 
in 1864 to the memory of the patriots who have perished during the 
different Neapolitan revolutions. The four lions at the base , in 
different postures, represent the four principal revolutions at Naples 
during the Bourbon dynasty (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860). The mon- 
ument was designed by Alvino, the Victory executed by Caggiani. 
— On the N.W. side of the Piazza is the Palazzo Partanna, 
on the S. the Palazzo Calabritto, and farther on, with a garden in 
front, the Palazzo Nunziante. 

Proceeding towards the N.E. by the Strada S. Cater ina , we 
next enter the busy Strada di Chiaja (PL E, 6). Where this 
street begins to ascend, it is crossed by the Ponte di Chiaja, a 
viaduct built in 1634, by which the Strada Monte di Dio leads 
from the quarter of Pizzofalcone to the higher ground below S. El- 
mo. (The flight of steps on the right, between the buttresses of the 
bridge, ascends from the Strada di Chiaja to the Strada M. diDio.) 
The Str. di Chiaja, which contains nothing noteworthy, leads into 
the Piazza S. Ferdinando (p. 38), at the foot of the Toledo. 

The *ToIedo (PL E, 6-4), a street begun by the viceroy Don 
Pedro de Toledo in 1540, but since the autumn of 1870 officially 
known as the Via Roma, gih Toledo, is the main artery of the traffic 
of Naples, and presents a busy scene at all hours. It intersects 
the city from S. to N. nearly in a straight line, ascending gradually 
from the sea. It extends from the Piazza del Plebiscito (p. 36) 
to the Museo Nazionale, beyond which its prolongation is formed 
by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, and is nearly I1/2 M. in 
length, but contains no building worthy of note. On both sides 
extends a network of streets and lanes, many of which ascend to 

Toledo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 43 

the left by means of steps to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the 
Castel S. Elmo, while those to the right extend to the railway- 
station and the harbour, forming the centres of mercantile traffic. 

Ascending the Toledo from the Piazza S. Ferdinando, we come 
in about 10 min. to the small Largo dblla Carita (officially 
Piazza Poerio; PI. E, 5), where in 1877 was erected a Monument to 
Carlo Poerio (d. 1867), the dauntless Italian patriot whose unjust 
condemnation and imprisonment in 1850 did so much to inflame 
the hate of the people for the Bourbon dynasty. To the right di- 
verges a street to the Piazza Montoliveto (p. 48; post-office, see 
p. 48). 

Farther on, to the right, at the corner of the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore (p. 49), the only important side-street by which the To- 
ledo is crossed, rises the Palazzo Maddaloni (PI. E, F,4, 5; entrance 
in the Str. Maddaloni), now let to the Banca Nazionale, a massive 
structure with a gateway and staircase from designs by Fansagn. 
The interior contains a hall of fine proportions. Adjacent, separated 
by a cross-street, at the corner of the Toledo and the Strada S. Anna 
de' Lombardi, is the Palazzo d'Angri, erected about 1773 by Luigi 
Vanvitelli, and occupied by Garibaldi when dictator in 1860. Several 
street to the left lead to Montesanto, the station of the E. cable- 
tramway ascending to S. Elmo (p. 24) and to the new railway to 
Cumae (p. 93). 

In 2-3 min. more we reach the Piazza Dante (PI. E, F, 4), 
formerly the Largo del Mercatello, where a Monument of Dante in 
marble, by T. Angelini and Solari, was erected in 1872. The crescent- 
shaped edifice, beyond the statue, which was converted into a Liceo 
Oinnasiale Vittorio Emanuele in 1861, surmounted by a balustrade 
with twenty-six statues, was erected by the city of Naples in honour 
of Charles III. in 1757, the statues being emblems of the virtues of 
that monarch. — Adjacent, to the left, is the Porta Alba, erected 
in 1632, embellished with a bronze statue of S. Gaetano , whence 
the Via de' Tribunali may be entered (see pp. 59, 60). 

Leaving the Piazza Dante, and passing a row of houses re- 
cently erected, we ascend gradually in 5 min. by the Salita del 
Museo to the Museo Nazionale (PI. E, F, 3; p. 60), a large red 
building, the entrance to which is in the broad side-street diverg- 
ing on the right to the Piazza Cavour. 

Opposite the entrance of the Museum is the Galleria Principe 
di Napoli, a covered bazaar (Pl.F, 3) designed by Alvino, resemb- 
ling the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele at Milan in variety of wares, 
but on a smaller scale. Band occasionally in the evening. 

The long PiAzza Cavour (PI. F, 3) , which extends on the E. 
side of the Museum, is embellished with gardens. To the N.E.the 
piazza contracts into the Strada Foria (PI. F, G, 3, 2). The first 
street diverging from it to the right is the Strada del Duomo, lead- 
ing to the cathedral (4 min. ; p. 56); the Strada Carbonara next di- 

44 Route 3. NAPLES. Catacombs. 

verges on the same side to S. Giovanni a Carbonara (p. 55) and 
the Porta Capuana ; and the Corso Garibaldi farther on also leads 
to the right to the same gate (10 min. ; p. 54). 

On the left side of the Strada Foria we next reach the Botanic 
Garden, which was founded in 1809 and extended in 1818. It is 
open to the public daily, except from 12 to 2, and contains a fine 
collection of tropical plants. — Adjacent is the extensive poor- 
house, the Albergo de J Poveri, or Reclusorio (PI. G, H, 1, 2), begun 
by Charles III. in 1751 from a design by Fuga, and intended to 
contain four courts, still nearly half uncompleted. One side is ap- 
propriated to men, the other to women. In this establishment and 
its dependencies about 2000 persons are maintained. The city 
contains numerous other charitable institutions , about sixty in all, 
most of which are amply endowed. 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is formed 
by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte (PI. E, 3, 2, 1), which grad- 
ually ascends. From the beginning of this street, opposite the 
N. W. corner of the Museum , the Strada Salvator Rosa diverges 
to the left , ascending to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 90) 
and the hill of Posilipo (p. 93). We follow the Strada di Capo- 
dimonte , and in about 10 min. cross the Ponte delta Sanith, a 
viaduct constructed in 1809 across the quarter della Sanita which 
lies below. 

Descending to the left immediately beyond the bridge, and 
from the lower end of the street entering the winding Strada 
S. Oennaro de' Poveri to the right, we soon reach the large hospice 
or poor-house of that name, which contains several hundred in- 
mates. At the back of the building is the church of S. Oennaro 
(St. Januarius) , with the entrance to the extensive Catacombs 
(PI. E, 1) of Naples, admission to which is obtained by applying to 
the porter of the hospice (1 fr. for each person, and trifling fee to 
the attendant). 

The church of S. Oennaro del Poveri, founded in the 8th cent, on the 
site of a chapel where St. Januarius was interred, is now completely 
modernised. The vestibule of the inner court is embellished with 
"Frescoes from the history of the saint by Andrea da Salerno (?), unfor- 
tunately in bad preservation. The only entrance to the Catacombs is 
now at the back of this church. They consist of four main galleries, of 
which, however, two only are now connected by staircases and accessible 
to visitors, together with a long series of lateral passages and burial 
chambers (cubicula). Along the walls are excavated niches of three dif- 
ferent forms, ranged in rows one above another. A few of the chambers 
lie below the level of the galleries. The oldest part of the catacombs 
dates from the first century of our era. In point of architecture they far 
surpass the Roman, though inferior in every other respect. The two large 
ante-chambers were used for the religious services customary at an interment. 

Information as to the history and decorations of these early Christian 
burial-places will be found in the Handbook for Central Italy. The in- 
scriptions found here have been placed in the Museum. Among the 
paintings may be mentioned the pleasing decorations of the two ante- 

Pal. di Capodimonte. NAPLES. .3. Route. 45 

rooms, which recall the Pompeian style, a figure of the Good Shepherd 
in the lirst gallery, the portraits on the tomb of Theotecnus (beginning 
of the 4th cent.) in the second gallery, and a figure of Christ of the 5th 
or 6th cent, (but frequently retouched) in the so-called Basilica di S. Oen- 
naro. The bones which fill many of the chambers and corridors are 
generally those of victims of the plagues which ravaged Naples in the 
16th century. The Priapus column with the Hebrew inscription is a 
mediaeval hoax. 

There is another (but unimportant) series of catacombs, of the 4th and 
5th cent., beneath the church of S. Maria della Sanita, below the bridge 
of that name. 

Beyond the Ponte della Sanita, the Strada di Capodimonte 
(passing Vital - Oaflisch's brewery on the right) leads in a few 
minutes to a circular space called the Tondo di Capodimonte 
(PI. E, 1 ; ordinary cab-fares thus far). The road now describes 
a long curve to the left and then divides, the N. branch leading 
to Secondigliano (p. 46), and the S. branch to the entrance of the 
park of Capodimonte. Walkers ascend the steps, and at the top 
follow the road to the right. From the Tondo di Capodimonte to 
the palace is a walk of 7 minutes. — A short distance before the 
park-gates is the large main reservoir of the new waterworks (Acqua 
di Serino ; PI. F, 1 ; p. 35), with five basins hewn in the rock, and 
a capacity of 80,000 cubic meters. Permission to inspect the works 
is obtained at the office of the Naples Waterworks Co., Str. Chia- 
tamone 5 bis - 

The royal Palazzo di Capodimonte (PI. E, F, 1; daily 10-4, 
with permesso, see p. 37; attendant 1 fr. ; porter i/ 2 fr. ; guide not 
necessary for the garden), situated above the town to the N. on 
the eminence of that name, was begun in 1738 by Charles III., 
but not completed till 1834-39 in the reign of Ferdinand II. The 
edifice was designed by Medrano , the architect of the Teatro S . Carlo. 
The *Oardens are partly laid out in the English style. Splendid 
views are enjoyed from tha large evergreen oak and other points. 
Permessi must once more be shown at an enclosed part called the 

The palace contains the so-called royal Museo di Capodimonte, a 
somewhat extensive, but not very valuable collection of pictures, chiefly 
by modern Neapolitan masters , and of modern sculptures , distributed 
throughout the different apartments. The names of the artists are attach- 
ed to the frames. The following are worthy of mention : Hackerl, 
Wild- boar hunt in the Bosco di Persano; Chase of wild fowl on the 
Lago Fusaro, by the same; Lemasle , Marriage of the Duchesse de 
Berry; Camuccini, Death of Caesar; Celentano, Benvenuto Cellini at the 
Castel S. Angelo; Hayez , Ulysses and Alcinous; a table with ancient 
mosaic from Pompeii; Marinelli, Cleopatra at her toilet; Virginia Lebrun, 
Portraits of the Duchess of Parma and Maria Theresa; Angelica Kauf- 
■mann, Ferdinand I. and his consort with their children; Podesta, Or- 
pheus; De Angelis, Death of Phaedra; Guerra, Ossian; Postiglione, Andro- 
cles ■ Bergi, Kpaminondas at Mantinea ; Carelli, Capture of the Porta Pia 
at Rome , Sept. 20, 1870 ; Vauvitelli, View of Piedigrotta. — The palace 
also contains a collection of porcelain from the former manufactory of 
Capodimonte, including some exquisitely delicate and transparent spe- 
cimens of pale tendre, coloured decorations in relief, and (later) imitations 
of the antique. The manufactory was founded in 1743 by Charles III., 

46 Route 3. NAPLES. Observatory. 

improved in 1771 by Ferdinand IV. , and suppressed by the French in 
1806. The valuable collection of armour (Armeria) contains the ancient 
accoutrements of kings Roger and Ferdinand I. , of Alexander Farnese, 
and of Victor Amadeus of Savoy ; the sword presented by Ferdinand I. 
to the gallant Scanderbeg (d. 1467); also an ornamental cradle presented 
by the city of Naples to the present queen Margaret in 1869. 

Near Capodimonte aie the villas Meuricoffre (generally open on 
presentation of the visitor's card), Ruffo, Avelli, and Forquet, com- 
manding fine views in all directions. — To the W. , opposite Capo- 
dimonte, stands the Villa Gallo (PI. D, 1), founded in 1809 by the 
Duca di Gallo. 

Following the Salita di Capodimonte , opposite the entrance to 
the paTk of Capodimonte , and after a few minutes turning to the 
left, we reach the Observatory [Osservatorio Reale, PI. F, 1), occu- 
pying the summit of the hill. It is popularly called La Specola, 
or, after the villa of a Spanish marquis which once stood here, Mira- 
dois. The observatory was founded in 1812, and enlarged in 1820 
from plans by the celebrated Piazzi (d. 1826), under whom it attain- 
ed a European reputation. The present director, Comm. de Oasparis, 
has distinguished himself by the discovery of several planetoids. — 
On the way to the observatory a path descends in steps past the 
church de' Miracoli to the Strada Foria (see p. 44). 

The visit to Capodimonte may be conveniently combined with 
either of the following walks or drives. On leaving the park we 
may turn to the left along the Strada de' Ponti Rossi (PI. F, 1 ; the 
Ponti Rossi being the remains of an ancient aqueduct), and return 
by the new quarter (PI. H, 1 ; see p. 35) to the Tiro Provinciate 
(PI. H, 1), where the tramway is reached. Or we may proceed still 
farther along the Strada di Secondigliano (PL E, 1), turn to the left 
skirting the Villa Gallo (see above), and pass Lo Seudillo , outside 
the Muro Finanziere, where the reservoir for the higher parts of the 
town is situated, to Li Cangiani (PL A, 1), and thence return 
through the Archetiello gate (PL B, 4) via Antignano (PI. B, C, 4). 
This makes a drive of about 2 hrs. 

III. The Old Town. £. Quarters between the Toledo and the 


Naples contains about three hundred Churches, most of which are 
devoid of interest. The older of them have been disfigured by restora- 
tion in the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries, which appears 
to have attained its height here. But , as they contain numerous mon- 
uments, important in the history of sculpture, and are rich in historical 
and political associations, some of them are well deserving of a visit. 
The most important are described in the following pages. They are gen- 
erally closed about noon, and not re-opened till evening. 

"We begin our walk in the Strada Medina (PL F, 5; p. 39), 
formerly adorned with the Fontana Medina , erected from the 
designs of Domenico d'Auria by the viceroy Duke of Medina Celi. 
This fountain , lately removed , has not yet been assigned another 

S. Maria la Nuova. NAPLES. 3. Route. 47 

site. To the left, adjoining No. 49, is a railing enclosing a flight 
of steps which descend to the church of the — 

Incoronata (open in the morning), erected in 1352 by Queen 
Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation and marriage with 
her cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to include the old chapel 
of the Palais de Justice in which the marriage had been solem- 

This chapel contains admirable Frescoes , formerly attributed to Giotto, 
but probably by one of his pupils or imitators (much darkened and in- 
jured; best seen from a platform to the left near the entrance to the 
church ; keys at the sacristy, 5-6 soldi). They represent the 'Seven Sacra- 
ments and the Church'. In the arch over the right window, on the right 
is the 'Triumph of the Church', with portraits of King Robert and his 
son Charles, attired in purple, on the left the Extreme Unction. The next 
arch to the right comprises: (1.) Baptism, (r.) Confirmation; then (1.) the 
Eucharist, and (r.) Confession; and on the other side, (1.) Ordination, (r.) 
Matrimony. The last refers to the marriage above mentioned, which did 
not take place till 1347, eleven years after Giotto's death. Two half- 
figures in 'Baptism', one of which is crowned with laurel, are said to re- 
present Petrarch and Laura, and in 'Matrimony' Dante's features are said to 
be recognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix, at the end of the left aisle, 
also contains frescoes in Giotto's style , ascribed to Qennaro di Cola , a 
pupil of Maestro Simone : to the left are represented the Coronation of 
Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in her life; to the right St. 
Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi, designed 
by Luigi Vanvitelli and containing a picture-gallery (shown by 
special permission of the prince only). Farther on in the Strada 
Medina is a statue of Fr. Sav. Mercadante (d. 1870), the composer 
of several operas. 

At the end of the Strada Medina we enter the busy Strada 
S. Giuseppe to the left. After a few minutes' walk , a broad street 
to the right leads to the church of S. Maria la Nuova (PI. F, 5), 
the entrance of which is approached by a flight of steps. It was 
erected in 1268 by Giovanni da Pisa, and restored in 1599 by 
Agnolo Franco. 

Interior. The ceiling is adorned with frescoes by Sanlafede and 
Simone Papa the younger, and the dome with others by Corenzio (the four 
Franciscan teachers S. Bonaventura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus de Lira, and 

AlPTC A Yld PI* fliTl AlplCfl.TlQ.T'Ol 

In the 1st Chap, to the right, the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angelo. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, Marco da Siena. In the Chap, 
del Crocefisso frescoes by Corenzio. — The right transept contains the monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Sanseverino (d. 1467), with sculptures of the 15th 
century. In the opposite chapel is a beautiful crucifix in wood by Gio- 
vanni da Nola. — At the high-altar is a Madonna in wood by Tommaso 
de' Stefani, with saints by A. Borghetli. — The large Chapel of S. Gia- 
como della Marca, to the left of the entrance to the church, was erected 
in 1604 by Gonsalvo da Cordova, 'il gran capitano', whose nephew Ferdi- 
nand placed on each side of the altar the monuments of his two most dis- 
tinguished enemies : Pietro Navarro (who strangled himself when a prisoner 
in the Castello Nuovo) and Lautrec, a Frenchman, the general of Francis I. 
(who died of the plague in 1528, while besieging Naples). The monuments 
are attributed to Giov. da Nola or his pupils. The inscriptions, composed by 
Paolo Giovio, testify to the chivalrous sentiments of that period. 

The adjoining Monastery possesses two sets of Cloisters, with 

48 Route 3. NAPLES. Monte Oliveto. 

tombstones, and a Refectory adorned with a Bearing of the Cross 
and other frescoes by unknown masters. 

We now return and pursue our route along the Str. Giuseppe, 
of which the Strada Montoliveto forms the continuation. Where 
the latter expands into a square, on the right stands the Palazzo 
Gravina , now the General Post and Telegraph Office (PI. F, 5), 
erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca di Gravina, from 
designs by Oabriele d'Agnolo. This building, formerly a truly clas- 
sical edifice, has unfortunately been greatly disfigured by modern 
improvements , especially since its injury by fire during the revo- 
lution of 1848. 

Ascending from this point to the left , past a Fountain with 
a bronze statue of Charles II. (1663), we traverse the Piazza di 
Montoliveto to the church of Monte Oliveto (PI. F, 5), usually 
called £. Anna dei Lombardi, erected in 1411 by Guerello Origlia, 
the favourite of King Ladislaus, from designs by Andrea Ciceione. 
The church is a flat-roofed basilica without aisles , the favourite 
style of ecclesiastical architecture in the palmy days of Neapolitan 
art. It contains valuable sculptures; the chapels are kept shut (sa- 
cristan !/2 &•)• 

Interior. Cappella Piccolomini (1st on the left) : the '^Nativity, a relief 
by Donatello, or, according to others, by his pupil Antonio Eossellino. Above 
it, -Dancing Angels by Eossellino. The ^Monument of Maria of Arragon 
(d. 1470), natural daughter of Ferdinand I., wife of Antonio Piccolomini, 
Duke of Amalfl, by Rossellino, is a copy of the monument of the Cardinal 
of Portugal in S. Miniato's at Florence. Crucifixion, also by Rossellino. 
The Ascension, a picture by Silvestro de* Buoni (ascribed by Sig. Frizzoni 
to the school of Pinturicchio). — Opposite the sacristy is the Coko dei 
Fkati, containing fine intarsia work by Giovanni da Verona (d. 1525), 
restored in 1840 by Minchiotti. — Cappella Mastkogiudici (1st on the 
right): Annunciation, a relief by Benedetto da Maiano. Several monuments, 
including that of 'Marinus Curialis Surrentinus Terrenovse comes', 1490, 
who founded this chapel. — 5th Chapel on the left : John the Baptist, by 
Giovanni da Ifola. — The Chapel op the Madonna (adjoining the right 
transept) contains the tombs of Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, viceroy of 
Naples (d. 1532), and of Charles de Lannoy (d. 1527), general of Charles V. 
— The adjacent Chapel op the Holt Sepulchre contains a coarsely real- 
istic "Group in terracotta by Guido Mazzoni, surnamed Modanino (of Mo- 
dena ; d. 1518), representing Christ in the Sepulchre , surrounded by six 
lifesize figures in a kneeling posture, all portraits of contemporaries of 
the artist: Sannazaro as Joseph of Arimathsea, Pontanus as Nicodemus, 
Alphonso II. as John, beside him his son Ferdinand. — The Choik con- 
tains frescoes by Simone Papa the Younger. The Sackistt, behind the 
choir, is adorned with frescoes by Vasari. The monuments of Alphonso II. 
and Guerello Origlia are by Giovanni da Nola. 

The adjacent building, now occupied by public offices, was 
formerly a Benedictine Monastery, where the poet Tasso was 
kindly received when ill and in distress in 1558. The old chapter- 
house (shown to visitors by the sacristan) , in the early-Gothic 
style with disfigurements of later date , is remarkable for its fine 
effects of light and shade. The beautiful intarsia work on the 
choir-stalls is by Angela da Verona. — The Via di Montoliveto 
Nuova leads hence to the Toledo (see p. 42). 

Santa Chiara. NAPLES. 3. Route. 49 

Returning to the point from which we started, we follow the 
Calata S. Trinita Maggiore to the Piazza S. Trinita. Maggiore 
(PI. F, 4), where a lofty Madonna Column was erected in 1748 in 
the tasteless style of the period. In this piazza is situated the 
church of Gesu Nuovo, or S. Trinitb Maggiore, in the form of a 
Greek cross, built in 1584, containing frescoes by Solimena (History 
of Heliodorus, over the portal), Stanzioni, Spagnoletto, and Corenzio, 
and overladen with marble and decorations. — The office of the 
'Corriere di Napoli' opposite the church, Piazza S. Trinita Maggiore 
12, contains the old refectory of the former monastery of S. Chiara, 
where a damaged fresco by Giotto and one of his pupils, representing 
the Miracle of the Loaves, is still preserved (not very accessible, but 
admission readily granted, !/ 2 fr.). 

Beyond the church of Gesu we reach the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore, one of the busiest streets crossing the Toledo (p. 43), 
and turning immediately to the right we pass through a gate to 
*Santa Chiara (PI. F, 4), originally erected by Robert the Wise 
in 1310, but almost entirely rebuilt by Masuccio the Younger (?) 
in 1318, and richly but tastelessly restored in 1752. At the same 
time Giotto's frescoes were whitewashed. The church contains 
handsome Gothic monuments of the Angevin dynasty, and other 

The "'Intekiok, 92 yds. Jong and 35 yds. wide, is lofty and handsome, 
resembling a magnificent hall. To the left of the principal entrance is 
the monument of Onofrio di Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), 
with a relief of the Madonna and hermits by Baboccio , converted into an 
altar. Above are a Madonna enthroned and the Trinity, by Francesco, 
son of Maestro Simone (about 1300). — In front of the organ, above, are 
tasteful reliefs from the life of St. Catharine , 14th cent. , executed on a 
dark ground and resembling cameos. — Of the principal paintings on the 
ceiling, the first, the Queen of Sheba, and the second, David playing on 
the harp, are by Seb. Conca; the third, David sacrificing, by Bonito; the 
fourth, S. Clara putting the Saracens to flight, by Francesco di Nura. 
The last-named master also painted the high - altar-piece (the Sacrament) 
and the picture over the principal entrance (King Kobert inspecting the 
church when building). 

The second chapel on the left contains two sarcophagi: on the right 
is the tomb of Gabriel Adorno (d. 1572), an admiral under the Emperor 
Charles V. ; on the left a tomb of the 14th century. — By the 3rd pillar 
to the left is the altar of the Madonna delle Grazie, with a fresco almost 
concealed by frippery, attributed to Giotto. 

Near the side-door which leads out of the church on the left side is 
the small but graceful monument, by Giov. da Nola, of Antonia Gaudino, 
who died in 1530 at the age of 14, on the day appointed for her marriage, 
with a beautiful epitaph by the poet Antonius Epicurus (d. 1555). The next 
chapel contains two tombstones of the 14th century. — The Cappella 
Sanfelice, adjoining the pulpit, which is borne by lions and adorned with 
reliefs of the 13th cent., contains a Crucifixion by Lanfranco, and an an- 
cient sarcophagus with figures of Protesilaus and Laodamia which forms 
the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Duca di Rodi (d. 1632). — The following 
Cappella Longobabdi de la Cruz Ahedo contains on the left side a mon- 
ument of 1529, and on the right a similar one of 1853. 

At the back of the high-altar is the magnificent "Monument of Robert 
the Wise (d. 1343), 42 ft. in height, executed by Masuccio the Younger. The 
king is represented in a recumbent posture , in the garb of a Franciscan, 
Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 4 

50 Route 3. NAPLES. S. Domenico. 

on a sarcophagus embellished with reliefs and supported by saints. In 
a niche above he appears again, seated on his throne. At the top is the 
Madonna between SS. Francis and Clara. The inscription, 'Cernite 
Robertum regem virtute refertum' is ascribed to Petrarch. — In the 
adjacent N. Transept is the monument of his second daughter Mary, 
sister of Johanna I. , empress of Constantinople and Duchess of Durazzo, 
attired in her imperial robes. By the wall to the left, the tomb of Agnese 
and Clementia, the two daughters of the empress, the former having also 
been the consort of a titular emperor of Constantinople, Giacomo del 
Balzo, Prince of Taranto. In the left lateral wall , the tomb of Mary, 
infant daughter of Charles the Illustrious, who died in 1344. Here also is 
the fine tomb of Paolina Ranieri, the faithful friend of Giacomo Leopardi, 
with a lifesize figure of the deceased, by Car. Solari (1878). — In the S. 
Transept, adjoining the monument of Robert the Wise, is that of his 
eldest son Charles, Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father, 
also by Masuccio the Younger. Farther on, to the right, is the monument 
of Mary of Valois, his queen, erroneously said to be that of her daughter 
Johanna I. — The Chapel adjoining the S. transept on the right is the 
burial-chapel of the Bourbons, in which six children of Charles III. are 

The handsome Clock-Tower (il Campanile) of S. Chiara was 
formerly attributed to Masuccio the Younger or to his pupil Qiacomo 
de Sanctis (14th cent. J, and hence was long considered to prove 
that Naples was one of the heralds of the Renaissance. In reality 
it was not built till after 1600. 

Farther on in the Str. S. Trinita Maggiore, we soon reach, on the 
left, the Piazza S. Domenico (PI. F, 4), containing the palaces 
of (to the Tight) Casacalenda, Corigliano, and (to the left, beyond 
the square) S. Severo, and Caviati, and adorned with a tasteless 
Obelisk, surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint, executed by 
Vaccaro in 1737 from a design by Fansaga. The stairs to the left 
lead to a side-entrance of the church of S. Domenico, the principal 
entrance of which in the court of the Pretura, Vico S. Domenico, is 
generally closed. 

*S. Domenico Maggiore (open 7-11 a.m. only), erected by 
Charles II. in 1289 in the Gothic style from the design of Masuccio 
the Elder (?), is one of the finest churches in Naples, notwithstand- 
ing the subsequent alterations it has undergone (the last in 1850- 
53). The church is 83 yds. long, 36 yds. wide, and 84 ft. high. 
It contains twenty-seven chapels and twelve altars, and presents an 
imposing appearance with its handsome columns and rich gilding, 
but the flat ceiling, added in the 17th cent., does not harmonise 
well with the rest of the edifice. The most distinguished families 
of Naples have for several centuries possessed chapels here, with 
numerous monuments, which are as important examples of early 
Renaissance sculpture as those in S. Chiara are of Gothic art. 

The 1st Chapel to the right (wall of the entrance), that of the Sa- 
luzzo, formerly of the Carafa family, contains an altar-piece (Madonna 
with SS. Martin and Dominicus and several of the Carafas) by Andrea 
da Salerno, freely repainted ; also the rococo monument of General Filippo 
Saluzzo (d. 1852), and the chaste and simple monument of Galeotto Carafa 
(d. 1513) with medallion. — 2nd Chap. : Altar-piece by Agnolo Franco ; 
monument of Bishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio (d. 1341). 

S. Domenico. NAPLES. 3. Route. 51 

The -Cappella del Ceocefisso (the 7th) contains handsome monu- 
ments of the 15th century. The altar is covered with Florentine mosaic 
designed by Cosimo Fansaga. On the lower part of the altar is a relief of the 
Miracle of the Crucifix by Tommaso d? Stefani, which according to tradition, 
thus addressed Thomas Aquinas : 'Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma : quam ergo 
mercedem recipies ?' To which the saint replied : 'Non aliam nisi te.' Pictures 
on each side of the altar: on the right Bearing of the Cross, on the left 
Descent from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the left of 
the altar the "Monument of Francesco Carafa (d. 1470) by Agnello del Fiore ; 
on the opposite side another by the same master, completed by Giovanni 
da Nola. The small side-chapel contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte di Ruvo (d. 1511), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
next chapel on the left contains the Madonna della Rosa, ascribed to 
Maestro Simone. On the opposite side is the beautiful "Monument of 
Mariano d'Alagnj, Count Bucchianico, and his wife Catarinella Ursino (d. 
1447), by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it is the monument of Niccolo 
di Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d^Auria. — At the entrance 
to the sacristy, monuments of various members of the family of Thomas 

The '■'Sacristy has a ceiling-painting by Solimena, and at the altar 
an Annunciation , attributed to Andrea da Salerno. Around the walls, 
above, are forty-five large wooden sarcophagi with velvet covers, ten of 
which contain the remains of princes of the house of Arragon. Among these 
are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494); Ferdinand HI. (d. 1496); his aunt, Queen 
Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand I. (d. 1518) ; Isabella (d. 1524), daughter 
of AlphonsoII. and wife of the Duke of Milan, etc. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and Pavia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ariosto. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and a sword. His 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island of Ischia (p. 114). 

In the S. Transept is the "'Monument of Galeazzo Pandone (d. 1514), 
by Giovanni da Nola. 

From the S. transept a door leads into a portion of the older church, 
which also contains some interesting monuments, particularly that of the 
Rota family, by Giovanni da Nola. Here also is the side-entrance men- 
tioned at p. 50. 

The High Altar, adorned with Florentine mosaic, is by Fansaga, 1652. 

In the N. Transept, above the chapel of the Pignatelli, are the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles II., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

N. Aisle. The 8th Chapel (S. Maria della Neve) contains above the altar a 
beautiful "Haut-relief with a statue of the Virgin, attended by St. Matthew 
and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da Nola, executed in 1536. Here, to 
the right, is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style, with a bust by Bartolommeo 
Viscontini. — 7th Chapel, of the Ruffo Bagnara family: Martyrdom of 
St. Catharine, by Leonardo da Pistoja; tombs of Leonardo Tomacelli (d. 1529) 
and of Cardinal Fabricio Ruffo (d. 1829) who acted a prominent part in 
the events of 1799. — 6th Chapel : tombs of the Carafa. — 5th Chapel : of 
the Andrea. — 4th Chapel : tombs of the Rota family, with a "Statue of 
John the Baptist by Giovanni da Nola, as a monument to the poet Bernar- 
dino Rota (d. 1575), with figures of the Arno and the Tiber by Domenico 
d'Auria (1600). — 3rd Chapel, to the left: Martyrdom of St. John by 
Scipione Gaetano ; tomb of Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 
2nd Chapel, in the bad taste of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Ma- 
donna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chapel, to the left, by the entrance (S. Stefano): 
Christ crowning Joseph, by Luca Giordano : on the lateral walls an Adora- 
tion of the Magi, by a Flemish master; Holy Family, ascribed to Andrea 
da Salerno. 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded, 
and his lectures were attended by men of the highest rank, and even the 


f>2 Route 3. NAPLES. Cappella Sansevero. 

king himself. His cell , now a chapel , and his lecture-room still exist. 
The monastery is now occupied by various public offices. The Accademia 
Pontaniana, founded in 1471 by the learned Giovanni Pontano, also 
meets here. 

Ascending the Via Mezzocannone (p. 30), which leads to the S. 
from S. Domenico, and then following the third cross-street to the 
right, we reach the Piazza di S. Giovanni Maggiore, in which rises 
the church of S. Giovanni Maggiore (PI. F, 5) , adorned with 
sculptures of the 16th century. The adjacent chapel of S. Gio- 
vanni de' Pappacoda possesses a handsome Gothic portal dating 
from 1415. 

The Cappella Sansevero lies to the N.E. of S. Domenico. 
Ascending to the right past S. Domenico , and taking the first 
lane to the right, we reach the Calata di S. Severo, the first 
lane on the left, at the beginning of which, No. 15, is the small 
church of S. Maria della Pieta de Sangri , commonly called La 
Cappella Sansevero (PI. F, 4 ; closed at present), erected in 1590 
by Francesco di Sangro to serve as a chapel for the adjacent Palazzo 
Sansevero, extended in 1613 by Alessandro di Sangro, Patriarch of 
Alexandria and Archbishop of Benevento, as a burial-place for the 
Sangro family, and in 1759 lavishly decorated with gold and sculp- 
ture by Raimondo di Sangro, Principe di Sansevero. There is no 
building in Naples in which such bad taste is displayed as in this 
chapel with its exaggerated magnificence, and unnatural and laboured 
allegories. It does not fail, however, to attract gaping admirers, and 
is certainly remarkable for great skill of workmanship. 

The principal of these allegories, which was executed by Francesco 
Queirolo of Genoa, is the 'Man in the Net', from which with the 
aid of reason (a crowned genius) he disentangles himself, whence 
it is called il disinganno. It contains an allusion to Antonio di Sangro, 
who renounced the world and became a monk, after having lost his beloved 
wife Cecilia Gaetani. The latter is represented as Pudicitia, nude, but 
slightly veiled, the work of Antonio Gonradini of Venice (d. 1752). — The 
altar-piece is a Descent from the Cross, by Francesco Celebrano of Naples. — 
As another instance of extraordinary perversion of taste may be mentioned 
the figure of Christ enveloped in a winding sheet by Giuseppe Samrnarlino 
(1753) , laid out in a chapel fitted up for the purpose. 

From this point (or by S. Domenico to the right) we may as- 
cend the side-street leading to the Via de' Tribunali (p. 56), where 
the cathedral and other important churches are situated. 

We now return to the Piazza S. Domenico (p. 50), in order 
to pursue our route along the Strada S. Trinita , which is con- 
tinued by the Strada Nilo and by the Strada S. Biagio de' Libria 
(p. 54) farther on. Immediately to the right is S. Angelo a Nilo 
(PI. F, 4), erected in 1385; to the right of the high-altar is the 
♦Monument of the founder Cardinal Brancacci (d. 1428), by Dona- 
tello and Michelozzo , who have here blended the Gothic mon- 
umental character with the new style of the Renaissance. 

The Via della Univeksita (the second street from the Piazza 

SS. Severino e Sosio. NAPLES-. 3. Route. 53 

S. Domenico to the right) descends hence to the right to the not 
far distant — 

University (PI. F, 4 ; Regia University degli Studj~), founded in 
1224 by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and removed 
to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient in Europe, 
and possesses five faculties, about 100 professorial chairs, a library, 
and natural history collections of which the mineralogical is the 
most valuable. It is attended by upwards of 4000 students. The 
library, on the upper floor, to the right, is open from 9 to 3 daily 
(librarian Coram. Minervini). The Court contains a few busts and 
the statues of Pietro della Vigna, chancellor of Frederick II., Tho- 
mas Aquinas, G. B. Vico, and Giordano Bruno, erected in 1863. An 
extensive new University Building in the new quarter near the Re- 
clusorio (p. 44) is planned. 

Leaving the university and proceeding in a straight direction, 
we reach the richly decorated church of SS. Severino e Sosio (PI. G, 
4), in the Piazza S. Marcellino, built by Mormandi in 1490. 

The roof is adorned with frescoes by Corenzio, who is interred here 
by the entrance to the sacristy. The choir-stalls, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent., are beautifully carved. Adjoining the choir to the right is 
the chapel of the Sanseverini, containing three monuments of three bro- 
thers, who were poisoned by their uncle in 1516, works of Giovanni da 
Nola. In a chapel near the choir, to the right, is the tomb of the 
historian Carlo Troya (d. 1858). In the N. transept are the monuments of 
Admiral Vincenzo Carafa (d. 1611) and the Duca Francesco de Marmilis 
(d. 1649). The 2nd chapel in the N. aisle contains an altar-piece by An- 
drea da Salerno, in six sections, representing the Madonna with St. Jus- 
tina and John the Baptist. By the entrance to the sacristy, in the chapel 
to the right, the "Tomb of a child, Andrea Bonifacio, ascribed to Giov. da 
Nola; opposite to it is that of Giambattista Cicara, by the same master, both 
with inscriptions by Sannazaro. 

The monastery connected with this church has since 1818 been 
the depository of the Archives of the kingdom, which are among 
the most valuable in the world. Frescoes and paintings by Corenzio 
adorn the interior. The 40,000 parchment MSS. (the oldest of 
which are in Greek) date from 703 onwards , and include the 
Norman, Hohenstaufen, Angevin, Arragonese, and Spanish periods. 
The documents of the Angevin period, 380,000 in number, form no 
fewer than 378 volumes. (Permission to inspect them must be 
obtained from the director of the Archives, the historian Comm. 
Bart. Capasso.) — The entrance to the cloisters is by a gateway 
to the right in the street ascending to the left of the church. We 
then traverse the arcades of the first two courts, and in the next 
we shall find the custodian between 10 and 3 o'clock (^"l **•)• 
The walls of the cloisters are adorned with nineteen frescoes, 
unfortunately much damaged and of late badly restored, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of St. Benedict. Th»y are generally ascribed 
to Zingaro and his two supposed pupils, Donzelli and Simone Papa, 
but Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign them to a painter of 
Umbro-Florentine origin. The best of the series is that in grisaille 

54 Route 3. NAPLES. Castel Capuano. 

representing the youthful saint on his way to Rome with his father 
and nurse. The others were probably carried out by assistants. 
(Best light in the forenoon.) In the open space in the centre is a 
fine plane-tree which is said to have been planted by St. Benedict, 
and on which a fig-tree is grafted. 

Returning to the principal street (p. 52), the continuation of 
which is called the Steada S. Biagio db' Libbai (PI. F, Gr, 4), we 
pass the Monte di Pietct, or public loan-establishment, on the right, 
and several churches and palaces of little importance. After about 
l /i M. our street is crossed by the broad Via del Duomo (p. 58), the 
left branch of which runs N. to the Strada de' Tribunali, which 
leads straight to the Castel Capuano mentioned below. 

We continue to follow the Str. S. Biagio, which after 5 min. 
divides : to the right the Str. S. Egiziaca a Forcella leads to the Porta 
Nolana (p. 42); to the left is the Str. dell' Annunziata with the 
Church of the Annunziata (PI. H, 3, 4), erected in 1757-82 by 
L. Vanvitelli (frescoes by Corenzio; tomb of the notorious Queen 
Johanna II.). Adjoining is the large Casa dei Trovatelli, or Found- 
lings' Home, shown by special permission only. It is the popular 
custom to visit this Home on April 24th and 25th. — The Str. 
dell' Annunziata is continued by the Str. Maddalena, which leads 
us to the piazza immediately within the Porta Capuana. On our 
right here is the gate (see below) ; opposite us is the church of 
S. Caterina a Formello, with a dome constructed in 1523; and on 
our left is the — 

Castel Capuano (PI. G, 3), usually called La Vicaria, found- 
ed by William I. and. completed by Frederick II. in 1231 from a 
design by Fuccio, once the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen 
kings, and occasionally that of the Anjous. In 1540 Don Pedro de 
Toledo (p. 42) transferred the different courts of justice to this pal- 
ace, where they remain to this day. A visit to some of these courts 
affords the traveller a good opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
the Neapolitan national character. A prison of evil repute was 
formerly situated below the criminal court. The chief entrance is 
on the other side, opposite the Via de' Tribunali (p. 56). 

The *Porta Capuana (PI. H, 3), built by Ferdinand I. of Ar- 
ragon about 1484, was designed by the Florentine Oiuliano da Ma- 
kino, and is one of the finest Renaissance gateways in existence. 
On the entry of Charles V. in 1535 it was restored and decorated 
with sculptures on the outside by Giovanni da Nola. Like most of 
the other gateways at Naples, it is flanked by two handsome round 

Past the outside of this gate runs the Corso Garibaldi (PI. H, 3, 4), 
which extends from the sea to the Strada Foria (see p. 44). Near 
the gate is the station of the branch-line to Nola-Baiano (PI. H, 3 ; 
p. 185), close beside which is the station for the A versa and Cai- 
vano line (see p. 24). 

S. Giovanni a Carbonara. NAPLES. 3. Route. 55 

Outside the Porta Capuana stretch the verdant and fertile Pa- 
duli {i.e. paludi or marshes), a district about 20 sq. M. in area, 
the kitchen-garden of Naples, in which crops succeed each other 
in continuous rotation all the year round. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the 
gate the tramway (p. 23) ends at the *Campo Santo Nuovo, adjoining 
the hill called Poggio Reale. Opposite is the extensive Slaughter 


The New Cemetery, laid out in 1836, contains numerous chapels erect- 
ed by guilds and societies, many of them in the shape of temples. These 
consist of two apartments, in the lower of which the bodies are buried 
for about 18 months, until they are completely parched (not decayed) 
through the action of the tufa soil. They are then removed to the upper 
apartment and placed in niches covered with marble slabs. 

From the lower entrance the principal avenue leads to a rectan- 
gular space, containing the tombs of some of the chief Neapolitan 
families. The path diverging here to the left leads to a good point 
of view. Farther up the principal avenue is the Church, in which 
a solemn service is held on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd; 'Giorno dei 
Morti'). Through the open doorway on the left we enter the colon- 
naded Atrium of the cemetery, in the centre of which is a colossal 
Statue of Religion, by Angelini. 

Leaving the cemetery by the principal gate we reach the road 
from the Reclusorio (p. 44). In this road, a few yards farther on, 
to the left, is the Cimitero delta Pietd,, or burial-ground of the poor, 
opened in 1888. This cemetery, which is laid out in terraces, re- 
sembles a huge amphitheatre. In the centre stands a Pietd, in 
marble, and at the top of the hill is a chapel. The same system of 
interment is adopted as in the new cemetery. 

The well-kept Protestant Cemetery (Cimitero Protestante ; PL 
H, 2) lies on the road to the Campo Santo Vecchio, about l /t M. 
from the Porta Capuana. (Visitors ring at the gate, ^2 &■)• A- 
very large proportion of the names observed here are English, 
German, and American (among others that of Mrs. Somerville, the 
mathematician, d. 1872). 

A miry road leads to the N. from the Protestant Cemetery to the Campo 
Santo Vecchio, the former cemetery of the poor. A large prison is to be 
built here. Close by is the cypress-clad Cholera Cemetery, where in 1836-37 
about 18,000, and in 1884 about 7000 victims of this terrible epidemic were 

Starting from the piazza within the Porta Capuana, and pass- 
ing in front of the dome-covered church of S. Caterina (p. 54), we 
now follow the Stbada Carbonara (PI. G, 3), which leads in 
8 min. to the Strada Foria (p. 44). Above us, on the right, at the 
point where the street narrows, rises the church of — 

*S. Giovanni a Carbonara (PI. G, 3; side-entrance reached 
by ascending the stairs and turning to the right), erected in 1344 
from a design of Masuccio the Younger (?), and enlarged by King 

The •''Monument of King Ladislaus (d. 1414), considered the master- 

56 Route 3. NAPLES. Cathedral. 

piece of Andrea Ciccione, erected by Johanna II., the king'9 sister, stands at 
the back of the high-altar, and is of very imposing general effect, as well 
as carefully executed in the details. Above is the equestrian statue of 
Ladislaua ; in a recess below, a sarcophagus with the king in a recumbent 
posture, receiving the benediction of a bishop (in reference to the removal 
of the excommunication under which the king lay at his death); under- 
neath , Ladislaus and Johanna ; and the whole is supported by statues 
which represent the virtues of the deceased. The altar was restored in 1746. 

The Cappella del Sole, behind this monument, contains the ,B Tomb 
of the Grand Seneschal Sergianni Caracciolo, the favourite of Johanna II., 
murdered in 1432, also by Ciccione. It was erected by his son Trojano, 
and reveals traces of the dawn of the Renaissance. Inscription by Lorenzo 
Valla. The frescoes, scenes from the life of Mary, are by Leonardo di 
Bisuccio of Milan (d. about 1450), one of the last pupils of Giotto. — The 
Chapel of the Caraccioli Rossi, to the left of the high-altar, a circular 
temple erected and ornamented in 1516-57 from the designs of Girolamo 
Santacroce, contains statues by Giov. da Nola , Girol. Santacroce , and 
Pietro delta Plata (altar-reliefs), and the monuments of Galeazzo to the left, 
and Colantonio Caracciolo opposite, by Scilla and Dom. d'Auria respectively. 
— The Sacristy contains fifteen scenes from the history of Christ by 
Vasari, 1546. — Adjoining the entrance to the sacristy from the church 
is a Madonna delle Grazie, a handsome statue executed in 1571. — On 
the same side, farther on, is a large altar in the form of a chapel, called 
the "Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, with good Renaissance sculptures 
of the 15th cent., renewed in 1619 by At. Mirabollo. — The above list by 
no means exhausts the interesting monuments in the church. 

The Congkegazione di S. Monica, with a separate entrance at the top 
of the flight of steps leading to the church , contains the monument of 
Prince Ferdinando di Sanseverino by Andreas de Florentia. 

Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara was once the arena for gladiator- 
combats, of which, in the time of Johanna I. and King Andreas, 
Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

We now return to the Castel Capuano (p. 54). 

From the Piazza de' Tribunali, opposite the principal entrance 
to the Castel Capuano, the busy Strada de' Tribunali (PI. F, G, 
3, 4) leads in a nearly "W. direction towards the Toledo. Follow- 
ing this street, we pass (on the left) the Gothic entrance of the 
Ospedale della Pace, and soon reach the small piazza of S. Qennaro 
on the right, the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 124) to commemorate the suc- 
cour rendered by St. Januarius. On the summit is the bronze 
figure of the saint by Finelli. 

"We next ascend the flight of steps to the cathedral (principal 
entrance in the new "Via del Duomo, see p. 58). 

The *Cathedral (PI. G, 3), which is dedicated to St. Januarius 
(S. Gennaro), was begun in 1272 by Charles I. of Anjou on the 
site of a temple of Neptune, continued by Charles II. after 1294, 
and completed by Robert, grandson of the founder, in 1314. It is 
in the French-Gothic style, with lofty towers and pointed arches. 
The principal facade, the portal of which dates from 1407, is at 
present undergoing restoration, and is being provided with towers. 
In 1456 the church was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, but 
was afterwards rebuilt by Alphonso I. During the 17th and 18th 

Cathedral. NAPLES. 3. Route. 57 

centuries it underwent frequent alterations and restorations, but it 
still retains many of its original characteristics. The edifice is a 
basilica, the aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 

The ceiling-paintings of the Nave are by Santafede (the square ones) and 
Vincenzo da Forti (oval) ; the frescoes on the upper part of the lateral walls 
are by Luca Giordano and his pupils. St. Cyril and St. Chrysostom are by 
Solimena. Over the principal entrance are the tombs of (1.) Charles I. of 
Anjou and (r.) Charles Martel, King of Hungary, eldest son of Charles II. 
and his wife Clementia, a daughter of Rudolph of Hapshurg, erected by the 
viceroy Olivarez in 1599. Above the side-doors are paintings by Vasari 
(1546), representing David playing the harp, and the patron-saints of 
Naples; the heads are portraits of Pope Paul III. and other members of 
the Farnese family. 

In the S. Aisle is the "'Chapel of St. Januarius (the 3rd), commonly 
known as the Cappella del Tesoro, adorned with a marble facade and 
magnificent large brazen doors. On the right and left are two lofty 
columns of greenish marble, and above is the inscription : 'Divo Janua- 
rio, e fame bello, peste, ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis erepta Nea- 
polis, civi patrono vindici.'' The chapel was erected in consequence of a 
vow made during the plague in 1527. The work was begun in 1608 and com- 
pleted in 1637 at a cost of a million ducats (about 225,0001.). The best 
time to see it is shortly before 12, the hour when the church closes. 

The interior of the chapel, which is in the form of a Greek cross, is 
richly decorated with gold and marble, and contains eight altars, forty-two 
columns of broccatello, magnificent doors , five oil-paintings on copper by 
Domenichino, and several frescoes from the life of St. Januarius. The first 
four representations, however, alone (tomb of the saint ; his martyrdom ; re- 
suscitation of a youth ; sick persons healed by oil from a lamp which had 
hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by Domenichino, who along 
with Guido Bent and Lanfranco, intimidated by the threats of their jealous 
Neapolitan rivals, Spagnoletto and Corenzio , abandoned the task of paint- 
ing the dome. — The Sacristy of the Tesoro contains pictures by Slan- 
zioni and Luca Giordano ; a costly collection of ecclesiastical vestments 
and sacred vessels ; the silver bust of St. Januarius, executed for Charles II. 
in 1306; forty-five other busts in silver of the patron -saints of the city, 
and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the high-altar, which is 
adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver representing the arrival 
of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels containing the Blood 
of St. Januarius, Bishop of Benevento, who suffered martyrdom under 
Diocletian in 305 (comp. p. 103). The liquefaction of the blood, which 
according to the legend took place for the first time when the body was 
brought to Naples by Bishop St. Severus in the time of Constantine , is 
the occasion of the greatest festival of Naples and takes place three times 
annually during several successive days (1st Saturday in May, in the 
evening, 19th Sept., and 16th Dec, between 9 and 10 a. m.). According 
as the liquefaction is rapid or slow it is considered a good or evil omen 
for the ensuing year. Travellers by applying to the Sagrestano may often 
secure a good place near the altar during the solemnity. 

In the S. aisle, farther on, is the Cappella Beancia (the 5th), which 
contains the handsome tomb of Cardinal Carbone (d. 1405) by Ant. Ba- 
boccio. — In the S. Tkansept is the chapel of the Caraccioli , with the 
monument of Cardinal Bernardino Caraccioli (d. 1268). 

At the back of the transept, to the right, is the entrance to the 
'Cappella Minutolo (open 6-8 a.m. only), in the Gothic style, constructed 
by Masuccio the Elder (1), the upper part adorned with paintings by Tom- 
maso degli Stefani in the 13th cent, (frequently retouched), the lower part 
by an unknown master ; monument of Card. Arrigo Minutolo (d. 1412), and 
other tombs of the 14th and 15th cent.; triptych of the Trinity on the 
altar to the left, a good early Sienese work; on the principal altar, a re- 
lief of the Virgin and Apostles. — The adjoining Cappella Tocca contains 
the tomb of St. Asprenas, one of the first bishops of Naples. 

Beneath the high-altar (staircase to the right, with brazen doors) is 

58 Route 3. NAPLES. S. Restituta. 

the richly decorated : Confessio , or crypt , with ancient columns and 
beautiful marble covering , containing the tomb of St. Januarius. The 
tasteful ornamentation , by Tomaso Malvito of Como (1504) , should be 
remarked. Facing the shrine," to the left, is the kneeling figure of Car- 
dinal Oliviero Carafa , who erected the chapel in 1492-1506, probably also 
by Malvito. — Fresco on the ceiling of the choir by Domenichino, the 
Adoration of the Angels. 

The Gothic chapel of the Capece Galeota, to the left of the high-altar, 
contains a painting of Christ between St. Januarius and St. Athanasius, 
15th century. 

In the N. Tkansept, by the door of the sacristy, are the tombsof (r.) : 
Innocent IV. (d. 1254 at Naples), erected by the Archbishop Umberto di 
Montorio in 1318, restored in the 16th cent.; Andreas, King of Hungary, 
who was murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, as the inscription 
records : 'Andrese Caroli Uberti Pannonise regis f. Neapolitanorum regi 
Joannse uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili pietate hie recondite'; (1.) : 
Pope Innocent XII. (Pignatelli of Naples ; d. 1696). 

In the N. Aisle, near the transept, is the Cappella de' Seripandi, 
adorned with an "Assumption of the Virgin, by Pietro Perugino (1460). — 
We next reach the entrance to Santa Restituta (see below). — In the 2nd 
chapel : Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Nolo, ; above it St. Thomas, 
by Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity (in the nave) is the Font, an ancient 
basin of green basalt, with Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the left, and entered from it by a door 
in the left aisle (when closed, fee l /2 fr.), is the church of 'Santa Resti- 
tuta (PI. 71 ; F, 3), a basilica with pointed arches, occupying the site of a 
temple of Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the ancient 
Corinthian columns in the nave. This was the cathedral of Naples prior 
to the erection of the larger church. The foundation, erroneously attributed 
to Constantine the Great, dates from the 7th century. When the cathedral 
was built this church was shortened, and in the 17th cent, it was restored. 
In the Chapel S. Maria del Principio, at the end of the left aisle, is a "Mo- 
saic of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta, restored in 1322, 
and considered the earliest in Naples ; whence the name 'del Principio'. On 
the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, supposed 
to date from the 8th cent. , each in fifteen compartments ; to the left the his- 
tory of Joseph; to the right above, St. Januarius, then Samson; beneath, 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the "Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Restituta, by Silvestro Buono (?), a good work of a mixed Cm- 
brian and Neapolitan style (forged inscription; painted after 1500). — 
The small dome of the chapel S. Giovanni in Fonte (closed) to the right, 
said to have been erected by Constantine in 333, formerly the baptistery 
of the church , is adorned with old , but frequently restored mosaics 
(7th cent.) of Christ, the Virgin, etc. 

The principal facade of the cathedral (portal, see p. 56), which 
is approached by a flight of steps, looks towards the new and broad 
Via del Duomo (PI. F, G, 3, 4), a street diverging from the Strada 
Foria (p. 44) and running nearly parallel with the Toledo. Many 
of the densely packed houses of the old town were demolished to 
make way for this street, which extends down to the sea. Adjoining 
the cathedral, on the right as we leave the church, is the extensive 
Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. G, 3), erected in the 13th cent., and en- 
tirely restored by Cardinal Filomarino in 1647. The principal facade 
looks to the Piazza Donna Regina. 

In the Str. Anticaglia (PI. F, G,3) are the remains of an ancient 
Theatre, in which the emperor Nero appeared as an actor, once 
apparently of considerable extent, of which two arches still exist. 

On the right in the Via del Duomo is the Palazzo Cuomo (PI. 

S. Lorenzo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 59 

G, 4), rebuilt by Prince Satriano, and opened in 1887 as the 
Museo Civico Qaetano Filangieri, Principe di Satriano, with a col- 
lection of *Miniatures, weapons, majolica, and other objects of in- 
dustrial art. Adm. daily 10.30-1.30, i/ 2 -l fr., Tues. & Sat. free. 
The detailed catalogue also contains a historical sketch of the palace 
and museum. 

We now return to the Strada db' Tribunali. After a few paces, 
we observe the small Piazza Oerolomini on the right, with the church 
of S. Filippo Neri (PI. G, 3), or At Oerolomini, erected in 1592- 
1619, and overladen with ornament. 

Over the principal entrance: Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Luca Giordano ; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano ; 
lateral paintings by Corenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 
to the left of the high-altar, contains a ceiling-fresco by Solimena ; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (4th chap, to the left) a painting by Guido Rent. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d. 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the left) contains paintings by Andrea da Salerno, Corrado, 
Domenichino, Salimbeni, Guido Reni, and others. 

To the right, farther on, is situated S. Paolo Maggiore (PI. F, 4), 
approached by a lofty flight of steps, and built in 1590 by the 
Theatine Orimaldi on the site of an ancient temple of Castor and 
Pollux. The beautiful portico of the temple remained in situ till 
it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1688, and two Corinthian 
columns with part of the architrave are still to be seen. The 
church contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by 
Corenzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. The Cloisters 
are borne by twenty-four ancient granite columns. During the Ro- 
man period this was the central point of the city. 

In the small piazza in front of S. Paolo, on the other side of 
the Strada de' Tribunali, to the left, stands the church of *S. Lorenzo 
(PL G, 4), begun in the Gothic style by Charles I. of Anjou in 
1266, to commemorate his victory over King Manfred at Benevento 
(p. 205), and completed by Robert I. in 1324. The site is that of 
the ancient Basilica Augustalis. The plan of the church, according 
to Vasari, was designed by Maglione , a pupil of Niccolo Pisano, 
but was altered by Masuccio the Younger in his peculiar style. The 
portal and the choir only are of the Gothic period, the nave having 
been almost entirely rebuilt in the 16th century. 

Intekioe. The large picture over the chief entrance, Jesus and St. 
Francis, is by Vincenzo Corso. — The Coronation of King Robert by St. 
Louis of Toulouse, with a predella (signed), in the 7th chapel to the right 
is by Simone di Martino of Siena. The same chapel contains the relics of 
some frescoes in the Sienese style. — St. Anthony of Padua, in the chapel 
of that saint in the N. transept, on a gold ground, and St. Francis as the 
founder of his Order (ascribed to Zingaro), in the chapel of St. Francis in 
the S. transept , both show traces of Flemish influence. The three statues 
of St. Francis, St. Lawrence, and St. Anthony, and the "Beliefs on the high- 
altar are by Giovanni da Nola (1478). — In the retro-choir behind the 
high-altar, entering to the right, are the monuments of: (1) Catherine ot 
Austria , first wife of Charles, Duke of Calabria (d. 1323) , with a pyra- 

60 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

midal canopy and adorned with mosaics, by Masuccio the Younger (?); (2) 
Johanna di Durazzo , daughter of Charles of Durazzo , and her husband 
Robert of Artois, both of whom died of poison on the same day, 20th July, 
1387; below are three Virtues, above them two angels drawing aside the 
curtain. Then, in a closed space : (3) Mary, the young daughter of Charles 
of Durazzo, killed at Aversa in 1347. The last two monuments are also by 
Masuccio the Younger (J). By the entrance of the church, on the right, is the 
tombstone of the naturalist Giambattista della Porta (1550-1616). 

The monastery connected with the church, now used as barracks, 
was once the seat of the municipal authorities, a fact recalled by the 
coloured arms of the different Sedili, or quarters of the town, which are 
still above the entrance from the street. The Cloisters, which we reach 
by turning to the left in the entrance-passage , contain the tomb of Lu- 
dovico Aldemoresco, by Baboccio (1414). In 1343 Petrarch resided in this 
monastery ; and Boccaccio, when in the church of S. Lorenzo, beheld the 
beautiful princess whose praises he has sung under the name of Fiam- 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the left, is situated S. Pietro 
a Maiella (PI. F, 4), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni Pi- 
pino di Barletta, the favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316 ; his tomb 
is in the left transept), but afterwards altered. In the adjacent 
monastery is established the Conservatory of Music (B. Collegio di 
Musicd), founded in 1537, which has sent forth a number of cele- 
brated composers (e.g. Bellini), and was long presided overby Mer- 
cadante. A number of valuable MSS. of Paesiello, Jomelli, Pergo- 
lese, and other eminent masters are preserved here. The adjoining 
Piazza di S. Maria di Costantinopoli is embellished with a Statue 
of Bellini. — Through the Porta Alba we reach the Piazza Dante 
on the Toledo (see p. 43). 

IV. The Museum. 

In the upper part of the town , in the prolongation of the 
Toledo , at the point where the street takes the name of Strada 
di Capodimonte, and where a street leading to the Piazza Cavour 
diverges to the right (comp. p. 43 ; l l / t M. from the Piazza del Ple- 
biscite ; omnibus and tramway, see p. 24), rises the **Museo Na- 
zionale (PI. E, F, 3), formerly called Museo Reale Borbonico, or 
gli Studj. It was erected in 1586 by the viceroy Duke of Ossuna 
as a cavalry-barrack, and in 1615 ceded by Count Lemos to the 
university, which was established there until 1780, when it was 
transferred to the Gesu Vecchio. Since 1790 it has been fitted 
tip for the reception of the royal collection of antiquities and pic- 
tures , to which in 1816 Ferdinand I. gave the name of Museo 
Reale Borbonico. The history of the edifice is recorded on twelve 
marble slabs built into the wall of the vestibule. 

Here are united the older and more recent collections belonging 
to the crown, the Farnese collection from Rome and Parma, those 
of the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, and the excavated treas- 
ures of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabise, and Cumse. These united 
collections now form one of the finest in the world; the Pompeian 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 61 

antiquities and objects of art in particular, as well as the bronzes 
from Herculaneum, are unrivalled. + 

The Museum is open daily, except on national holidays (see 
p. xxi), May to Oct. 9-3, Nov. to April 10-4 o'clock ; on Sundays 
(10-1) gratis, on other days admission 1 fr. ; gratuities forbidden. 

The present director is Oiulio de Petra, to whose predecessor 
Giuseppe Fiorelli (now in Rome) is due the general arrangement of 
the museum as it now stands. Unimportant alterations are, however, 
still occasionally made, so that it is impossible to give here an ab- 
solutely accurate enumeration of the contents. No Catalogue has 
yet been published except for the coins, the weapons, and the in- 
scriptions; but we may mention the 'Guide General du Musee 
National' which has been published by Dom. Monaco , the con- 
servator of the museum, and which will be found useful in several 
Tespects (sold at the book-shops, price 5 fr.). 

The Entrance is in the street leading from the Toledo to the 
Piazza Cavour, opposite the Galleria Principe di Napoli (p. 43). 
Sticks and umbrellas must be given up at the Garderobe, to the 
left in the gateway. Tickets are obtained on the right. The of- 
ficials, most of whom speak French, readily give information. 

Permission to copy or study, which is always accorded to artists and 
archaeologists, is obtained by strangers on showing their passports at the 
Segreteria (entered by the second door , on the second floor ; public en- 
trance to the library on the first floor, p. 79), where a similar permission 
may be procured for Pompeii and Prestum. Free tickets for Pompeii 
(p. 129) are also to be had here. 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements: — 

A. Ground Floor (comp. Plan, p. 74). 
Right Side : Ancient Frescoes (p. 62) ; beyond them, Inscriptions and several 

large sculptures (p. 65); then the Canova Room; Chinese 

Collection (p. 66); Egyptian Antiquities (p. 66). 
Left Side : Ancient Marble Statues (p. 66); beyond them, the Large Bronzes 

(p. 72). 

B. Entresol. 
Right Side: Ancient Frescoes (p. 75); Renaissance Objects (p. 75); Ancient 

Terracottas (p. 75). 
Left Side: Cumaean Antiquities (p. 76). 

C. Upper Floor (comp. Plan, p. 75). 
Right Side: Copies of Pompeian Pictures (p. 76), Articles of Food from 

Pompeii (p. 76) ; Papyri (p. 76) ; Pictures (p. 76 ; 1st section) ; 

Engravings (p. 76). 
Immediately opposite : Library (p. 79). 
Left Side: Ancient Glass (p. 79); Coins (p. 80); Pictures (p. 80; Neapolitan 

and foreign); Museum Santangelo (p. 82) and Vases (p. 82); 

Small Bronzes (p. 83); Gold and Silver Ornaments and Gems 

(p. 85). 
The following description begins with the right or E. side of each floor. 

+ The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects; 
B. Borgia collection, C. Capua, C. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, Cu. Cumse, 
F . Farnese collection, H. Herculaneum, L. Lucera, M. Minturnee, JV". Naples, 
P. Pompeii, Pz. Pozzuoli, /S. Stabise. 

62 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

A. Ground Floor. 

Leaving the entrance-gateway, we pass through a glass-door, 
where tickets are given up, into a large Vestibule with sev- 
eral ancient statues from the Farnese collection. At the end of 
the vestibule are the stairs ascending to the ripper floors (pp. 74 
et seq.). — The following are the most interesting statues in the 
vestibule : On the right, by the entrance, Alexander Severus ; left, 
a Melpomene from the theatre of Pompey at Rome, erroneously 
restored as Urania. By the staircase, right, Flora ; left, Genius of 
the city of Borne. At each of the two doors leading to the court are 
two figures with the toga; by the staircase two river-gods. On the 
staircase above, two Venuses from the theatre at Herculaneum. 

The ** Collection of Ancient Frescoes (Affreschi Pompeiani) 
from Herculaneum , Pompeii, Stabia?, etc., which we first visit, 
occupies the right half of the ground-floor. These paintings oc- 
cupy seven rooms and a corridor , being grouped in accordance 
with their subjects, and each group is furnished with a Roman 
numeral. These works are, with the exception of painted vases 
and mosaics, almost the only specimens of ancient painting which 
have come down to us, and are therefore of extreme value. They 
are our sole informants with regard to the ancient style , colouring, 
and treatment of light and shade. Many of them are beautifully 
conceived, and executed with an easy, masterly touch, and they 
include landscapes , historical and mythological subjects , genre- 
paintings, architectural drawings, and animal and fruit-pieces. 
Although mere decorative paintings of a small provincial Roman 
town, they suffice to show how thoroughly the profession was im- 
bued with artistic principles. Some of the representations may be 
copies from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the style is such as 
entirely to preclude the idea that they were mechanically copied 
or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence of minute 
detail prove that they were intended for effect, and not for close 
inspection. Their state of preservation of course varies greatly 
(comp. Introd., pp. xl-xliii). 

I. Room (immediately to the right of the place where tickets are 
given up ; 1st door), a long corridor : Architectural mural decorations. 
Those on the left side, the farther end, and the farther part of the 
right wall are nearly all from the Temple of Isis at Pompeii. 

II. Room : Animals, fruit, still-life, attributes of gods, etc. — 
The gallery of inscriptions (p. 65) has an entrance here. We now 
return through the 1st Room to the principal collection. — The fol- 
lowing rooms contain the mythological and genre representations. 
Their enumeration is in the order denoted by the Roman numerals 
above on the walls. 

III. Room : xv. *Girl gathering flowers. Two heads of Medusa, 
xvi-xviii. Sea-gods. In the corner a *Nereid on a sea-panther. By 
the window- wall Rape of Hylas by the nymphs ; Phryxus and Helle ; 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 63 

the Three Divisions of the Globe. Two glazed tables exhibit a 
well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii, xx. Sacrifice 
to the Lares : in the centre the genius of the family sacrificing, 
while a servant brings the swine destined as the offering ; on the 
right and left, two Lares; the two serpents on the altar symbolize 
the Lares (comp. p. 133). — Beneath, Bacchanalian scenes. — xxi, 
xxii. Sacrifice to Isis and scenes in the Egyptian style, from the 
Temple of Isis at Pompeii. — In the passage to the following room : 
xxiv. Ulysses carrying off the Palladium from Troy ; under it, Scipio 
and the dying Sophonisbe. — In the second passage : xxvi. *Medea 
brooding over the murder of her children ; above , Medea with a 
sword. Opposite : xxvii. Meleager and Atalante. 

IV. Room : (1.) xxviii. Hercules supported by Priapus and 
Omphale. xxviii, xxix. Perseus releasing Andromeda, xxx. (be- 
low) Hercules, Dejanira, and the Centaur Nessus. xxxi. "Hercules 
finding his infant son Telephus suckled by the hind ; the dignified 
figure on the rock represents Arcadia in the guise of a local deity 
(from Herculaneum). Wounded ./Eneas. — In the passage to the 
room of the mosaics : xxxii. The infant Hercules strangling the 
snakes sent by Juno, xxxiii. *Four important scenes from Hercula- 
neum : Triumphant actor, with his mask exhibited as a votive offer- 
ing; Achilles and Antilochus (or Patroclus); Concert; Attiring of a 
bride. Also genre-scenes from Pompeii (woman painting, etc.). — 
xxxiv. Admetus and Alcestis receiving the answer of the oracle. — 
In the passage : xxxv. Comedy scenes, xxxvi. Chastisement of Dirce 
by Amphion and Zethus (same subject as the Farnese Bull, p. 65). 
Phaedra and Hippolytus. Cimon nourished from the breast of his 
daughter Pero (a favourite subject with modern artists, known as 
'Caritas Romana'). — xxxvii. *Theseus after the slaughter of the 
Minotaur, xxxviii. Scenes from the forum of Pompeii : in the 
centre, School (chastisement of a pupil) ; Baker's Shop; Small cari- 
cature of ./Eneas, Anchises, and Ascanius, represented with dogs' 
heads ; pensive maiden, with pencil. Several admirable busts of 
youthful subjects, two of which (to the left), representing a Pom- 
peian baker and his wife, recur more than once, xxxix. *Abduction 
of Briseis from the tent of Achilles. *Achilles being taught the 
lyre by Chiron. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. Achilles recog- 
nised at Scyros. — xl. "Sacrifice of Iphigenia, who raises her hands 
supplicating assistance from Artemis, visible among the clouds. 
The skilful execution and the refined psychological treatment of 
the subject ( Agamemnon covering his head with his mantle 
in his anguish) indicate that this painting is a work of some emin- 
ent master (from the 'House of the Tragic Poet'). "Orestes and Py- 
lades in presence of Iphigenia at Tauris. — Adjacent to this room 
is the — 

V. Room. *Mosaics. In the centre, on the floor : Fettered lion 
amid Cupids and Bacchanalian figures , from the House of the 

CA Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

Centaur at Pompeii (p. 146). — On the entrance- wall , by the 
pillar: Theseus killing the Minotaur, three copies. Farther on, 
towards the window : in the centre , actor trained by a poet ; 
above, skull, and other symbols, found on a table in a triclinium 
at Pompeii ; on the left and right comedy scenes (by Dioscurides of 
Samos, according to the inscription) ; a partridge ; two cocks after 
the fight. — Under the window : Animals of Egypt (which served 
as a threshold in front of the mosaic of the Battle of Alexander). 
Above, two doves (recently found in Pompeii); lion and tiger. 
— Farther on , opposite the entrance : *Acratus (companion of 
Bacchus) riding on a lion ; below, *Garland with masks ; on the 
left, parrots ; on the right, a wild cat with a partridge, and fish, all 
excellent mosaics from the house of the Faun (p. 148) ; in the 
niche, four mosaic-pillars from Pompeii (p. 144). — Farther on, a 
chained dog with the warning 'Cave Canem' (from the threshold of 
the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 142). — Right wall : a large niche, 
probably intended for a fountain ; above it, Phryxus and Helle ; 
on the left, the Graces, the marriage of Neptune and Amphitrite ; 
on the right, quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. — "We now re- 
trace our steps, and follow the arrangement of the pictures, which 
is continued through the passages from the 3rd Room to the 6th, 
which adjoins it on the other side. 

VI. Room : In the two passages, beginning next the window : 
xli-xliv. Rope-dancing Satyrs, *Hovering Centaurs, *Dancing Sa- 
tyrs and Bacchantes, etc. — Farther on : xlv. *Representations 
of Cupid ('Cupids for sale !'). xlvi. Marriage of Zephyrus and 
Chloris(Lat. Flora), xlvii. The Graces, xlviii. Diana and Endymion 
(repeated several times) ; *Diana with a bow, in a pensive attitude 
(pendant to the 'Girl gathering flowers' in Room III). — By the 
window to the left : xlix. Venus and Mars, several representations. 
Venus and Cupids, lii. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus 
and Ariadne. — *liii. Dancers. 

VII. Room : lviii-lix. More ancient paintings from the tombs of 
Ruvo, Gnatia, Paestum, Capua : lviii. Mercury as conductor of the 
dead. Funeral dance, lix. Samnite warriors in full armour, from 
Paestum (p. 178). Gorgon head with Messapian inscription. — Ix. 
Narcissus in different attitudes, lxi-lxiii and Ixv-lxvii. Land- 
scapes from Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae. lxviii. *Vulcan 
showing Thetis the arms of Achilles (twice), lxx. Jupiter crown- 
ed by Victoria. Ixxi. Io's arrival in Egypt (Egypt being re- 
presented by Isis). *Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida. Io watched 
by Argus. Mercury giving the Syrinx to Argus, lxxii. Five *Draw- 
ings on Marble (monochromic) from Herculaneum : Achilles (?) 
in a quadriga; GSdipus with Antigone and Ismene (?); Latona 
with Niobe and other women of Cadmus playing at dice (pur- 
porting to be by Alexandras of Athens); Scene from a tragedy. 
Theseus rescuing the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur(?). Similar 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 65 

drawing from Pompeii : Fragment of a representation of the fate 
of Niobe and her children. 

To the above collection belongs a corridor (entered from the 
vestibule of the Gralleria Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great 
vestibule) containing * Ornamental Paintings (Affreschi Orna- 
mentali) from Pompeii and Herculaneum, being mural decorations, 
some of them with raised stucco designs and reliefs. They are 
executed with taste and precision and deserve careful inspection. 

In the semicircular space, lxxxi. Valuable collection of deco- 
rative masks, lxxxii. Pillar with paintings from the 'Fullonica' 
at Pompeii (p. 147), showing the different processes of the handi- 
craft. The owl is the symbol of Minerva , the tutelary goddess of 
fullers, lxxxiv. *Fragments of a wall from Herculaneum. 

The two large central glass-doors of the vestibule on the right 
and left lead into Courts, filled with reliefs, statues, and architec- 
tural fragments, many of which deserve the notice of connoisseurs. 

The wing connecting the "W. part of the Museum with the 
E. (right) half contains the * Gallery of Inscriptions (Oalleria 
Lapidaria, or Sala del Toro), which has other entrances both 
from the collection of the ornamental paintings and from the sec- 
ond room of the ancient pictures (p. 62). 

The collection comprises upwards of 2000 Latin inscriptions, 
others in Oscan, and engraved (graffiti) and painted (dipinti) mural 
inscriptions from Pompeii. The collection, which is arranged in 
accordance with the geographical situation of the different localities 
of discovery, consists chiefly of epitaphs, but also includes lauda- 
tory and other inscriptions. Among the bronze tables are the cel- 
ebrated Tables of Heraclea (p. 226 ; No. 2480), bearing on one side 
regulations as to temple-lands in the ancient Greek language, and 
on the other (inscribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws 
promulgated by Caesar in B. C.46. Immediately to the right of the 
entrance are inscriptions in Oscan and other Italian dialects, among 
which No. 113,398 is that mentioned at p. 137 as found in the 
temple of Apollo at Pompeii. A cabinet contains leaden pipes with 
inscriptions from aqueducts, etc. 

The marble table with the Municipal Standards of Measurement, 
from Pompeii (p. 140), is also placed here. Also, to the left at the 
entrance a statue of Tiberius, to the right Atreus with the Son of 
Thyestes (?), sometimes taken for Hector with the body of Troilus 
(comp. Introd., p. xxxv). 

In the Principal Room, on the left, is the celebrated group of 
the **Farnese Bull, a work of the Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and 
Thuriscus, once in possession of Asinius Pollio, and found in 1546 
in the Thermae of Caracalla at Rome in a sadly mutilated condition. 
The restoration of the group was superintended by Michael Angelo. 
The two sons of Antiope, Amphion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs 
of their mother by binding Dirce, who had treated her with the 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. 5 

66 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

greatest cruelty for many years, to the horns of a wild bull. An- 
tiope in the background exhorts them to forgiveness. The boldness 
and life of the group , originally hewn out of a single block of 
marble, is unrivalled in any other work of the same character 
(comp. Introd., pp. xxxiii-xxxv). The new parts are the head of 
the bull , the Antiope , with the exception of the feet , the upper 
parts of Dirce and considerable portions of Amphion and Zethus. 

Opposite, on the right side of the room, stands the so-called 
**Farnese Hercules, also from the Therms of Caracalla , where it 
was found in 1540. The legs were at first wanting, but were re- 
stored by Delia Porta; twenty years later the genuine missing por- 
tions were discovered, and having been presented by Prince Borghese 
to the King of Naples, were restored to the statue. The end of the 
nose, the left hand, and part of the left arm are new. 

The hero holds in his right hand the golden apples of the Hesperides, 
the sign of his successful accomplishment of the eleventh of the labours 
imposed on him by King Eurystheus, and leans, faint and weary, on his 
club. The conception differs wholly from the triumphant victor of the 
early legend, and would alone stamp the work as one of a comparatively 
recent period. This conclusion is strengthened by the mannerism appa- 
rent in the over-strained effort to express great muscular strength. Ac- 
cording to the inscription, it is the work of the Athenian Glycon, and 
was probably executed under the early emperors , possibly on the model 
of a statue by Lysippus. 

At the end of the front corridor of the Galleria Lapidaria, to the 
left, is a new hall with an Egyptian relief and inscriptions from Pom- 
peii. Beyond it is the Canova Room, so called from three colossal 
statues by Canova, of Napoleon I, his mother Laetitia, and Ferdi- 
nand IV. From the first-mentioned hall a staircase descends to a 
room containing Egyptian antiquities (at the window , *Relief of 
asses' heads). The next room contains the Chinese Collections, in- 
cluding a magnificent vessel in carved ivory. Passing next through 
an empty room and one containing Christian Inscriptions from the 
catacombs of Rome and Naples (built into the walls) , we reach 
the Egyptian Antiquities, a considerable number of which were 
purchased from Cardinal Borgia's collection at Velletri. 

1st Room. In the centre , Serapis , found in the vestibule of the 
Serapeum at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the temple of Isis 
at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and key of the Nile, with interesting traces 
of gilding and painting. Coffin-lids. On the short wall, Horus with a dog's 
head. The cabinets contain a valuable collection of small statuettes. 

2nd Room. In the centre: by the window, a granite tombstone with twenty- 
two figures in relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest, a so-called 'Pasto- 
phorus', in black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with various kinds 
of trinkets, etc. To the right of the entrance, the second immured tablet is the 
so-called 'Table of Isis 1 , from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. By the window- 
wall a papyrus with Greek writing , dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent. , which 
with forty others was found at Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, 
and contains names of the canal - labourers on the Nile. Opposite the 
entrance a number of mummies of men, women, and children , some of 
them divested of their cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of 
a female mummy still retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 
Marble bust of Ptolemy V. 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 67 

The left (W. j half of the ground-floor contains the valuable col- 
lection of marble sculptures and the bronzes. 

The ** Collection of Marble Sculptures occupies the great 
corridor with three branches, and the rooms situated beyond the 
second branch. The new arrangement in accordance -with the local 
and historical position of the works is practically complete. It is 
best to begin with the N. corridor (third door on the left from the 
vestibule), the — 

Corridor of thb Masterpieces (Portico de' Capolavori), which 
contains the finest works in the collection , affording a review of 
the development of the ancient plastic art from the 5th cent. B.C. 
down to the reign of Hadrian and his successors. This part of 
the collection in particular supplies the visitor with an admirable 
illustration of the history of ancient art, and includes moreover 
several works of the highest merit. 

On the right : — * Orestes and Electra, a group which has given 
rise to much discussion, probably belonging to the revived archaic 
style introduced by Pasiteles towards the end of the republic (In- 
trod., p. xxxv). — Pallas, archaic style, from Herculaneum. — 
Artemis, an archaistic statuette found at Pompeii, with numerous 
traces of painting (gold on the rosettes of the headdress, red on the 
edges of the robe, the quiver-band, and the sandals). — * Venus of 
Capua, found at Capua in the middle of the 18th century. 

It is uncertain how this statue, which greatly resembles the Venus 
of Milo in the Louvre, ought to be restored. The arms, the nose, and 
part of the mantle are modern. On Corinthian coins Venus, the tutelary 
goddess of the city, is represented in a similar attitude, in the act of 
using a shield as a mirror, but it is possible that the Capuan statue had 
a figure of Mars standing beside her, from whom she was taking his sword. 
It was at one time imagined that a figure of Cupid at the feet of his mother 
formed part of the original group, but this idea has been given up. The 
statue is held to be a work of the Roman period (as the representation of 
the pupil of the eye indicates), but was probably a copy of a Greek original. 

Adonis, freely restored. — Athlete, from the palaestra of Pompeii, 
the left hand missing, as in other examples of the same statue ; it 
is supposed to be a replica of the Doryphorus of Polycletus ; comp. 
Introd., p. xxxi. 

*Homer, a beautiful bust, the finest of all the ideal repre- 
sentations of the great poet. 

'I must own that nothing has ever given me a higher idea of Grecian 
sculpture, than the fact that it has been able to conceive and represent these 
features. A blind poet and minstrel — nothing more — was given. And 
starting with this simple theme the artist has made the aged brow and 
cheek instinct with supernatural mental effort and prophetic inspiration, 
combined with that perfect serenity which ever characterises the blind. Each 
stroke of the chisel is full of genius and marvellous vitality'. — Burckhardt. 

In the middle: — *Harmodius and Aristogeiton (head of Aristo- 
geiton ancient, but originally belonging to some other statue). 

After the expulsion of Hippias in 510 B. C. the Athenians erected in 
the Agora statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the slayers of the tyrant 
Hipparchus. This group, the work of Anterior, was carried away by 
Xerxes in 480 and replaced in 478 by another executed by Critias and 


68 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

Nesiotes. The original statues were afterwards restored to Athens by 
Alexander the Great or one of his successors, and the two groups stood 
side by side in the market-place, where they were seen by Pausanias the 
historian (2nd cent, of our era). The statues in the museum are a copy 
of one or other of these groups, both of which were in bronze and pro- 
bably alike in all essential details. — Comp. Introd., p. xxxii. 

Dying Amazon, Bead Persian, Dead Giant (or Gaul?), and 
Wounded Gaul, of the Pergamenian school. 

King Attalus I. of Pergamus, having in 239 B. C. gained a decisive 
victory over the Gauls who had invaded Mysia, erected on the Acropolis 
at Athens four groups of marble statues as a votive offering for his deliver- 
ance. These represented the triumph of civilisation and culture over brute 
force, as typified in the contests of the Gods and the Giants, the Athenians 
and the Amazons, the Athenians and Persians at Marathon, and lastly of 
Attalus himself and the Celts. They have been described by Pausanias 
(see above). The statues in this museum are undoubtedly parts of the 
original monument, and there are other figures from it at Rome and Venice. 
The time when they were brought to Italy is unknown, but cannot have 
been sooner than the capture of Athens by the Crusaders in 1205. (The 
exquisite reliefs recently discovered at Pergamus and now at Berlin were 
erected by Attalus in his own capital in commemoration of the same victory. 

* Venus Callipygus , so called from that part of her body towards 
which she is looking, found in the imperial palaces at Rome ; the 
head, breast, right leg, right hand, and left arm are modern. — 
Satyr, carrying the child Bacchus on his shoulder. 

On the left, four busts: *Hera (Farnese Juno), a head in the 
early style , austere in expression and the clearest representation 
extant of the ideal of Polycletus (Introd., p. xxxi); it is a replica 
of a bronze original, in which the eyes were of some other material, 
and was intended to be joined to a statue. — Antoninus Pius, 
Faustina, Caracalla. 

The adjacent room to the right contains at the entrance , to 
the right, Brutus and Pompey, two busts found in a house in Pom- 
peii in 1869 ; a large basin in porphyry, torsi, dogs, leopards, boar 
sacrifices, and fragment of a gigantic figure resembling the Per- 
gamenian sculptures at Berlin. 

Farther on to the right in the principal room: Head of a Woman. 
— *Aeschines , the Athenian orator (389-314 B. C.) and champion 
of Philip of Macedon against Demosthenes , a statue found in 
the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. 

Though the drapery is inferior to that of the admirable statue of 
Sophocles in the Lateran Collection at Rome, there is little doubt that 
this is a copy of an old Greek original. It was once erroneously called 
Aristides, but its resemblance to the herma of jEschines with his name 
attached at the Vatican proves its identity. 

Pallas, archaistic, from Velletri. — Juno. — *Torso of Bacchus, 
a genuine Greek work. — * Psyche of Capua, sadly mutilated; she 
■was probably represented with her hands bound behind her, being 
tormented by Cupid, but the state in which the figure now is 
makes certainty on this point impossible. ■ — * Torso of Venus, 
another genuine Greek work, probably not much more recent than 
the Venus of Cnidus by Praxiteles (4th cent. B.C.). 

In the middle : — Nereid, on a sea-monster. — *Agrippina the 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 69 

Younger, mother of Nero, a sitting portrait-figure, made at an ad- 
vanced age. 

The artist has almost entirely suppressed the individuality of the 
notorious wife of Claudius, and has created a figure of great nobility, 
The face expresses mournful reflection and resignation. The attitude and 
mien, like those of the well-known statue of the elder Agrippina in the 
Roman Capitol, are an admirable example of the way in which noble 
Roman matrons liked to be represented. The hands are modern. 

Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian. 

The Corridor of Portrait Statues and Busts, which we 
next enter, is also called the Portico dei Balbi, from the statues o1 
the family of that name, the most distinguished at Herculaneum. 

In the middle of the corridor: 6211, 6104. Equestrian Statues 
of M. Nonius Balbus and his Son (of the same name) 'praetor and 
proconsul', found in the Basilica of Herculaneum. At the N. end, 
to the right, several Dacians from the forum of Trajan at Rome ; 
to the right and left: Genre figures of children ; Sacrificing swine. — 
Farther on, to the left, Portrait statues from Herculaneum and 
Pompeii: 6134, 6231. Two orators from Pompeii; 6232 (fourth 
statue), Statue of the Priestess Eumachia of Pompeii, erected inner 
honour by the fullers. In the second division : *6167. M. Nonius 
Balbus, the father; *6168. Viciria Archais, the wife of Balbus, a 
stately matron. Farther on (6242-6249), her son and four daughters, 
on the same pedestal (a fifth daughter of the group is in the Dresden 
Museum). All of these are honorary statues which the municipal 
council of Herculaneum erected to the family in the theatre. — Oppo- 
site, Roman Portrait-busts, in two rows. In the lower row: 6185-87. 
Three examples of a so-called Seneca (perhaps Callimachus?) ; Re- 
gulus; 6188. Vestal Virgin (?); 111,386. Brutus the Younger. — Then 
Greek Busts, also in two rows. In the first row : 6149. Alexander the 
Great; 6157. Themistocles ; 6158. Ptolemy Soter; 6160, 6161. Euri- 
pides; 6164. Agathocles; 6166. Demosthenes; in the second row: 
6127. Aratus, the astronomer; 6128. Zeno; 6129. Socrates; 
6130. Lysias; 6131. Carneades; 6133. Sophocles; 6135. Euripi- 
des; 6139. Periander; 6142. Poseidon; 6143. Solon; 6146. Hero- 
dotus. (Many of the busts, both Greek and Roman, are either un- 
known or erroneously named.) — In the centre, 6236. Double 
herma of an unknown Greek and Roman, and 6239. Double herma 
of Herodotus and Thucydides. Between these , two sitting sta- 
tuettes, one of them representing the poet Moschion. — The room 
containing the Battle of Alexander here opens to the right (see p. 
71), in front of the entrance to which : Two barbarians as support- 
ers, in pavonazzetto, the heads and hands in basalt ; in the entrance, 
to the left : 6414. Euripides, and 6415. Socrates, a herma with a 
Greek inscription ; to the right, 6412. Head of an athlete (Dory- 
phoros), and 6413. Homer. At the S. end, in the middle, a hunter; 
several portrait-statues : 6233. Statue of Marcus Holconius Rufus, 
a Roman military tribune, and five times mayor of Pompeii. 

70 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

We now pass by the statue of the younger Balbus into the — 
Corridor op the Roman Emperors (Portico degli Imperatori), 
the arrangement of which begins at the farther end, by the en- 
trance from the large vestibule. It contains statues and busts in 
chronological order, of a more or less ideal character. Most of the 
heads are modern plaster casts, attached to the ancient torsos in 
a very haphazard manner , so that the names affixed have little 
authority. 6040. Augustus, 6056. Claudius, 6072. Trajan. No. 
6038 , a colosssal *Bust of Caesar, is genuine , but there is no 
authentic Augustus. 6041. Livia (a misnomer), and 6044. Drusus, 
son of Tiberius, both from the Macellum at Pompeii. 6058. Nero, 
wrongly so called. 6060. Claudius, not Galba. 6073. Not Trajan. 
The Seven Rooms beyond the Portico dei Balbi also have 
their contents arranged according to subjects. Among much that 
is mediocre there are a few works of great excellence. The ar- 
rangement begins with the gods, in the room opposite the en- 
trance to the collection of bronzes (p. 72). 

I. Room : Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Geres. In the centre, 
6281. Apollo, in a sitting posture, in porphyry, the head and hands 
in marble ; a. work of the decline of art during the imperial period, 
when a taste prevailed for rare kinds of stone which were difficult 
to work. Right: 6278. Diana of Ephesus, in yellow alabaster, the 
head, hands, and feet in bronze ; her symbols indicate the fecundity 
of the goddess of nature. Left : 6262. Apollo, in basalt. Posterior 
wall: *6266. Jupiter, a bust from the temple of Pompeii (p. 139); 
6267. Jupiter, colossal half-statue from Cum*; 6268. Juno ; on the 
right, 6274. Bust of the ram-horned Jupiter Amnion. 

II. Room : "Venus, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Bacchus. Among 
the numerous Statues of Venus (eight of them from Pompeii, in- 
cluding 109,608, a statuette found in 1873, interesting from its 
being painted, and 6294, a statue from the Temple of Apollo men- 
tioned at p. 137) are several with portrait-heads. 6302. Mercury. 
In the centre, 6323. Mars, sitting. 

III. Room: Satyrs, Ganymede, Cupid, Cybele, etc. — Left: 
Satyr with a bunch of grapes; *6329. Pan teaching Daphnis the flute; 
6351, 6355. Ganymede with the eagle; 6352. Hermaphrodite, from 
Pompeii ; *6353. Winged Cupid, supposed to be a replica of an 
original by Praxiteles. In the centre : 6375. Cupid encircled by a 
dolphin, fountain-figure ; 6374. Atlas, with the globe ; 6358. Paris ; 
*6360. AZsculapius, from Rome. On the short wall : Masks of river- 
gods, once used as water-spouts. 6365. Nymph at the bath. Three 
Priestesses of Isis. 6369, 6371. Cybele, the mother of the gods. 

IV. Room : Statues of Muses from Herculaneum and Rome ; 
several figures of Hercules. By the window, 6390. Head of Ajax. 
In the centre, 6405. Amazon, falling from her horse ; 6407. Eques- 
trian Figure, the opponent of the last ; *6406. Hercules and Omphale, 
a group in the genre style. 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 71 

V. Hall of thb Flora. By the principal wall : *6409. The 
Famese Flora, found in the Baths of Caracalla at Rome, at the 
same time as the Hercules and the Bull (p. 65). It is probably a 
work of the early Roman empire, when the dubious taste for repro- 
ducing smaller Greek originals on a colossal scale had already 
manifested itself. The figure, however, is charming in spite of its 
huge proportions. As the head, arms, and feet were missing when 
the statue was found, and were restored by Giacomo della Porta, 
and afterwards by. Albaccini and Taglioni, it is not improbable that 
the figure once represented a Venus instead of a Flora. It has also 
been suggested that it may be a 'Hora', a 'Dancing Muse', or a 
'Hebe'. — In front of it is the **Mosaie of the Battle of Alexander, 
found in 1831 in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. This work, 
which is almost the only ancient historical composition in existence, 
represents the battle at the moment when Alexander, whose helmet 
has fallen from his head , charges Darius with his cavalry, and 
transfixes the general of the Persians who has fallen from his 
wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian monarch is prepared 
for retreat, whilst in the foreground a Persian of rank, in order to 
ensure the more speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed in 
thought at the sight of his expiring general, offers him his horse 
(Introd. p. xliii). — Also four statues of gladiators. 

VI. Room : Reliefs. In the centre, *6673. a beautiful Marble 
Vase with a relief : Mercury, followed by dancing Bacchanalian 
figures, gives the young Bacchus to a nymph to be brought up. 
According to the inscription it is the work of a certain Salpion of 
Athens ; it was found at Formia , and was long used at the har- 
bour there as a post for fastening boat-ropes to (of which traces are 
still distinct), then as a font in the cathedral of Gaeta (comp. In- 
trod., p. xxxv). The traditions of a more archaic style have been 
applied here with great adroitness. — To the left of the entrance, 
also on a pedestal, 6670. a fountain-enclosure with seven gods : 
Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, iEsculapius, Bacchus, Hercules, and Mer- 
cury. There are also three other fountain-enclosures in the centre. 
— By the wall, to the left of the entrance, 6556. an early Attic 
Cippus, of the middle of the 5th century. Then 6672, a beautiful 
Trapezophorus (pedestal of a table), with Centaur and Scylla ; also 
Sarcophagi, Fountain Masks, and numerous Oscilla, or reversible 
marble discs and masks, which used to be hung. up by way of orna- 
ment between the columns of peristyles. The glass-case to the 
right contains Fountain Figures, Hernial Heads, and other small 

VII. Room : Reliefs. Left : *6682. Aphrodite, seconded by Peitho 
(persuasion), endeavouring to induce Helen to follow Paris (Alexan- 
dres), who with Cupid stands before her, a Greek work ; 6684. 
Bacchanal ; *6688. Youth with three maidens, usually termed Apollo 
with the Graces (or Alcibiades with three hetserae) ; 6693. Sarcopha- 

72 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

gus : Bacchanalian procession. — On the pillar between the win- 
dows : 6704. Gladiator contests from the monument of Scaurus at 
Pompeii (p. 144); 6705. Sarcophagus with Prometheus and man as 
yet uninspired with life, surrounded by beneficent gods. — Third 
wall: 6715. Foot of a table (?), framed with Caryatides; to the 
right, fragment of an Old "Woman in a crouching attitude. Above : 
6713. Banchetto d'Icario, or Bacchus feasting with the Attic prince 
Icarius, the legendary founder of the Satyric drama ('Drama Sa- 
tyrikon'); the train of the god includes the muse Melpomene, 
Silenus, and several Satyrs. Above: Cupids in the circus. — 6724. 
Nymph defending herself against a satyr. 6725. The Graces, 
Euphrosyne, Aglaia , and Thalia, and four other figures, named 
Ismene, Cycais, Eranno, and Telonnesus. Below : *6726. a Bac- 
chanalian procession. *6727. Orpheus and Eurydice, with Hermes, 
in the infernal regions (see Introd., p. xxxii). — Fourth wall: 
Sarcophagi. 6753, 6757, 6763. Three representations of Asiatic 
provinces. — In the centre : 6780. Honorary Pedestal from Poz- 
zuoli , with figures representing fourteen towns of Asia Minor 
which the Emp. Tiberius rebuilt after an earthquake, each figure 
being furnished with its name. In the middle, two large Cande- 
labra, with herons, and two Bacchic * Vases. 

In the adjoining Passage are handsome ornamental works in 
marble : *Tables with basins for fountains ; candelabra , among 
which is a *Stooping Sphinx from Pompeii ; feet of tables ; tables. — 
From this passage we again enter the Portico dei Balbi (see p. 69). 

At the S. end of the Portico dei Balbi is the entrance to the 
**Collection of Bronzes, most of which are from Herculaneum, and 
a few only from Pompeii. Their respective origins are distinguished 
by their different colours, due to different methods of treatment. 
The bronzes of Herculaneum are of a dark , black-green hue, 
while those of Pompeii are oxydised and of a light, bluish-green 
colour. This collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and re- 
peated inspection. The number and magnitude of the works, the 
delicate treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery 
of every kind of difficulty in casting and chiselling afford an ex- 
cellent insight into the high development of this branch of art 
in ancient times. 

I. Room: Animals. *4887. Colossal Horse's Head, found at 
Naples, formerly in the Palazzo Santangelo. It belonged to a 
horse which is said to have stood in the vestibule of the temple 
of Neptune (S. Gennaro) , and to have been converted into a bell 
by the archbishop on account of the superstitious veneration with 
which it was regarded. *4904. Horse from Herculaneum, belonging 
to a quadriga, and reconstructed from minute fragments. 4886, 
4888. Two Deer. 4899-4901. Boar, attacked by two dogs. Several 
animals once used as fountain-figures. — At the entrance, on the 
right, 4896. So-called Sappho ,• opposite, *4895. Diana Shooting, a 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 73 

half-figure from the Temple of Apollo at Pompeii ; opposite the 
entrance, 4892. Mercury, in a sitting posture. — To the left of the 
right entrance to the following room : 110,663. Herma of L. Cae- 
cilius Jucundus, a Pompeian hanker (see pp. 76, 149), erected by 
his freedman Felix. — Beside the other entrance, Portrait-hernia 
of an unknown Roman. 

II. Boom: Statuettes. In the centre : 4995. Bacchus with a Satyr 
(eyes inserted). 5000. Boy with goose. Behind the last : 111,701. 
Boy with a dolphin. — In front : **5003. So-called Narcissus, per- 
haps a Pan listening to Echo, one of the most charming antique sta- 
tues extant, hoth in conception and execution, found in an unpre- 
tending private house at Pompeii in 1862. *111,495. Satyr with 
a wine-skin, a fountain-figure found at Pompeii in 1879. *5002. 
Dancing Faun, marking the time by snapping his fingers, found at 
Pompeii (p. 148). *5001 . Silenus, used as the bearer of a vase (with 
handle very unsuitably made in imitation of the body of a serpent), 
found at Pompeii in 1864; the air of exertion is admirably lifelike. 
— In the corners of the room : by the entrance, to the left, and by 
the opposite exit, two Greek Hermae , perhaps intended for a pa- 
laestra, the projecting props being for the support of wreaths. The 
first passes for an Amazon, the second (Head of a Doryphoros) bears 
the name of the sculptor, Apollonius, son of Archias of Athens. 
The window-cabinet contains, above, a number of Boys with wine- 
skins, vessels, and masks, once used as fountain-figures. Silenus 
with a panther. Below : 4997. Flying Victory, on a globe ; 4993. 
Boy with lamp; *4998. Venus arranging her hair, originally with a 
mirror in her left hand; 5010. Two Lares. In the middle, bust of 
Oalba, in silver; 5009. Youthful Bacchus; two equestrian statuet- 
tes: 4999. Amazon, 4996. Alexander the Qreat; 4994. Angler, 
a fountain-figure. — In the cabinet to the right beyond the 
window are all kinds of Fancy Figures, chiefly gladiators. Small 
Busts: Demosthenes, Epicurus, Zeno, Augustus. Hands with 
quaint emblems, used as amulets to avert the danger of the 'evil 
eye'. Above these, Lares (household gods), youths adorned with 
wreaths and bearing drinking-horns and vases, and Genius Fami- 
liaris. — Opposite the window : Statuettes of Gods : Hercules, Vic- 
toria, Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — Wall 
of the entrance : Etruscan Mirrors, the backs adorned with en- 
graved scenes. 

III. Pbincipal Room. In the centre : *5628. Drunken Faun. 
On each side (Nos. 5627, 5626), Two statues of Runners, or, 
more probably , two Wrestlers about to engage. To the right 
beyond these : *5630. Apollo playing the lyre, from Pompeii, a work 
of the archaistic school of Pasiteles, about the beginning of the Em- 
pire (p. xxxv). To the left beyond it, 5629. Apollo Shooting, from 
the Temple of Apollo at Pompeii (a companion-piece to No. 4895, 
p. 72). To the right before the last, **5f>25. Mercury Rei«>sing, 

74 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

a beautiful picture of elastic youth at a moment of relaxation ; 
the wings attached to the feet and the remains of the caduceus in 
the hand identify the messenger of the gods. To the left before 
the last : *5624. Sleeping Satyr. — Along the walls is a series of 
fine Greek portrait-heads (the enumeration begins at the door on the 
left and proceeds towards the left) : 5588. Unknown. The follow- 
ing heads, as far as the opposite door, are believed to be portraits 
of the Ptolemies : 5590. Ptolemy Lagi ; *5592. So-called Berenice, 
admirably modelled (eyes a7id lips lined with silver when dis- 
covered); *5598. Female Head with hair restored (erroneously 
called Ptolemy Apion) ; 5600 (by the door), Ptolemy Soter. The inter- 
vening statues are of little merit : 5593. Claudius ; 5595. Augustus ; 
the others have not been identified. — Farther on, by the wall 
facing the entrance, to the right of the door: 5602. Heraclitus (?), 
the philosopher ; above, 5601. Portrait of a Roman. *5603-5605. 
Three Dancing Women, from Herculaneum; 5607. So-called Ar- 
chytas of Tarentum, with a fillet round his head ; *5608. Arcliaistic 
Head of Apollo ; 5609. Livia (a misnomer); 5610. Head of a Greek 
Athlete; *5611. Sacrificing Boy (camillus); 5612. Female Portrait 
Statue ; 5613. Statuette of Apollo ; 5614. Head of a Greek Athlete. 

— Entrance Wall : 5615. Statue of Nero Drusus, sacrificing; *5616. 
So-called Head of Seneca (perhaps Callimachus). *5618. Head of 
Dionysus, probably the finest embodiment of the ideal of the 
older, bearded, or Indian Bacchus (comp. the relief, 'Banchetto 
d'Icario', p. 72), as already accepted in the 6th cent. B.C. ; this 
head was formerly called Plato, until the discovery of the genuine 
bust of that philosopher (now in Berlin). Above it : *5617. Young 
Tiberius. 5619-21. Three Dancing Women from Herculaneum (see 
above). *5623. DemocritusQl). Above, 5622. Lepidus (?). 

IV. Room : Weapons. In the centre, *5635. Equestrian Statue 
of Caligula, found at Pompeii (p. 141). Adjoining the door on the 
left: 5631. Roman Portrait Head ; opposite, 5632. Bust ofC. Caesar. 

— By the door on the right : 5634. Bust of Scipio Africanus ; op- 
posite , 5633. Idealistic Greek Head. — The cabinets contain a 
choice Collection of Weapons (detailed descriptions hung up at the 
entrance, but the numbers are not always accurate). — E. Wall: 
Greek armour, helmets, and weapons, found at Pactum, Ruvo, and 
Canosa. — N. Wall : Helmets of gladiators and richly decorated 
armour from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Among these 5673. Hel- 
met with the Taking of Troy ; 5669. Shield with head of the Me- 
dusa. — W. Wall : Italian weapons ; among them a cock, a Samnite 
boundary figure from Pietrabbondante (Bovianum), and gladiators' 
horns from Pompeii. — S. Wall: Leaden projectiles for slings etc. 

B. Entresol. 

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Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 75 

objects, and beyond them the ancient crystals and terracottas ; on 
the left are the Cuiuasan collection and the 'Controlleria', or in- 
spector's office. (This part of the museum iB to be re-arranged.) 

The most interesting of the Fompeian Frescoes are the follow- 
ing : on the entrance-wall, to the left, Europa and the bull ; Lao- 
coon ; Tavern scene with inscriptions ; a curious caricature of an 
incident resembling the Judgment of Solomon; Achilles in Scy- 
ros. — Left Wall: Pyramus and Thisbe; Bellerophon; Iphigenia 
and Orestes in Tauris ; Jason before Pelias ; Ulysses escaping from 
Polyphemus ; above, Paris and Helen; Phaedra; Medea. — Window 
Wall: Destruction of Niobe and her children. — Right Wall: Con- 
flict between the Pompeians and Nucerines in the amphitheatre of 
Pompeii (see p. 131); Mars and Venus; Pygmies fighting with 
crocodiles and a hippopotamus ; exhausted Bacchante. — Entrance- 
wall, to the right: Hercules and Nessus; Pan and nymphs playing 
upon musical instruments. Above, Theseus abandoning Ariadne ; 
Cimon and Pero ; Hercules and Auge. In the centre, lamps and other 
clay articles, chiefly from Aretinum. 

The Collection of Renaissance Works (Raccolta degli Oggetti 
del Cinquecento) is arranged in the next room. Bust in bronze of 
Ferdinand of Arragon. Medusa after Canova. An altar with reliefs 
in marble of the German school, representing the Passion in seven 
sections. Indian* and Chinese paintings , and other Asiatic curio- 

The third room contains the Collection of Ancient Terracottas. 
— I. & II. Rooms : Common earthenware articles for household use, 
from Pompeii. *Statuette in a sitting posture of a bearded man 
with a tragic aspect, from Pompeii. In the passage to the third 
room, on the left Artemis, right Medusa. — III. Room. Several 
Etruscan sarcophagi with recumbent figures on the lids. Numerous 
lamps. In the cabinets figures of small animals: horses, pigs, 
birds, also hands and other votive-offerings , such as are still to 
be seen in Roman Catholic churches : infant in swaddling-clothes, 
legs, right half of a human figure. Opposite the window, to the 
right, a colossal Juno; left, Jupiter from the small temple of 
jEsculapius at Pompeii (p. 155). Opposite the door of egress, to 
the right, the fragments of the celebrated Volscian relief from 
Velletri , in the ancient Italian style, with traces of colouring : 
warriors on horseback and in chariots. — IV. Room, on the en- 
trance-wall, to the right: Antefixae and gargoyles; to the left, 
reliefs. On the window wall, to the left, drinking-vessels ; below, 
two archaic antefixae ; to the right, below, Etruscan cists ; above, 
heads with figures upon them. Opposite the entrance: small sta- 
tuettes and busts, many of great excellence. Opposite the window, 
to the left, glazed clay vessels, lamps, and candelabra; to the right, 
vessels ornamented in relief, heads and figures. Above the cases, 
vessels embellished with figures. 

76 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum, 

The central story contains , on the left , the Cumeean Col- 
lection, which was purchased by the Prince of Carignano from 
the heirs of the Count of Syracuse and presented to the Museum. 
It consists chiefly of vases, terracottas, and bronzes found at Cum* 
(see p. 110). By the window of the First Room an elegant jewel- 
casket in wood, with several gold ornaments. In the Second Room 
tables with small objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; an interest- 
ing head in wax from a Roman tomb. Among the vases at the 
window is a fine specimen of the later Attic style, under glass, 
representing a battle between Amazons and Greeks. 

C. Upper Floor. 

From the top of the stairs we first turn to the left to the E. 
wing. To the left of the passage which we enter is a room con- 
taining Copies of Pompeian Pictures, Remains of Food, and other 
objects from Pompeii. 

The copies of Pompeian pictures merit careful inspection, as they 
serve to convey an idea of the brilliant colouring of these ancient walls 
when they were first discovered. — Several glass cabinets contain "Ar- 
ticles of Food and Objects in Common Use at Pompeii. In the centre a hand- 
some bottle with oil. In the round glass cabinet by the window : below, 
a double pan with meat; in the centre a glass vessel with barley; above, 
glass tubes with olives. — In the glass-cases to the right, beyond the 
window: net-work and netting-needles, straw sandals, purse containing 
three coins (found in the Villa of Diomedes), shells, etc. By the entrance- 
wall are several round loaves , one of which bears the baker's name, 
Celer, slave of Q. Granius Verus, stamped upon it. In the glass-cases 
by the left wall: grain, nuts figs, pears, honeycomb, onions, etc. 

Next, on the right, is the Library of the Papyri. 

This collection was discovered in a villa near Herculaneum in 1752. 
The rolls were completely encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and it 
was only by slow degrees that the real value of the discovery was 
appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, of which 1800 only have been 
preserved. The thin layers of the bark (libri) of the papyrus plant, each 
of the breadth of one column of writing, are pasted together and rolled 
on rods, and the difficulties encountered in disengaging them may be 
imagined. The task was long attempted in vain , until the Padre Piaggi 
invented an ingenious machine by which the difficulty was removed. 
Several of these may be seen at work in the second room. About six 
hundred of these libri have been by degrees unrolled , and whatever of 
their contents has escaped obliteration has been published in the Volumina 
Heracleensia. The library belonged to a follower of the Epicurean school, 
and the MSS. consist chiefly of treatises in Greek by the Epicurean Philo- 
demus, a contemporary of Cicero, on nature, music, rhetoric, etc. There 
are also, however, considerable fragments of Epicurus himself, including 
a letter to a young girl, restored by Prof. Gomperz of Vienna, which is 
unique in its way. — Here, in a separate room, are also preserved the 
triptychs (about 300) found in a carbonised box at Pompeii in June, 1875, 
containing receipts for money advanced by L. Ceecilius Jucundus, a Pom- 
peian banker. 

In the room opposite copies of paintings are kept for sale. 

Following the passage in a straight direction , we next enter 
the *First Section of the Picture Gallery, containing paintings 
of the Italian schools (the Neapolitan excepted) , and including 

Museum. NAPLES. .}. Route. 77 

several of the finest works in the collection. Catalogues at the en- 
trance of each room. 

I. Room (Roman Sohool). *5. Claude, Quay at sunset; 12. 
School of Raphael (fj, Female portrait; 27. Sassoferrato, Adoration 
of the Shepherds; 28. School of Raphael, Madonna delle Grazie; 
47. Pannini, Charles III. entering St. Peter's at Rome; 51. R. 
Mengs, Ferdinand IV. at the age of twelve; 53. Pannini, Charles III. 
visiting Benedict XIV. 

II. Room (Schools of Parma and Genoa). 2. Bernardo Strozzi, 
Portrait of a Capuchin; 10. Parmigianino , Holy Family; 11. 
School of Correggio (?), Study of a head ; 12. Parmigianino, Ma- 
donna and Child; 15, 20, 35, 37. Other examples of Parmigianino. 

III. Room (Schools of Lombardy and Parma). School of Leo- 
nardo, 11. John the Baptist, 15. Madonna with two donors of the 
picture ; 16. Parmigianino, St. Clara; 17. Cesare da Sesto, Adoration 
of the Magi, one of the master's chief works (from Messina); *18. 
Leonardo's School (not Boltraffio). The young Christ and John kiss- 
ing each other; 19. Same School, Madonna (perhaps an early copy 
of the Madonna delle Roccie ascribed to Leonardo). 

IV. Room (Venetian School). 1 . Alwise Vivarini , Madonna 
with two saints (1485) ; *5. Bartol. Vivarini, Madonna enthroned 
with saints (1465) ; 7. Ascribed to Giorgione (erroneously, accord- 
ing to Mr. Crowe), Portrait of a Prince Antonello of Salerno (?) ; 10, 
13, 17, 25. Bern. Belotto, Architectural pieces ; 11. Jac.Bassano, 
Venetian lady; *15. Sebastian del Piombo , Pope Clement VII., 
sketch on slate ; 19. After Titian, Pope Paul III. (Farnese), possibly 
an original, but much damaged; *20. Titian, Pope Paul III. with 
Cardinal Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese, full of life, although 
somewhat sketchily handled; 23. Titian, Portrait of Alessandro 
Farnese, damaged ; 24. In the style of Titian, Charles V. ; *32. 
Moretto, Christ scourged, a fine and carefully modelled little 
picture; 40. School of Mantegna, Suffering of Christ; *46. Man- 
tegna, St. Euphemia; 56. Lor. Lotto, Madonna with St. Peter 
Martyr. — Proceeding hence in a straight direction we reach the 
7th and 8th, and, turning to the right, the 5th and 6th rooms. 

V. Room. 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the Doctors in the 
Temple; 2. Seb. del Piombo, Holy Family, executed under the in- 
fluence of Michael Angelo and Raphael (unfinished); *3. Correggio, 
Madonna, named la Zingarella (gipsy, from the head-gear) or del 
Coniglio (rabbit), a charming idyllic composition , painted about 
1520 (much darkened) ; 4. Ant. van Dyck, Portrait ; *5. Titian, 
Danae, painted at Rome in 1545, a voluptuous work, showing the 
master — at sixty-eight — still triumphing over every difficulty of 
art and possessed of all his youthful vigour; 6. Correggio (?), The 
Child Christ asleep. 

*7. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine with the Infant Christ. 

This work, painted in 1517-18, is known as 'II piccolo Sposalizio' in 

contra-distinction to the picture at the Louvre. 'The religious meaning 

78 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

of the legend has sunk entirely into the background; the idea of the 
ecstatic vision of the Virgin saint, in which the betrothal symbolises the 
renunciation of the present and consecration for eternity, is lost in a 
cheerful scene of natural life'. — <■ Correggio\ by Dr. Julius Meyer. 

*8. Titian, Pope Paul III., painted in 1543, and in excellent 


'The pontiff's likeness is that of a strong man, gaunt and dry from 
a»e • A forehead high and endless, a nose both long and slender, 
expanding to a flat drooping bulb with flabby nostrils overhanging the 
mouth, an eye peculiarly small and bleary, a large and thin-lipped 
mouth display the character of Paul Farnese as that of a fox whose 
wariness could seldom be at fault. The height of his frame its size 
and sinew, still give him an imposing air, to which Titian has added 
bv drapery admirable in its account of the under forms, splendid in 
the contrasts of its reds in velvet chair and silken stole and rochet, 
and subtle in the delicacy of its lawn whites.... The quality of life 
and pulsation so often conveyed in Titian's pictures is here in its highest 
development.... Both face and hands are models of execution, models 
of balance of light and shade and harmonious broken tones . — ltlian , 
by Crowe & Cavalcaselle. -, r> « i * t> * 

Ascribed to Correggio (erroneously), 9. Sketch ol a Descent 
from the Cross; 10. Madonna and Child. 

*11. Titian, Philip II., probably painted in 1552-3 from a 
sketch made at Augsburg in 1550 by order of Charles V. 

The first painting from this sketch was sent to England to assist 
Philip in his suit for the hand of Mary Tudor, and is now at Madrid ; the 
Naples picture is the second version, and is hardly inferior to the lirst. 
Bibera, 12. St. Sebastian, 13. St. Jerome listening to the 
trumpet of judgment, 14. St. Jerome; 15. Ouercino, Magdalene; 
16. Rubens, Monk. 

VI. Room is devoted to the Collection of Engravings 
(formed of the Firmian collection"), consisting of 19,300 examples 
in 227 portfolios, which are exhibited by the custodian on appli- 
cation. This room also contains an admirable *Bust of Dante in 
bronze, said to have been modelled from a cast taken from the 
poet's features after death, and three busts of Pope Paul IV. (Ca- 
rafa) by Oiuliano delta Porta. On the walls are hung several 
*Drawings and sketches by great masters, among which may be 
mentioned : Mich. Angelo, Group from the frescoes in the Cap. Pao- 
lina at Rome ; Raphael, Madonna col divino amore (see below) ; Mi- 
chael Angelo, Venus and Cupid ; Raphael, Moses at the burning bush. 
VII. Room. 1. Ann. Carracci, Pieta(copy); 2. Schidone, St. 
Sebastian; 3. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus; *5. Oiulio Ro- 
mano, Holy Family, called Madonna del Gatto ; 6. Parmigianino, 
Madonna ('a tempera') ; *7. Giov. Bellini, Transfiguration, with 
beautiful landscape ; 10. Marcello Venusti , Copy of Michael An- 
gelo's Last Judgment, before its disfigurement; *11. Perugino, 
Madonna; 12. Andrea del Sartop), Pope Clement VII.; 15. Luini, 
Madonna; *16. Giov. Bellini, Portrait ; *17. Raphael^), Portrait 
of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo. 

*19. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's portrait of Leo A., 
with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Rossi (1524). 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 79 

This admirable copy was sent by Clement VII. to the Marchese 
Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua instead of the original he had promised (now 
in the Pitti at Florence), and afterwards came to Naples. Even Giulio 
Komano was deceived, till his attention was directed to a sign made on 
the copy by Andrea del Sarto to distinguish the two works. Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle miss in this work 'the perfect keeping, ease, 
grandeur, modelling, and relief of form', which characterise the original. 

*21. Raphael (?), Portrait of Cardinal Passerini; *22. Raphael, 
Holy Family (Madonna col divino amore), of the master's Roman 
period; 24. Pietro Novelli, surnamed Monrealese, Trinity; 26. 
Oarofalo, Descent from the Cross ; *28. Palma Vecchio, Madonna 
with St. Jerome, John the Baptist, St. Catharine, and donors, the 
most successful of the master's 'holy conversations', a noble compo- 
sition sparkling with light in the dresses and landscape (C. & C.) ; 
30. Domenichino, Guardian angel; 31. Bronzino, Holy Family; *32. 
Claude, Landscape, with accessories by Lauri; 34. Pinturicchio, As- 
sumption ; 36. Titian, Repentant Magdalene ; 40. Leandro Bassano, 
Portrait of a Farnese; 41. Parmigianino, Portrait; 43. Ouercino, 
St. Francis of Assisi ; 44. Andrea da Salerno, St. Benedict enthroned 
between SS. Placidus and Maurus, below the four great Church 
Fathers ; 47. Quido Reni, Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes ; 
49. Bourguignon, Battle ; 51. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus ; 
53. School of Andrea del Sarto, Architect (Bramante?) showing a 
design to a nobleman ; 55. Salv. Rosa, Battle ; 57. Seb. del Piombo, 
Portrait of Pope Hadrian VI. of Utrecht (1522-23) ; 58. Tintoretto, 
Don John of Austria; 59. Ribera, Silenus and satyrs ; 61. Fra Bar- 
tolommeo, Assumption (1516). 

VIII. Room. 4. Crayon copy of Velazquez s 'Drinkers', at Ma- 
drid; 11. Ouido Reni, The Seasons; 24. Bronzino, Cupid and 

Returning to the exit, we may obtain, to the left, in passing, 
a glimpse through the central staircase at the principal hall of the 

The collection embraces about 200,000 printed volumes and 4000 MSS. 
Catalogues for the use of visitors. Besides numerous ancient Italian works 
there are several valuable Greek and Latin MSS. (Greek , Lycophron's 
Alexandra, Quintus Smyrneeus, date 1311, etc.; Latin, Charisius, Ars gram- 
matica, the half-burned MS. of Festus, a mass-book with beautiful minia- 
tures of fruit and flowers, called la Flora, etc.). In the principal hall the 
custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books are not lent out , but 
within the library three may be used at a time (9-3 o'clock). Readers 
enter from the street (not through the museum) by the last door in the 
building, and ascend by the staircase to the right. 

The W. half of the Upper Floor, reached from the Grand Stair- 
case by ascending to the right, contains the glass, coins, half of the 
pictures, vases, small bronzes, and precious relics. 

Immediately on the right of the corridor, which we now enter, 
is a room containing the Collection of Ancient Crystal (Vetri), 
the most extensive of the kind in existence , showing the nu- 
merous ways in which it was used by the ancients. Several panes 
of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected ; also a 

80 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

beautifully-cut glass *Vase with white Cupids and foliage on a 
blue ground , discovered in 1837 in a tomb in the Street of the 
Tombs at Pompeii, when it was filled with ashes. 

The next door to the right leads to the Reserved Cabinet (Rac- 
colta Pornografica), to which men only are admitted ; it contains 
mural and other paintings not adapted for public exhibition, and 
numerous bronzes, some of them of considerable artistic merit. 

Opposite this collection , on the left side of the passage , is 
the Collection of Coins (Medagliere), which is of almost unrivalled 
value and extent. 

The First Room contains the Greek , the Second and Third the Ro- 
man , the Fourth the mediseval coins , and the Fifth the dies of the 
Neapolitan mint, together with a numismatic library. Catalogues are 
placed over the glass-cases for the use of visitors. In the corners: 
Busts of distinguished numismatists. — The Museo Santangelo (p. 82) 
adjoins the 5th room, but is not accessible thence. 

We next proceed in a straight direction from the above-named 
passage to the comparatively uninteresting Second Section of the 
Picture Gallery, containing works of the Neapolitan, later Italian, 
and foreign schools. 

Room I. (Bolognese School). 1. Lavinia Fontana, Christ and 
the Samaritan woman ; 3. Ann. Carracci, Madonna and Child with 
St. Francis, painted on Oriental agate ; 9. Quido Reni, Ulysses 
and Nausicaa ; 15. Lionello Spada, Cain and Abel ; 38. Francesco 
Romanelli, Sibyl; 43. Ann. Carracci, Caricature of Caravaggio as 
a savage with a parrot and a dwarf, in the corner Carracci himself; 
47. Ouercino, Peter weeping; 55. Ann. Carracci, Rinaldo and Ar- 
mida; 69. M. Caravaggio, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Ann. Car- 
racci, Landscape with St. Eustachius. 

Room II. (Tuscan School). 2. Jac. Pontormo, Copy of a Ma- 
donna by Andrea del Sarto; 5. Sodoma, Resurrection of Christ; 
23. Filippo Mazzuola (of Parma), Pieta, and saints; 27. Lor. di 
Credi, Nativity; 31. Matteo da Siena, Massacre of the Innocents 
(dated 1482); 32. Florentine School, Madonna enthroned ; 34. Flor- 
entine School, Pope Liberius founding S. Maria Maggiore (ad 
nives) at Rome; Ang. Bronzino, 42. Young nobleman, 55. Female 
portrait. In the centre of the room is a large bronze tabernacle 
with the story of the Passion, executed by Jacopo Sicilians from 
a design said to have been made by Michael Angelo. 

Room III. (Neapolitan School of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cent- 
uries). Pietro del Donzello, 1. Christ crucified between the two male- 
factors, 3. St. Martin ; 7. Antonio Solario, surnamed Lo Zingaro, 
Madonna and Child under a canopy, surrounded by eight saints ; 
21, 25, 32. Simone Papa, Crucifixion and Saints; 24. Andrea 
fSabbatini) da Salerno, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari, sadly da- 
maged; *34. Andrea da Salerno, Adoration of the Magi, marked by 
all the freshness and grace of the S. Italian school, but also by the 
characteristically slight attention paid by it to correct handling. — 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 81 

Adjoining the third room are two rooms containing Byzantine and 
early Tuscan works, most of them badly preserved and freely 
restored, and Neapolitan paintings of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

Room IV. (Neapolitan School of the 16-18th centuries). 1. Do- 
menico Oargiulo, surnamed Micco Spadaro, Revolt of Masaniello 
in the Piazza del Mercato at Naples in 1647 ; 5. Gian Filippo 
Criscuolo, Adoration of the Magi ; 22, 27, 28, 30. Works by Luca 
Giordano ; 37. Massimo Stanzioni, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
56. Traversa, Girl with doves; 63. Pacecco di Rosa, Madonna 
delle Grazie ; 64. Jose Ribera, surnamed Spagnoletto, St. Bruno 
adoring the Holy Child, on copper; 66. Pietro Novelli, surnamed 
Monrealese, Judith and Holophernes ; 72. Bom. Gargiulo, The 
smoker; 75. Giordano, Pope Alexander II. consecrating the 
church of Monte Casino ; 76. Giordano, Christ shown to the people 
(after Diirer). — The large walnut cabinet in the centre of the 
room, adorned with carved reliefs from the life of St. Augustine, 
dates from the 16th cent, and was formerly in the sacristy of the 
monastery of S. Agostino degli Scalzi. It contains mediaeval and 
Renaissance ivory carvings , engraved rock-crystals , miniatures, 
and the like, most of which were once in possession of the Farnese 
family. A cabinet by the wall of the exit, from the same church, 
contains majolicas from Urbino and elsewhere. By the window : 
the *Cassetta Farnese in gilded silver, executed by Giovanni de' 
Bernardi da Castelbolognese , a goldsmith of Bologna (d. 1555), 
with six large and beautifully cut stones representing Meleager and 
Atalanta, Procession of the Indian Bacchus, Circus games, Battle 
of Amazons , Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithfe , Battle of 
Salamis. — By the other window: Small Diana on the stag, in 
gilded silver, with clock-work, probably the toy of some juvenile 

Room V. (German and Flemish Schools). *3. Low German 
Master (catalogued as Lucas van Leyden), Adoration of the Magi ; 
31. Alb. Durer{T), Nativity; 40. Lucas Cranach, Christ and the 
adulteress ; 42. Amberger (?), Portrait ; *44. Jan van Eyck (?), St. 
Jerome extracting a thorn from the paw of a lion, one of the 
finest early-Flemish paintings in Italy , but not to be ascribed to 
Van Eyck with absolute certainty ; 51. Ascribed to Holbein, A car- 
dinal; *53. Low German Master, Crucifixion; 54. Pieter Brueghel 
the Elder, Parable of the seven blind men. 

Room VI. (Netherlands Schools): *1. Style of Rembrandt, Por- 
trait ; 12. Ascribed to Van Dyck, Portrait of a nobleman ; 17. School 
of Rembrandt, Portrait; 19. Frans Snyders , Hunting scene ; 36. 
School of Van Dyck , Crucifixion ; 61 . Collection of miniatures of 
the House of Farnese; *73. Mich. Mierevelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. 
Bol, Portrait ; 83. Ascribed to Van Dyck , Portrait of a Princess 
Egmont ; 89. Villa Medici at Rome in 1615. — Entrance hence 
into the collection of bronzes, see p. 83. 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. (3 

82 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

From the 5th Room of the paintings we enter a circular room, 
the first of the collection of vases (see below), and pass thence 
to the left into the Museo Santangelo, which occupies three 
rooms. This museum was formerly in the Pal. Santangelo, but 
was purchased by the city of Naples in 1865 and placed under the 
care of the Museo Nazionale. 

1st Room: Vases. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha- 
nalian scene. In the middle of the cabinet on the left, Bacchanalian feast 
with an armed dancing-woman. To the right by the window a "Cabinet 
with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

2nd Room: Collection of Terracottas and Small Bronzes. On the 
left, in the corner, a vase from Nola, with the return of Hephaestus to 

3rd Room : Collection of Coins. On the second table in the middle of 
the room an interesting selection of 'aes grave'' and other Italian coins. 
Also several large vases: to the left of the entrance a vase with Pelops and 
CEnomaus. In the centre a vase with Orpheus in the infernal regions. 
Opposite the entrance, to the right, "Mercury and Spes, relief - mosaics 
from Metapontum, unique of their kind. Cock-light. 

We now return to the ** Collection of Vases, which begins 
with the circular room mentioned above, and occupies seven rooms. 
It is very extensive and valuable, and is particularly rich in spe- 
cimens of the handsome vases of Lower Italy. The finest speci- 
mens are placed by themselves on short columns. The collection 
is arranged in chronological order after the second room, in which 
from the left of the entrance to the middle of the right wall are 
arranged the vases with black figures; then follow Greek vases 
with red figures , succeeded by vases of Italian origin. — As 
Greek vase-painting was adopted by the Etruscans and modified 
according to the national taste, so this branch of art was strongly influ- 
enced in Lower Italy, and especially in Apulia, by the peculiar 
character of its inhabitants. The vases here are of large and imposing 
dimensions, and the artists, not satisfied with the decoration of paint- 
ing alone, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn the necks 
and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, if pos- 
sible , the entire surface of the vase with the colours. The 
different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been bestowed on the delineation of 
rich but scantily folded garments. The representations are for 
the most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in 
some cases scenes of a more Italian character are observed. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly after 
the reign of Alexander the Great. 

The floors of the rooms are paved with ancient, but freely 
restored Mosaics. 

1st Room. The vases in the 1st and 2nd cabinets (to the left, 
counting from the entrance from the picture-gallery), and the 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 83 

three placed on columns in front of them are specimens of the 
earliest stage of this art. They are of a yellowish colour, orna- 
mented with two rows of plants or animals of brownish or black 
colour, and are round or oval in form. The 3rd and 4th cabinets 
contain Etruscan and Calene (p. 7) , the others Greek vases, some 
of them beautifully shaped, but nearly all black and unpainted. 

2nd Room. Pavement from the house of Diomedes at Pompeii. 
Opposite the entrance : Condemnation of Marsyas. By the window: 
Two large vases, one from Ruvo, the largest vase yet discovered, 
with a battle of Amazons , the other with Orpheus in the infernal 
regions. Between these, under a glass shade, Lecythus (vase for 
ointment) with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. In a cabinet opposite 
the window, Lecythi, remarkable for the painting on white ground; 
and prize vases of the Panathenean festivals. 

3rd Room. Opposite the entrance : *Vase with lid, Bacchanalian 
sacrifice. Farther on, in the centre, actors with masks; *Battle of 
Amazons; ^Destruction of Troy. To the left, two large vases; Death 
of Arehemorus ; Funeral sacrifice of Patroclus. 

4th Room. In the centre, Medea fleeing after the murder of her 
children. Lycurgus, blinded by Bacchus, slaying his wife. By the 
window, the celebrated large Vase of Darius from Canosa : Darius 
planning the conquest of Greece ; above is Hellas, at whose side 
Athene and Zeus are standing; beneath are the Persian provinces 
on which subsidies are levied for the war, with accompanying names. 
Opposite the window, below to the right, Hercules carrying off the 
tripod, pursued by Apollo. 

5th Room. In the centre, Orestes seeking refuge from the Furies 
at the statue of Artemis; Perseus releasing Andromeda; Tereus on 
horseback pursuing Procne and Philomela. Opposite the window, 
to the left, Hercules carrying off the tripod. Farther on, to the right, 
Lycurgus killing his son; Rape of the golden fleece ; Orestes and 
Electra mourning at the grave of Agamemnon. 

6th Room. By the window two models of tombs, which illustrate 
the manner in which the vases were discovered. As the ornaments, 
weapons, etc., of the deceased were deposited with his remains in 
the tomb, so also were these vases which had adorned his home; in 
some cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclu- 
sion that they were manufactured for this express purpose. In the 
centre, drinking horns and Lecythi. — The rest of the vases here 
and in the 7th Room are unimportant. — The entrance hence to the 
small bronzes is closed. We therefore proceed to the principal 
entrance in the 6th room of the picture-gallery (p. 81). 

The collection of the ** Small Bronzes, the finest of its kind 
in existence , has recently been arranged in a masterly fashion. It 
consists chiefly of household utensils , lamps, candelabra, tools of 
all kinds, musical and surgical instruments, weapons, etc., most of 
them found at. Pompeii, and is admirably adapted to convey an idea 


84 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

of the life and habits of the ancient Italians. The use of most of 
the objects is too obvious to require explanation. 

1st Room : The most valuable objects are in the centre, grouped 
around three large Money-Chests, such as usually stood in the 
Atria of Pompeian houses. To the left of the corner: Dish-warmer, 
in the form of a fortress. Farther to the right: large Divan or 
chair. Cooking Stove. Table Support, with Victoria bearing a tro- 
phy. Farther on, parallel with the window-wall and by the 
windows : Bisellia (seats of honour) decorated with heads of horses 
and swans, and a large shallow Dish with inlaid silver ornaments. 
In a glass-case, a *Tripod for sacrifices, richly decorated, from the 
temple of Isis at Pompeii. Then iron Stocks from the gladiators' 
barracks at Pompeii, near which three skeletons were found. Far- 
ther back, also under glass : * Candelabrum from the villa of Dio- 
medes, consisting of a small Bacchus riding on a panther and a 
pilaster adorned with a mask and bucranium (skull of an ox) on 
a square pedestal ; the lamps hang from four branches ; those at 
present placed there are not the original. Adjacent is a small Al- 
tar. Then, Baths. Large Brazier from the Thermae at Pompeii 
(p. 149), ornamented with a cow's head, the armorial bearings of 
the founder M. Nigidius Vacca. — The Cabinets along the wall are 
numbered from right to left, beginning at the left entrance, i-xiv. 
Bronze Vessels, xv, xvi. Water-taps and Gargoyles, xvn. Imple- 
ments of the Palastra, including numerous Scrapers for removing 
the oil and dust from the body after gymnastic exercise ; garniture 
of a ring, xvin-xx. Door-plates, Locks, and Keys, with fine inlaid 
work, xxi-xxin. Iron Vessels, xxiv-xxvn. Lamps, xxvm-xxx. 
Mountings, Handles, Table Supports, etc. — Among the cabinets 
stand several Candelabra. 

2nd Room : A *Model of Pompeii, faithfully representing the 
ruins, on a scale of 1 : 100, but still unfinished. — Along the 
walls are ancient disk-shaped Bells or Gongs, and numerous bronze 
vessels and candelabra. Cabinets xxxii-xliii, 1-lv, lviii-lx. con- 
tain Utensils of various kinds and shapes, xliv, xlv. Ladles and 
Funnels ; elaborate Cooking Apparatus, xlvi. Tripods ; small Bra- 
ziers, xlvii-li. Scales and Weights, lvi. Mirrors and Ink-holders; 
below, objects in Bone and Ivory, lvii. Bells, Harness, Ornaments, 
Buckles (fibulae). —In the glass-cases : lxi. Compasses , Angling 
Hooks , Anchors , Steering Apparatus, lxii. Musical Instruments, 
including the 'sistrum' used in the worship of Isis. lxiii. Astragali, 
Dice, Tesserae (tickets of bone, ivory, etc., including some theatre- 
tickets), lxiii b. Trinkets and Toilette Articles in bronze and 
ivory, lxiv. Sieve, lxv, lxvi. Surgical Instruments, lxvii, lxviii. 
Ivory and Bone Carvings. — To the left, near the model of Pom- 
peii : Leaden Vessels of cylindrical form. — At the back is a Tri- 
clinium , or three dining-sofas , each for three persons (the table 
was placed in the middle). By the window, under a glass shade, 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 85 

the impression in hardened ashes of the breast of a girl and her 
skull, from the villa of Diomedes at Pompeii (p. 145). 

The last room contains the excellently re-arranged Collection 
of Precious Relics (Oggetti Preziosi), antique cut gems, and gold 
and silver objects. 

By thb Window, the celebrated *Tazza Farnese, a vessel of 
onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the out- 
side a large Medusa's head in relief; in the inside a group of seven 
persons, referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the 
Nile, by others to a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at 
the foundation of Alexandria. 

Tables in thb Cbntre. The first near the window contains 
the Cameos, or stones cut in relief, many of which are very inter- 
esting: *16. Zeus in conflict with the Titans, by Anthemion ; 32. 
Head of Medusa; 44. A fine head of Augustus ; 65. Part of the 
group of the Farnese bull, said to have been used as a model at its 
restoration; below it, 1857. Head of a Vestal. — Adjacent are the 
Jntagli, or stones on which the designs recede^so placed that the de- 
signs are seen through the stone) : 209. Ajax and Cassandra ; 213. 
Apollo and Marsyas; *392. Bacchante. ■ — There is also an inter- 
esting table containing ancient Rings, including a gold ring with a 
portrait, possibly of Brutus, with the artist's name Anaxilas. 

The Cabinets by the entrance-wall and the window-wall and 
at the front part of the left wall contain well-executed Objects in 
Silver: Vases, goblets, tablets, spoons, buckles; also objects in 
ivory, medallion reliefs, etc. The most noteworthy objects are the 
following: Six fine large vases; Six goblets with foliage; Small 
sun-dial ; Vase in the shape of a mortar , with the apotheosis 
of Homer; Three handsome tripods ; Rings from Greek tombs at 
Armento in the Basilicata ; Silver Plate from the house of Me- 
leager at Pompeii, including two handsome goblets with centaurs. 

The Objects in Oold begin at the farther end , to the right, 
with the Greek ornaments , which include a diadem from Venosa, 
and *Ornaments found in a tomb at Taranto; large gold lamp from 
Pompeii, admirably executed and well preserved. Then, opposite 
the entrance, ornaments from Herculaneum and Pompeii, some set 
with pearls and precious stones : Nos. 1-4. Chain, bracelet, and a pair 
of earrings which were found with a female skeleton in the house 
of Diomedes at Pompeii ; then, 186, 187. Two cloak-clasps; two 
massive armlets in the form of serpents ; handsome necklaces, etc. 

V. Modern Quarters : Chiaja , Villa Nazionale , Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele. — Castel S. Elmo. 

The modern quarters of Naples, which form the chief resort 
of foreign visitors , extend to the W. of the heights of Pizzo- 
falcone and S. Elmo, along the base and on the slope of the 

86 Route 3. NAPLES. Villa Nazionale. 

Posilipo (p. 93), and are bounded on the S. by the sea. Nearest 
the coast are the gardens of the Villa Nazionale, bounded on the 
seaward and landward side respectively by the Via Caracciolo and 
the Riviera di Chiaja. On the hill are the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
and the new Via Tasso. 

The Via Cakacctolo (PI. B, C, D, 7), a broad quay, stretches 
westwards along the coast, from the Largo della Vittoria (PI. F, 7; 
p. 35), commanding beautiful views of the sea and of the hill of 
Posilipo. It is generally quiet and deserted during the greater part 
of the day, but in the afternoon and particularly on Sunday and 
holiday evenings in fine weather, it is thronged with carriages, while 
the neighbouring grounds of the Villa are crowded with foot-passen- 
gers. — The Rivieba di Chiaja (PI. B, C, 7), generally known 
simply as La Chiaja (i. e. 'plaga' ; so too in Sicily 'chiazza' for 
'piazza') , also begins at the Largo della Vittoria at the point 
where the piazza is entered by the Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 
coming from the Toledo (p. 42). From this point it extends 
westwards along the coast for upwards of 1 M., being flanked on 
one side by handsome hotels and other buildings, and on the 
other by the pleasure-grounds of the Villa Nazionale. 

The * Villa Nazionale, formerly Villa Reale, generally called 
La Villa (PI. D, 7), is a beautiful pleasure-ground, affording the 
principal promenade at Naples. It was laid out in 1780, extended 
in 1807 and 1834, and again considerably enlarged since 1875. 
The grounds are arranged chiefly in the Italian style, and are em- 
bellished with trees of the most various descriptions, among 
which a few handsome palms are particularly noticeable. The 
sculptures intended for the decoration of the grounds, being in- 
different imitations of ancient and modern works , do not deserve 
inspection. The Villa is comparatively deserted during the day, 
but presents a busy and gay scene at hours when the daily con- 
certs (gratis) take place : viz., in the colder season 2-4, in summer 
9-11 p.m. In the evening, when lighted with gas, enlivened by 
the music, and fanned by the cool sea-breeze, these grounds afford 
a good idea of the charms of an Italian summer-night (chairs 10 c. ; 
cafe's, see p. 22). 

Entering the grounds by the principal approach in the Largo 
della Vittoria, and walking up the broad central path between two 
rows of palm-trees, we first come to a large Antique Granite Basin 
from Paestum, brought from Salerno, and deposited here in 1825 to 
replace the celebrated group of the Farnese Bull, which was then 
removed from this spot to the Museum (p. 65). To the right, 
farther on, is the former Pompeiorama, now a depot for the sale of 
photographs and objects of art. We next pass the Aquarium on the 
left (see p. 87). In the centre of the promenade, the most frequent- 
ed spot, where the band plays, are a cafe' and a restaurant. Here 
also rises a statue of the historian Giambattista Vico (d. 1744), 

Aquarium. NAPLES. 3. Route. 87 

erected a few years ago. We next observe a mediocre statue of P. 
Colletta , the liberal-minded Neapolitan general , minister-of-war, 
and historian (1775-1831 ; erected in 1866), and a bust of Errico 
Alvino, the architect. 

Farther on, to the right, is a small temple in honour of Virgil 
(p. 89), one of the loveliest points in the Villa, especially by moon- 
light. Another temple, to the left, is dedicated to the memory of Tasso. 
At the end of the gardens is a statue of Thalberg, the pianist, who 
died at Naples in 1871. Adjacent, on the side next the sea, are two 
handsome new fountains. 

The white building in the middle of "the Villa contains a large 
**Aquarium, opened in 1874, and belonging to the 'Zoological Sta- 
tion'. The aquarium is on the ground-floor of the building, and is 
entered from the side next to the Castel dell' Ovo (admission, see 
p. 30; catalogue, 50 c, illustrated, 1 fr.). 

The Neapolitan Aquarium contains such an abundant stock of curious 
marine animals of every description that it is perhaps the most inter- 
esting establishment of the kind in the world ; and the wonderful variety 
of animate existence in the Mediterranean gives it a great advantage over 
aquaria drawing their main supplies from more northern waters. Among 
the contents are 6-8 varieties of cuttle-fish (the feeding of the large Oc- 
topus is interesting) , a number of electric rays (which visitors are per- 
mitted to touch so as to experience the shock from which the fish derives 
its name), numerous beautifully coloured fish of the Mediterranean, a 
great many different kinds of living coral, beautiful medusae and crested 
blubbers, many extraordinary -looking crabs and crayfish, pipe-fish, etc. 

The Zoological Station was established by the German naturalist 
Dr. Dohrn in 1872-74 for the purpose of facilitating a thorough scientific 
investigation of the animal and vegetable world of the Mediterranean Sea. 
The greater part of the expense was borne by Dr. Dohrn himself, but the 
German government has repeatedly contributed large subsidies, and the 
naturalists of Great Britain presented the institution with a sum of 1000 1. 
A yearly income of about 2500Z. is now derived from the stipends paid by 
most of the European governments, Cambridge University, etc., for the privi- 
lege of sending naturalists to make use of the advantages of the institution. 
The new buildings which have been erected, with assistance from the 
Italian government, will permit of an extension of the activity of the in- 

The resident staff of the establishment consists of Dr. Dohrn himself, 
seven permanent naturalists, and upwards of twenty assistants of various 
kinds. A small steam-yacht, a steam-launch, and a flotilla of sailing and row- 
ing-boats are maintained for dredging, and the other equipments are also on 
a scale of great completeness. About 400 foreign naturalists have already 
prosecuted their investigations here. The institution publishes extensive 
periodical proceedings, sends microscopic and other preparations to all the 
leading museums and laboratories in Europe , and in various ways has 
fairly asserted itself as the central point for the study of marine biology. 
Similar stations have been founded in all parts of the world, but none can 
compare in size or importance with the original institution at Naples. 
There are now zoological stations at Plymouth, Edinburgh, Sebastopol, 
Trieste, Villafranea, Cette, Marseilles, Banyuls, Arcachon, Roscoff, Ostend, 
on the Dutch coast, in Sweden, Sidney, two in North America, and one 
in Japan. 

At the point where the Villa ends is the Piazza Umberto (PI. 
C, 7), whence the handsome new Corso Umberto runs W. to the 
Mbrgbllina (PI. B, 7). In the Piazza Umberto-the handsome Grand 

88 Route 3. NAPLES. Chiesa del Sannazaro. 

Hotel (p. 20) is conspicuous. A few hundred paces farther N., at 
the Torretta, the road forks: the Strada di Piedigrotta (p. 89) leads 
to the right to the Riviera di Chiaja, while the Strada di Mergellina, 
to the left, stretches along the foot of the Posilipo and the coast to 
the Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 94). Boats for hire at the Mer- 
gellina. Fine views, especially of Vesuvius. 

Nearly ^4 M. from the above-mentioned bifurcation of the 
streets, the Corso Vittorio Emanuele diverges to the right (p. 90; 
ordinary cab-fares thus far). About */4 M. farther, on the right, 
before the street turns a corner, we observe above us the small 
Chiesa del Sannazaro, or S. Maria del Parto. (We ascend the 
approach to the church and mount the steps to the left, which 
lead in three flights to the terrace above the houses Nos. 10-17.) 
The church stands on the site of a small estate which King Fred- 
erick II. of Arragon presented in 1496 to the poet Jacopo Sanna- 
zaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for whom he entertained the highest re- 
gard. After his villa had been destroyed by the French, the aged 
poet caused the church to be erected by monks of the Servite order 
in 1529. It derives its name from his Latin poem, 'De partu Vir- 
ginis' (Naples, 1526). 

The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chapel 
to the right, St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pisloja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman of whom Diomedes 
Carafa, Bishop of Ariano, was once passionately enamoured, and is popularly 
known as 'il diavolo di Mergellina'. Behind the high-altar is the monu- 
ment of the poet (d. 1530), executed by Fra Giovanni da Montorsoli from 
a design by Girolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo and Minerva, pop- 
ularly believed to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief between them 
Neptune and Pan, with fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing and playing, an 
allusion to Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the sarcophagus with the 
bust of the poet , which bears his academic name : Actius Sincerus. The 
inscription at the base of the monument by Bembo ('Maroni . . . Musa pro- 
ximus ut tumulo') alludes to the poet's having imitated Virgil. His prin- 
cipal works are idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

To the right, farther on, rises the Villa Angri. On the left 
('/ 2 M. from the Chiesa del Sannazaro) , we next observe near 
the sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Donn' Anna (erro- 
neously called that of the Regina Giovanna; tramway, see p. 24), 
begun in the 17th cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna Carafa, wife 
of the viceroy Duke of Medina, on the site of a former palace of 
the princes of Stigliano, but never completed. To the left, on the 
coast, just before reaching the Palazzo di Donn' Anna, we pass the 
Trattoria dellaSirena, mentioned at p. 22; in the Palazzo itself are 
two other trattorie, and just beyond it is the Trattoria dello Scoglio 
di Frisio, the best known of all. In front of the adjacent Marine 
Hospital, a curious group of statuary (St. Francis, Dante, Columbus, 
and Giotto) was erected in 1883. 

Boats for returning are generally to be found below the restaurants : 
to the Villa V/2, to the town 2-3 fr. ; Cab from the Piazza del Plebiscite 
to the Frisio 1 fr. (bargain necessary). The tramway-cars also pass the 
Villa on their way to the trattorie mentioned at p. 22, IV2 M. farther on. 

Tomb of Virgil. NAPLES. .3. Route. 89 

For the continuation of this street, see p. 94. 

The Strada di Piedigrotta (PI. B, A, 7), which forms the 
prolongation of the Riviera di Chiaja in a straight direction, gradu- 
ally ascends from the bifurcation mentioned at p. 88, at the tram- 
way station of La Torretta, to the hill of Posilipo. In 5 min. we reach 
the small Piazza di Piedigrotta, where the Cotso Vittorio Emanuele 
diverges (p. 90). At this point rises the church of 8. Maria di Pie- 
digrotta, a building of the 13th cent., but much altered, and finally 
restored in 1850 after the return of Pius IX. from Gaeta. It contains 
a very old picture of the Madonna, and an interesting Pieta in the 
Flemish - Neapolitan style, the wings evidently executed under 
Sienese influence (2nd chapel to the right). The large side-cha- 
pel, to the right of the high-altar, contains the tombs of the Filan- 
gieri , and a statue of Gaetano Filangieri , the famous jurist (see 
p. 159). — For the festival of Piedigrotta, see p. 29. 

A little farther on the road turns to the left, straight on being 
the Grotta Nuova di Fozzuoli, a tunnel bored in 1882-85 through 
the hill of Posilipo, and giving passage to the steam-tramway to 
Pozzuoli (p. 24). It is shorter, lower, and less picturesque than the 
old Grotta (see p. 90), through which the rest of the wheeled traffic 
to Pozzuoli passes. A Lift (Ascensore) is being erected to con- 
vey passengers to the top of the hill (470 ft. above) which is crossed 
by the road (p. 96) destined as the communication with the pro- 
jected new quarter, the Parco Savoia (p. 34). Both grottoes arc 
open to foot-passengers. 

About 3 min. farther, beyond the point where the road turns 
to the left, we observe on the left, between the smiths' forges, 
below No. 9, the entrance to the so-called Tomb of Virgil, a 
Roman columbarium situated on the hill, the genuineness of 
which, however, as the great poet's last resting-place is extremely 
questionable. The custodian is generally on the spot (adm. 1 fr. ; 
gratuity 6-8 soldi). The tomb-chamber, to which a long flight of 
steps ascends, contains nothing worth seeing, but the hill commands 
a beautiful view of the bay. The visit occupies 25-30 minutes. 

The tomb contains a chamber about 16 ft. square, with three win- 
dows and vaulted ceiling. In the walls are ten recesses for cinerary 
urns, and in the principal wall, which has been destroyed, there appears to 
have been one of greater size. The name of the monument is without 
satisfactory historical foundation, but probability and local tradition favour 
the assumption that this was Virgil's last resting-place. The poet, as he 
himself informs us, here composed his immortal works, the Georgics and 
the ^Eneid, and he unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and 
by his express wish was interred here after his death at Brundisium, B.C. 
19, on his return from Greece. Petrarch is said to have visited this spot 
accompanied by King Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the 
beginning of the present century fell a prey to the knives of relic-hunters, 
and has since been replaced. It is on record that in 1326 the tomb was 
in a good state of preservation, and contained a marble urn with nine small 
pillars, the frieze of which bore the well-known inscription : — 
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 

90 EouteS. NAPLES. Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 

Of all this no trace now remains. The following inscription was placed 
here in 1554: — 

Qui cineres? tumuli hsec vestigia: conditur olim 
Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 

The road now ascends in a curve and reaches the Grotta 
Vecchia di Fozzuoli, a tunnel probably constructed in the reign 
of Augustus. It is mentioned by Seneca and Petronius, under Nero, 
as a narrow and gloomy pass. It is a masterpiece of ancient en- 
gineering ; as indicated by the two air-shafts, the construction was 
begun from above at two points equidistant from the ends as well 
as at each end , a method universally adopted by the ancients in 
boring tunnels. Mediaeval superstition attributed it to magic arts 
practised by Virgil. King Alphonso I. (about 1442) enlarged the 
opening by lowering the level of the road, and caused it to be ven- 
tilated; a century later Don Pedro de Toledo caused the road to be 
paved ; and it was again paved and improved by Charles III. (1754). 
The length of the passage, which is always lighted with gas, is 757 
yds.; height at the E. entrance about 87 ft., varying in the interior 
from 20 to 50 ft.; breadth 21-32 ft. Small chapels are situated at 
the entrance and in the middle. On a few days in March and Oc- 
tober the sun shines directly through the grotto, producing a magic 

At the egress of the two tunnels is situated the village of 
Fuorigrotta , with numerous osterie , where several roads diverge. 
A new road to the right leads to Capodimonte (p. 45). The sec- 
ond leads to the village of Pianura (p. 98) ; a third road leads to the 
Lago d'Agnano, and that in a straight direction to Bagnoli (p. 100). 
At the W. end of Fuorigrotta is the small church of 5. Vitale, 
containing a simple monument to the distinguished poet Count 
Giacomo Leopardi , who died at Naples in 1837. — Comp. the 
Map, p. 98. 

Opposite the N.W. corner of the Museum, as mentioned at 
p. 44, the Strada Salvator Rosa (PI. D, E, 3, 4) ascends the 
heights of S. Elmo and the Posilipo. Donkeys may be hired at the 
foot of the hill, and also farther up : to S. Martino l-l^ir- (as 
quick as a carriage, or quicker). The tramway (No. 6, p. 24) as- 
cends at this point by the rack-and-pinion system. In 10 minutes 
walk from the Museum we reach the small Piazza Salvator Rosa, 
where the Str. Salvator Rosa turns to the right (see p. 95). 

In a straight direction begins here the *Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. D, 4; E, 5; B, C, D, E, 6; B, 7; steam-tramway, see p. 24), 
which is carried by means of windings and several viaducts round 
the hills of S. Elmo and the Posilipo. It then skirts the slopes 
for some distance, and at length gradually descends to the Piazza 
di Piedigrotta (p. 89) and the Mergellina (p. 87), commanding ad- 
mirable views of the town, the bay, and Mt. Vesuvius. The road 
was begun by the Bourbons for military purposes (to afford a pro- 

S. Marlino. NAPLES. 3. Route. 91 

tected communication between the Castel S. Elmo and the city), 
but was not completed till 1875. Owing to the openness and 
healthiness of the situation, houses are rapidly springing up along 
this road. The distance from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to S. Maria 
di Piedigrotta is upwards of 2^2 M. (pleasanter for a drive than a 
walk). From the Corso a number of lanes descend, some of them 
by means of steps, to the lower part of the city. Those diverging 
from the first third of the road lead to the Toledo , those from the 
last third descend to the Chiaja. 

About */2 M. from the Piazza Salvator Rosa, beyond the viaduct 
and a bend in the Corso, a road diverging to the right beyond a 
red house {Salita di S. Martino ; PI. D, E, 5) ascends to the Castel 
S. Elmo and S. Martino. It leads, towards the end by zigzags, to 
the entrance of the fort in l fa hr. About '/2 M. farther the Salita 
del Petraio, another lane with steps, also ascends to the right from 
the Corso Vitt. Emanuele to S. Martino and S. Elmo. At the top 
we turn to the right and soon reach the entrance to S. Elmo. This 
is the shortest route to the castle from the Chiaja (donkeys for 
hire at the foot of the Salita). — A much longer route is by the 
carriage-road, following the Str. Salvator Rosa to the small chapel 
of S. Maria Costantinopolitana (PI. C, 4; p. 96), diverging there 
to the left, turning to the left again, and then to the right. Carriage 
to S. Martino, with one horse IV2, with two horses 2 l / 4 fr., see p. 23. 
— The easiest ascent to the hill of S. Elmo, on which a new quar- 
ter is springing up, is by one of the Cable Tramways mentioned 
at p. 24. The westernmost of these, which has recently been 
opened, is most convenient to the majority of travellers, as its lower 
station is close to the Via Nazionale. The upper terminus is about 
'/ 2 M. to the W. of S. Elmo (comp. PI. C, 5). 

The Castel Sant' Elmo (875 ft.), or Sant\Ermo, formerly Sunt' 
Erasmo, was erected by Oiacomo de' Sanctis under Robert the Wise 
(1343). Under Ferdinand I. (1458) it was called the Castello di S. 
Martino, after the neighbouring monastery, and considerably ex- 
tended. In the 16th cent, it was altered to its present form by 
Don Pedro de Toledo, and in 1641 some additions were made by 
the Duke of Medina. The vast walls, the fosses hewn in the 
solid tuffstone rock, its subterranean passages, and ample cistern 
formerly obtained for it the reputation of impregnability. The fort 
has been dismantled under the new regime, and is now used as a 
military prison. 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications (admission to 
the castle itself only with a permesso of the commandant at Naples, 
p. 36), we first proceed to the suppressed Carthusian monastery of- — 

*S. Martino (PI. D, 5), which is not less remarkable for the 
beauty of its situation and its views , than for the great value 
of its contents. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of Calabria, 
but was entirely rebuilt in the 17th century. Since its dissolution, 

92 Route 3. NAPLES. S. Martina. 

the monastery has been placed under the management of the 
Museo Nazionale, and is shown daily, 10-4 o'clock (adm. 1 fr. ; 
Sun., 9-2, free). 

The ticket -office lies on the left in a passage with a turn-stile, be- 
yond the court, in which is situated the main entrance (always closed) of 
the church. Opposite the ticket-office is the 'garderobe'. If time is limited, 
the belvedere should first be visited. 

We cross the Monastery Court, where sarcophagi, inscriptions, marble 
coats-of-arms, etc., are exhibited, and enter a wide archway, immediately 
to the right in which is the former laboratory of the convent, a large and 
lofty vaulted apartment; on the walls are church-banners. — The Hall to 
the left of this contains the pictures, for which there was no room in the 
Museo Nazionale. The title and artist's name are attached to each frame. 
Some of the pictures are good examples of Neapolitan masters of the 16-17th 
centuries. In the centre of the apartment is the gorgeous Barge, used on 
the lake by Charles III. The adjoining Room contains Battle Pictures (ex- 
plained by the attendant) and ancient Views of Naples, with an interesting 
representation of a royal visit to the festival of Piedigrotta. The Stale 
Coach in the centre used to appear in municipal festivals at Naples, and 
was occupied by Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi on entering the city in 
1860. The uniforms of the former Consiglieri Municipali are preserved in 
a case in this room. A third small Boom contains ancient banners. 

We now return through the laboratory to the monastery-court , and 
enter a long, narrow Corridor by the open door in the middle of the wall. 
Here on each side is an open door. — That to the left admits to a room 
containing Models of Italian, Fortresses. — • The door to the right leads 
through a passage to a tasteful "Representation of the Infant Christ in 
the manger (il presepio'), with the three Magi, and scenes of Neapolitan 
life, in a mountainous landscape. This representation, the delight of all 
Neapolitans, young and old, is worth seeing on account of the costumes. 

The narrow corridor (door immediately to the left) leads to the "Clois- 
ters, with 60 columns of white marble. — ■ We then traverse the Audience 
Room and the Chapter-house, the roof of which is painted by Corenzio (to 
the right, the 'Coro dei Laici Conversi'), to the church, of which we first 
enter the choir. 

The Church, which consists of a nave with three chapels on each 
side, is richly embellished with marble. On the ceiling is an Ascension, 
and between the windows the Twelve Apostles, by Lanfranco. Over the 
principal entrance a "Descent from the Cross by Stanzioni (damaged), and 
next to it Moses and Elias by Spagnolelto. The Apostles above the arches 
of the chapels are by the same artist. Frescoes of the choir by the 
Cavaliere d"Arpino. The Crucifixion by Lanfranco. On the wall at the E. 
end, Nativity, unfinished, by Guido Reni (who died during the progress of 
the work). On the sides : to the left, Communion of the Apostles, by Spa- 
gnoletto (in the style of Paolo Veronese), and Christ washing the disciples' 
feet, by Caracciolo ; to the right, the same subject by Stanzioni, and In- 
stitution of the Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble de- 
corations of the church, twelve different roses of Egyptian basalt, after Co- 
simo Fansaga of Carrara, the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by Presli, 
and the high-altar by Solimena also merit inspection. — The Saumstt, 
entered to the left from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonaventura 
Presto, and paintings by the Cavaliere d^Arpino, Stanzioni, and Caravaggio. — 
Beyond it is the Tesoeo, containing as an altar-piece a "Descent from the 
Cross, the masterpiece of Spagnoletto , fine in colouring and admirable 
for its delineation of pain; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca Giordano, said 
to have been painted in 48 hours, when the artist was in his 72nd year. 

We return through the chapter-house to the cloisters; to the right is 
the entrance to the — 

Museum (the custodian demands 1 fr.). Room I. Silver vessels ; objects in 
marble; reliquary. — Room II. Majolicas from Castelli in the Abruzzi 
(Collection Bonghi), interesting as specimens of a local industry, but other- 
wise unimportant; most of the pieces, both in this and the other rooms, 

Via Tasso. NAPLES. :i. Route. 93 

date from the 17th cent, or later. — Room III. Modern glass, porcelain, 
and ivory carvings ; huge old choir-hooks with miniatures ; priest's rohe. 
— Boom IV. Mirrors with chased figures; old chairs. — Room V. Prison- 
jacket and other relics of the Italian statesman Carlo Poerio (b. at Naples 
in 1803, d. at Florence in 1867; eomp. p. 43) and of his brother Alessandro, 
the patriotic poet (b. 1802), who died in 1848 from wounds received at the 
defence of Venice ; the hat of Card. Ruffo. — From R. II. we turn to the 
right into Room VI. Figures in biscuit china from the manufactory of Ca- 
podimonte. To the right, in a niche, is the wax figure of Padre Rocco, 
a Neapolitan street-preacher and philanthropist who died at the beginning 
of this century. On the floor of this and the following room, mosaics of 
the signs of the Zodiac. — Room VII. The remainder of the collection of ma- 
jolicas. The best pieces are (beginning to the right) : Heliodorus; Israelites 
crossing the Red Sea; Toilette of Venus; Diana asleep; Judgment of Paris, 
a curious rendering by Ant. Lolli; Apollo and the Python; Boar-hunt; Battle 
of Alexander ; Bacchic procession ; Galatea ; Jupiter and Juno (groups from 
the frescoes by the Carracci in the Pal. Farnese in Rome); David and Go- 
liath; Bacchus and Ariadne; Finding of Moses. — Room VIII. (to the left 
of R. I.). Uniform of the Bourbon period. — Rooms IX. and X. Modern 
pictures. Embroidery in silk (Judith, Esther, Flight into Egypt, etc.). 

At the end of the right wing of the cloisters is a door leading to the 
right through a corridor to the ; "Belvedere , a hexagonal room with two 
balconies commanding exquisite views of the city, the bay, Mt. Ve- 
suvius, and the fertile country as far as Nola and the Apennines. It 
is less extensive than that from the summit of the fort, but more 

Farther on in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele lie the hotels men- 
tioned at p. 20. Below the Hotel Bristol the new Parco Margherita 
descends to the Rione Amedeo (PI. C, 6). The first station of the 
new Cumse railway (PI. B, 6 ; p. 98) is farther on , near the end of 
the Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 

Beyond the Hotel Tramontano and the Pension Britannique, to 
the right, diverges the new Via Tasso (PI. C, B, A, 6), which in 
point of views surpasses even the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. The finest 
point (evening -light best) is the rondel at the upper end of the 
street. The first house on the left is the International Hospital 
(p. 25). The Via Tasso winds up to the top of the Vomero (PI. B, 5), 
and at the Trattoria Pallini (p, 96) joins the road on the Posilipo 
(see p. 95). 

VI. Hill of Posilipo. 

The walks described below may either be taken as a continuation of 
the traveller's visit to the modern quarters of the city, or may be com- 
bined with the excursions mentioned in Route 4. If time is limited, a 
visit to the Strada Nuova di Posilipo may be combined with the ex- 
cursion to Pozzuoli, the best plan being to go through the Grotta di Posi- 
lipo, and to return by the new road. A visit to Camaldoli (p. 96) may 
also be combined with that of S. Martino (2 hrs. more) , but a whole 
afternoon should if possible be devoted to the former. 

The hill which bounds Naples on the W., with its villages and 
numerous charming villas, derives its name of Posilipo, or Posil- 
lipo, from Pausilypon ('sans-souci'), the villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedius Pollio, afterwards the property of Augustus, which 
was gradually extended to the whole hill. The Posilipo is most 
conveniently visited either from the Chiaja or from the Museum. 
Our starting-point is the Chiaja. 

94 Route 3. NAPLES. Strada Nuova ili Posilipo. 

The **Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which at first skirts the coast, 
and then gradually ascends round the S. slope of the hill, was be- 
gun in 1812 during the reign of Murat, and in 1823 completed 
as far as Bagnoli. It leads between many beautifully situated 
villages, commanding exquisite views, and should on no account 
be omitted from the traveller's programme. Comp. Map, p. 98. 

The beginning of the Strada, as far as the Frisio, l 1 /^ M. from 
the end of the Villa Nazionale, has been described at p. 88. The 
road leaves the sea and ascends in windings round the spur of the 
hill. To the left are the villas Rocca Romana, Rocca Matilda, 
and Minutoli. About U/4 M. from the Frisio, beyond a church on 
the right with a relief of the Madonna over its portal, a road diver- 
ges to the left, descending past the Villa de Melis, or delle Can- 
nonate, so called from its having been bombarded by the French, 
where Philip Hackert , the court -painter whose life and style 
of art have been described by Goethe, resided in 1786. The road 
then descends past the Villa Gerace to the Capo di Posilipo. Farther 
on, on the hill to the right, is the colossal Mausoleum of Baron 
Schilizzi , in the Egyptian style. The small church of S. Maria 
del Faro, in the vicinity, occupies the site of an old lighthouse. 
Beautiful view towards Naples. 

The main road ascends for 72 M. more. At the top of the hill 
it is joined by the road described at p. 95. A footpath to the 
left leads to (IV2 M.) the fisher-hamlet of Marechiaro, where in- 
ferior boats may be hired for the return to town. The trattoria (bar- 
gain advisable) is a favourite resort. Here also is the villa of Ve- 
dius Pollio (see p. 95). The road then passes through a deep cut- 
ting to a (V4 M.) projecting round platform which commands a 
magnificent *Vibw towards Bagnoli, Camaldoli, Pozzuoli, Baja, and 


To the left of the cutting lies the Villa Sanssouci, the footpath beside 
which leads down to the sea and up to (iy 2 M.) a Vigna (fee), with the 
remains of a villa of Lucullus (see p. 95). 

The road now descends on the W. side of the Posilipo, com- 
manding a fine view the whole way. On the left, i / i M. below the 
round platform, is the entrance to the so-called Grotto of Sejanus. 
a passage hewn through the rock of the Posilipo, about 990 yds. in 
length, being 233 yds. longer than the Grotta di Posilipo, and ori- 
ginally surpassing it in height and width. In the S.W. side are two 
openings for ventilation which afford pretty glimpses of the sea (fee 
1 fr. ; the inspection occupies about V2 nr 0- 

This is the tunnel whose construction is ascribed by Strabo to 
M. Cocceius Nerva (B. C. 37), almost simultaneously with that of the 
Julian harbour on the Lucrine lake by M. Agrippa. It is therefore a 
mistake to associate it with the name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier 
origin. It has recently been cleared of rubbish and supported by walls, 
on which occasion an inscription was found, recording that the tunnel 
had been repaired by the Emp. Honorius about the year 400. At the E. 
end of this passage, especially near the rocky promontory of La Oajola, 

Nisida. NAPLES. 3. Route. 95 

the most beautiful views are obtained of Nisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, 
and the hay of Naples, and a number of relics of antiquity are observed. 
The custodian conducts the visitor from the grotto to a vineyard in 
the vicinity (fee 50 c), whence a magnificent view is enjoyed (from the 
top of the hill on the right, to which visitors should request to he con- 
ducted). Here also some of the scattered fragments of the Pausilypon, 
or villa of Vedius Pollio (p. 94), are visible, extending from the slope 
of the hill down to the sea, and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and 
broom. — In the adjoining property, visible through the hedge, we ob- 
observe the Scuola, or properly Scoglio (rock) di Virgilio, perhaps once a 
temple of Fortune, or of Venus Euploea, to whom mariners sacrificed 
after a prosperous voyage. — The fish-ponds, in which the cruel Vedius 
was in the habit of feeding large lampreys witli the flesh of his slaves, lay 
nearer the town. — A small Theatre is also seen, which belonged to the 
villa of Lucullus, with seventeen rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides 
these are numerous other relics of the villas with which the Posilipo was 
covered in ancient times. 

The S.W. spur of the Posilipo is called Capo Coroglio, opposite 
which rises the small rocky island of Nisida, the Nesis of the an- 
cients, an extinct crater, which opens towards the S. On the quay 
is a Quarantine huilding. On the N. side is a rock, connected with 
the mainland by a breakwater, and bearing the Lazzaretto. The 
building on the height is a bagno for criminals (admission on appli- 
cation to the governor). 

The son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of Csesar in the spring of B. C. 44, and where 
he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of his wife Portia on his 
departure for Greece, previous to the battle of Philippi, the news of which 
caused her to commit suicide by swallowing burning coals. In the 15th 
cent. Queen Johanna II. possessed a villa on the island of Nisida, which 
was converted into a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis 
of Anjou in check. 

From the entrance of the Grotto of Sejanus to Bagnoli (p. 100) 
is another mile, so that the whole distance thither from the Largo 
della Vittoria (p. 35) is about 6 M. Bagnoli is a station on the 
tramway to Pozzuoli (p. 99). A pleasant excursion may be made 
by boat round the hill of Posilipo and via Nisida to Bagnoli. 

The Hill or Posilipo is traversed by numerous Toads and 
paths connecting the different villages, houses, and villas. Most of 
them are flanked by walls and command no view, hut here and 
there they afford fine prospects of the city and bay and towards 
the W. The following route is recommended, particularly for driv- 
ing, at least part of the way ; cab-fare from the Piazza Salvator 
Rosa (PL D, 4), to Antignano, with one horse li/ 2 > with two horses 
2i/ 4 fr. 

We follow the Strada Salvator Rosa, mentioned at p. 90, 
from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to the right (nearly '/2 M. from the 
Museum), passing between houses for nearly y 2 M. and after- 
wards between garden-walls. — A road diverging to the right leads 
to Arenella, the birthplace of the talented landscape-painter Sal- 
vator Rosa (b. 1605, d. at Rome in 1673 after a chequered career). 
— We continue to follow the main road in a straight direction. By 

96 Route 3. NAPLES. JJill of Posilipo. 

the C/3 M.J chapel of S. Maria Costantinopolitana the road to S. 
Elmo, mentioned at p. 91, diverges to the left. To the right, 
farther on, we reach Antignano (PI. B, C, 4) in 2 min. more. At 
the small piazza at the beginning of the village the roads to Vomero 
(left) and Camaldoli (right , see p. 97) separate. 

We turn to the left ('Strada Belvedere'), and then, halfway 
to the village, to the right, and next reach (!/ 3 M.) Vomero (PI. 
B, 5). About a hundred paces farther the steep Salita del Vomero 
descends to the left to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and to the 
Chiaja. — Our route continues to follow the heights, passing be- 
tween the garden-walls which enclose the villas Regina, Ricciardi, 
Belletieri, and Tricase. Beyond the last of these, at the Trattoria 
Pallini (a favourite resort, with fine view; 3/ 4 M.), diverges the 
new Via Tasso (p. 93), by which we may descend to the Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele, enjoying a fine view the whole way. 

Beyond the Strada del Vomero the *Road on the Posilipo (coinp. 
Map, p. 98) turns a little to the S., and then ascends, under the 
name of 'Strada Patrizi', past the (Y3 M.) Villa Patrizi, command- 
ing an admirable view of the district to the W., the Phlegraean fields 
of antiquity (p. 97). The road continues to follow the top of the 
Posilipo, under which pass the tunnels mentioned at pp. 89, 90. 
A little before we reach the entrance to the (2/3 M.) village of 
Posilipo, the Salita di S. Antonio diverges to the left, descending 
past Virgil's Tomb (p. 89) to the Mergellina. — If the traveller 
prefers, he may pass through the village of Posilipo and follow the 
same road, which commands beautiful views and descends, past 
the village of Strato on the right, to (2 M.) the Strada Nuova di 
Posilipo, which we reach at its highest point, near the Villa Thal- 
berg. The Grotto of Sejanus is 3/ 4 M. farther on (to the right); the 
distance back to Naples by the Strada Nuova di Posilipo is about 
4 M. (comp. p. 94, and the Map at p. 98). 


An Excursion 10 Camaldoli and back on foot, including stay there, 
takes 4'/2-5'/2 hrs.; on donkey-back a little less (from the Museum, the first 
house to the right in the Strada Salvator Rosa, or opposite the Petraio, 
mentioned at p. 91, 2-2'/2 fr. and a trifling fee to the attendant). Those 
who prefer it may drive as far as Antignano (one-horse carr. IV2, two- 
horse 2'/4 fr. ; comp. p. 25), where donkeys may be hired; carriages for 
returning may also sometimes be procured here, so that it is not abso- 
lutely necessary to keep one waiting. The bridle-path from Antignano, 
which walkers will find pleasant, cannot be mistaken if the following 
directions be attended to (see also Plan, p. 19, and Map, p. 98). — The 
early morning and the evening lights are the most favourable for the 
views, particularly the latter. The traveller, however, should start on 
the return-journey in good time, as it is anything but pleasant to en- 
counter frequent walkers and riders on the rough path after dusk. — The 
monastery, suppressed by government in 1871, has lately become private 
property, and is once more forbidden ground for ladies. 

Leaving the Museum, we follow the Strada Salvator Rosa, 
mentioned at p. 95, as far as Antignano (l'/o M.), where we 

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turn to the right (comp. Plan B, 4). At the next bifurcation we 
turn to the left, and reach (4 min.) I'Arehetiello gate (PI. B, 4), 
at which is the office where the Dazio Consumo, or municipal tax 
on comestibles, is levied. About 200 paces farther on, we take the 
bridle-path diverging to the left and passing an osterin on the 
right. The path then immediately passes under a viaduct and 
enters a hollow (to which point our Plan of Naples extends : A, 4, 3). 
The path runs between bushes and pines. (The road diverging to 
the left beneath an archway, V4 M. farther, must not be followed.) 
After 20 min., beyond an archway through which we pass, the path 
turns by a white house a little to the left to the (4 min.") farm- 
buildings of Camaldolilli, and passes through the gateway, immed- 
iately beyond which it ascends to the right at a sharp angle. Fine 
view of S. Elmo, Naples, Vesuvius, and the bay towards the right. 
After 7 min., at the point where the path descends slightly, a path 
diverges to the right to Nazaret, while our route descends to the left 
and passes the mouth of a gorge, through which is obtained a fine 
view of Capri. In ?> min. more we pass a path turning sharply to 
the left, and in 7 min. reach a point where a path diverges to the 
right to Nazaret and a forest-path leads to the left, while the main 
path to Camaldoli runs in a straight direction , soon ascending 
rapidly. Where the road divides, 5 min. farther, we keep straight 
on, and in 7 min. more we turn to the right to a closed gate, on 
passing through which riders have to pay 20 c. and walkers 15 c. 
each. The path then skirts the wall of the monastery-garden, 
rounds the N.W. corner, where it is joined by the path from Pia- 
nura via, Nazaret, and where the path to the point of view outside 
the monastery (see below) diverges. We reach the entrance to the 
monastery in min. more. Visitors ring at the gate, and on 
leaving give the porter a few soldi. 

**Camaldoli , a monastery of the Camaldulensian order insti- 
tuted by S. Romuald near Florence about the year 1000, was found- 
ed in 1585. There are still a few surviving monks, who offer wine 
and bread , and who in any case expect a small donation (1/2 fr. for 
one person). The monastery stands on the E. summit of an amphi- 
theatre of hills which enclose the Phlegraean plain on the N., being 
the highest point near Naples (1475 ft.), and commands one of the 
most magnificent views in Italy. The monastery and church contain 
nothing worth seeing, and we therefore proceed at once to the garden. 
The best point of view is straight before us. The view embraces the 
bays of Naples, Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, the widely extended capital 
(of which a great part is concealed by S. Elmo) with its environs, 
the Lago d'Agnano, the craters of Solfatara and Astroni, the pro- 
montories of Posilipo and Misenum, the islands of Nisida, Procida, 
and Ischia, and the districts of Baiae, Cumae, and Liternum. Towards 
the S. the view is bounded by Capri and the Punta della Campa- 
nella, the ancient promontory of Minerva. The small towns of 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edit. 7 

98 Route 3. NAPLES. 

Massa, Sorrento, and Castellammare are visible; also Monte Sant' 
Angelo , the smoking cone of Vesuvius , and the luxuriant plain 
at its base. Towards the N. the eye wanders over the expanse of the 
Campania Felix with its numerous villages, over Nola, Cancello, Mad- 
daloni, Caserta, Capua, Monte Tifata , the volcanic group of the 
Rocca Monflna, the lake of Patria, Gaeta, the hills of Formiee, and 
the Monte CiTcello beyond. To the W. stretches the open sea, with 
the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola delle Botte. 

Parties which include ladies, who are not admitted into the 
monastery, may reach a scarcely inferior point of view, by striking 
off by the path descending to the right, between the N.W. corner 
of the monastery-wall and the entrance (see p. 97), and then pro- 
ceeding along the slope beneath the wall to a (5 min.) gate, for 
opening which a fee of 25 c. is demanded. 

The return may be made by the route mentioned above via Nazaret 
to Pianura, at the N.W. base of the hill, where there are extensive quar- 
ries; thence to Fuorigrotta (p. 90), 4 M. — At the S. base of Camaldoli 
lies the village of Soccavo, to which a steep and rough path descends in 
3 /t hr. from the point of view outside the walls, shortly before the 25 c. 
gate is reached. 

4. Pozzuoli, Baise, Misenum, and Cumse. 

The Phlegraean Plain, a district to the W. of Naples, has from time 
immemorial been a scene of tremendous volcanic activity, and as lately as 
the 16th cent, has undergone vast changes , of which the traveller will 
observe traces at every step. This tract is scarcely less interesting in an 
historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 
civilisation first gained a footing in Italy, and constant communication was 
thenceforth maintained between this portion of the peninsula and the East. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
coasts, and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
a peculiar interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
this lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Rome, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature, and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former magnificence. 
The malaria which prevails in many parts of the district, and the stupendous, 
though slumbering , agencies beneath the soil cast a certain gloom over 
the scene; but the inexhaustible beauties of Italian nature are still in- 
vested with the same charms as they possessed two thousand years ago. 
Islands and promontories, bays and lakes, and singularly beautiful inden- 
tations of the coast form the chief features of this scenery, which is per- 
haps without rival. 

The fertile imagination of the natives has assigned all kinds of impos- 
ing classical names to many insignificant and uninteresting objects in this 
district, and strangers are therefore often importuned to inspect pretended 
curiosities which make serious inroads on time, temper, and purse. The 
chief objects of interest are enumerated in the following description. 

One day is sufficient to visit, the chief points of interest, with the ex- 
ception of the Lago d'Agnano, which is not specially attractive, and Cu- 
mse, which is interesting chiefly to archaeological students. (Railway, 
Ferrovia Cumana, see p. 99.) Those, however, who have more time should 
devote two days to exploring this region as follows: First: — Take the 
tramway from the Torretta station (see p. 99) through the new Grotta di 
Posilipo (p. 90) to Agnano in 25 min. ; thence on foot to the Lago d'Agnano, 
'/4 hr., where the Dog Grotto is scarcely worth a visit; walk over the 

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LAGO D'AGNANO. 4. Route. 99 

Mil PView) to the Solfatara, 1 hr. ; halt there, 20 min. ; walk to Pozzuoli 
and the -Amphitheatre, 20 min. ; halt there, and visit the cathedral har- 
bour, and Temple of Serapis, 1 hr. ; drive (carriages generally to be 
found in Pozzuoli) back to Naples by the 'Strada Nuova di Pvsilipo 
(which route must be expressly stipulated for; 4 fr. and fee), I1/4 hr.- 
in all 4'/2-5 hours. If we take the tramway on to Bagnoli , and return 

thence on foot to Naples, we require iy 2 hr. more. — Second : Take 

the tramway to Pozzuoli, s/ 4 hr. ; drive thence to the Arco Felice, 1 hr.- 
walk to Cumae and back, 1 hr. ; walk through the Grotta della Pace 
to the Lago Averno and Baja, 1 hr.; drive to Bacoli , 20 min. (Piscina 
Mirabilis •/« nr -); ascent of Capo Miseno and back, iy 2 hr. ; drive back 
to Naples 2V4-2'/2 hrs. ; in all 7V2-8V2 hours. — A pleasant variety mav 
be introduced into the excursion by going from Pozzuoli to Baja or to 
the Grotto of Sejanus by boat. A single seat ('un posto') may often be 
obtained in one of the small 'Corricoli' or gigs which ply on the high 
roads (V2-I fr. according to the distance). 

The important antiquities of Pozzuoli may be visited either in going 
or returning. Those who intend to visit Vesuvius may omit the Solfatara. 
The start should be made early. — The inns are generally dear and in- 
different. Luncheon or early dinner may be taken at the Lucrine Lake 
or at Baja, but it is preferable to bring provisions from Naples and to 
picnic at Cumse or on the Capo Jliseno. 

Steam Tramway from La Torretta at Piedigrotta (PI. B, 7), the ter- 
minus of the tramway-line No. 1 (p. 24), to Pozzuoli in 3 / 4 hr M almost 
every I1/2 hr. from 5.30 a.m. (fares 65 and 50 c). The intermediate 
stations are Fuorigrotta (at the Piaiza Leopardi, p. 90); Pilaslri: Agnano, 
where the road diverges to the Lago d'Agnano (see below); Bagnoli (p. 100) ; 
La Pietra, and Subveni Homini. 

The new Ferrovia Cumana, beginning at Monte Santo (p. 43; eight 
trains daily), will not be of any great importance to tourists until its com- 
pletion to Torre Gavela near Cumae. It passes beneath Castel S. Elmo by 
a tunnel, IV2 M. long, to the Corso Yittorio Emanuele station (p. 90), beyond 
which it traverses another tunnel to Fuorigrotta. The other stations are 
Bagnoli, Terme, and Pozzuoli, the present terminus. 

Carriages. There is no fixed tariff except for the drives to the Lago 
oVAgnano and to Bagnoli , for either of which the fare is 2 fr. with one 
horse , or 3 fr. with two horses (from the stand in the Strada di Piedi- 
grotta; comp. p. 23). — The usual fare to Pozzuoli for a cab with one 
horse is 3 fr., there and back 4 fr., or back by the Strada Nuova di Po- 
silipo 5 fr. ; to Pozzuoli and Baja, and back, 10 fr. ; to Miseno and back 
12 fr. ; driver's fee extra in each case, and special stipulations must be 
made for halts at Pozzuoli, the Solfatara, etc. A carriage with two horses 
for the day costs 20-25 fr. , with one horse 10-12 fr., a corricolo 8 fr. ; a 
distinct bargain should be made beforehand. 

Steamboat. A steamboat of the Societa Napoletana di Navigazione. 
generally crowded, sails along the coast to Baja every fine Sunday in 
summer, leaving Naples (S. Lucia) at 10 a.m., and Baja at 5.30 p.m. Tickets, 
price 8 fr. (incl. omnibus-fare to and from the Lago del Fusaro and dinner 
at the Grand Restaurant at the Lago del Fusaro), may be had at the com- 
pany's office, Marina Nuova 14, or at the Cafe' d'Europe (p. 22). 

Guides. The following directions , the map, and a slight knowledge 
of the language will enable the traveller to dispense with a guide. Those, 
however, who desire to avoid the importunities of the guides at Pozzuoli 
and Baja may engage a cicerone at Naples for the excursion (6 fr. ; see 
p. 31). The Naples guides undertake the hiring of a carriage, the pay- 
ment of fees, etc. , thus relieving the traveller of all trouble (total cost 
for two persons with one-horse carriage about 20 fr.). 

The usual and shortest route to the W. environs of Naples is 
through the Grotta di Posilipo and Fuorigrotta (p. 90), from which 
the main road, with the steam-tramway, leads straight to Bagnoli 
(p. 100). From that road, a few hundred paces beyond Fuorigrotta, 


100 Route 4. LAGO D'AGNANO. Environs 

a cart-track, and nearly l'/'i M. farther, at a station of the tram- 
way, a broad road planted with trees, diverge to the dried up Lago 
d'Agnano, % M. from the tramway. 

The Lago d'Agnano, which was drained in 1870, is an old 
crater of irregular form , 2!/ 4 M. in circumference. On the S. 
bank, immediately to the right of the point where the road reaches 
it , are the old Stufe di San Germano , or chambers in which the 
hot sulphureous fumes rising from the ground here are collected 
for the use of sick persons (adm. 1 fr. each person). A few paces 
farther on is the famous Grotta del Cane, or Dog Grotto. It 
derives its name from the fact that the ground and sides are so 
thoroughly impregnated with carbonic acid gas , that the fumes 
render dogs insensible in a few seconds, and produce a feeling of 
languor on human beings. Dogs are provided for the exhibition 
of this somewhat cruel experiment, but the curiosity of the trav- 
eller may be sufficiently gratified by observing that a light is im- 
mediately extinguished when brought in contact with the vapour. 
Pliny (Hist. Nat. ii. 93) mentions this grotto as: 'spiracula et 
scrobes Charoneae mortiferum spiritum exhalantes in agro Puteo- 
lano '. (Adm. 4/ 2 fr. each person ; 1 fr. more is demanded for the 
experiments with the dog and the light.) 

The road skirting the S.W. hank of the dried lake leads to (1 51.) 
the royal chasse of Astroni, the largest and most important of the volcan- 
ic craters in this region , being upwards of 3 31. in circumference , and 
densely overgrown with holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it con- 
tains a small lake, and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. 
Picturesque , but somewhat dull park - scenery. Driving is practicable 
only as far as the margin of the crater. We then ascend the old road 
to the left to the large gate, where we show our 'permesso' (see p. 37). 
Fee '/« ft"- The park is sometimes closed in spring, on account of the 

From the Lago d'Agnano to Pozzuoli, l'/4 hr., a pleasant footpath 
commanding a superb view towards the end, leads across the hills to the 
W. By a solitary house, about 8 min. from the Dog Grotto, a road di- 
verges to the left from the above-mentioned Astroni road, and skirts the 
N. base of the Monte Spina. After 3 min. we turn to the right, and in 
10 min. more to the right again; where the road divides into three 
(2 min.) we turn to the left, then immediately afterwards to the left again, 
continuing to follow the main road. At a farm-house (10 min.) the road 
narrows to a footpath, which ascends steeply past ancient walls to a 
(8 min.) white building and yard, through which we pass by a door on the 
left. The Villa Sarno, to the left, a little farther on, the tenant of which 
admits visitors and courteously provides refreshments, is a decayed villa 
of the Prince Cariati, commanding a beautiful "View from the upper ter- 
race. Passing through a narrow dell , the path leads in 8 min. more to 
the top of the hill, where we take the road to the right. Looking back, 
we obtain a beautiful glimpse of Nisida and Capri, and immediately after, 
hy the (5 min.) Capuchin monastery of <S. Gennaro (p. 104), we enjoy a 
superb 'Survey of Pozzuoli and its bay, the Capo Miseno, and Ischia. After 
about 4 min. more in a straight direction, we may either to the right to 
the entrance of the Solfatara (p. 104), or to the left to (i/ 4 hr.) Pozzuoli. 

The monotonous high-road from Fuorigrotta to (2'/4 M.) 
Bagnoli leads between gardens. When it approaches the coast, the 
island of Nisida (p. 95) becomes visible on the left. 

Of Naples. POZZUOLT. 4. Route. 101 

Bagnoli (called by the Neapolitans Bagnol) is a small water- 
ing-place with hot springs, some of which contain salt and carbonic 
acid gas, others sulphur and iron. There are several bath and lodg- 
ing-houses. Near the tramway-station is the *Figlio di Pietro 
restaurant, with a pretty view. From Bagnoli by the Strada Nuova 
di Posilipo to Naples, see pp. 95, 94. 

From Bagnoli to Pozzuoli, 2^4 M., the road skirts the coast, 
commanding delightful views. In the lava hills which rise near 
the sea are extensive quarries (petriere), where convicts are em- 
ployed. The tramway stops just outside the town. 

Pozzuoli. — Hotel. Gran Brettagna (kept by Mr. and Mrs. Wel- 
ton), in the street ascending to the right at the entrance of the town, R. 
from 2, B. 2, pens. 6-12 fr., well spoken of. — Restaurants. Ponte di Cali- 
gola, near the liarbonr, in the small Piazza S. M. delle Grazie; Os]n:io del 
Cappticcini, in an old convent close to the sea, near the tramway-station, 
well spoken of; Riltor. Milanese (formerly Venecia). 

Guides, Car-drivers, and Beggars assail the traveller pertinaciously 
the moment he arrives. The services of the guides, whose demands are 
generally extravagant, may well be dispensed with. For a walk through the 
town, to the Amphitheatre, and the temple of Serapis 1 fr., or, with the 
addition of the Solfatara, IV* fr., suffices. — The guides and others also 
importune visitors to buy 'antiquities', which are manufactured at Naples 
and then buried to give them the requisite coating of rust or verdigris. 
Genuine antiquities may be purchased of the Canonico Criscio, in the open 
space mentioned at p. 103. 

Carriage (from the tramway-terminus) with one horse to Cumse or 
Baja 3, to both 4-5 fr. ; with two horses, 4-4'| 2 and 5-61fr. ; to the (4 M.I 
village of Miseno, 4-5 fr., incl. gratuity; seat in a 'corricolo' l /«-l ' r - — 
Donkeys (bad) 2-3 fr. for an afternoon. — Boat to Baja tor 3-4 persons, in 
1/2-I hr., about 2 fr. 

If the traveller takes a carriage from Naples to Pozzuoli and wishes 
to proceed at once to Baja he had better drive straight to the Solfatara 
(walking , however , for the last 5 min.j, then to the Amphitheatre, and 
lastly to the Serapeum. The harbour may be visited in returning. 

Pozzuoli, a quiet town with 16,000 inhab., situated on a 
projecting hill and at its base, on the bay of the same name, 
which forms part of the Bay of Naples, was founded at an early 
period by the Greeks and named by them Bieaearchia. It was 
subdued by the Romans in the Samnite wars, repeatedly colo- 
nised by them, and called by them Puteoli. It afterwards be- 
came the most important commercial city in Italy, and the prin- 
cipal depot for the traffic with Egypt and the East , whence 
Oriental forms of worship were introduced here at an early pe- 
riod. St. Paul once spent seven days here (Acts, xxviii). Its 
ruins , which lie close to the modern town , are now the only 
indication of its ancient importance. The town itself presents 
few attractions. — The volcanic puzzolana earth found in the 
whole of this district, from which an almost indestructible ce- 
ment is manufactured, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

At the entrance to the town a broad paved road ascends to 
the right in windings, leading to the upper town, the Amphi- 
theatre, and the Solfatara (see p. 104). 

Entering by the gate we soon reach the principal Piazza, in 

102 Route 4. POZZUOLI. Environs 

which rise the statue of a senator, bearing the name of Q. Flav. 
Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704 (head formed of a separate 
block , but also ancient) , and that of Bishop Leon y Cardenas, 
Viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. 

Proceeding in a straight direction, and turning to the left 
by the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, we come to the Harbour, 
where we see the remains of the ancient pier, called by Seneca 
Pitae , by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae , and now Ponte di Cali- 
gola. Of twenty-five buttresses , which supported twenty-four 
arches , sixteen are left , three being under water. They are 
constructed of bricks and puzzolana earth , and bear an in- 
scription recording that the pier was restored by Antoninus Pius. 
A common , but erroneous impression is , that they were con- 
nected with the bridge -of- boats which Caligula threw across 
the bay of Bai;e, in order that, clad in the armour of Alexander 
the Great , he might there celebrate his insane triumph over 
the Parthians. Route along the quay to the Serapeum, see below. 

If at the first bend in the above - mentioned road which leads 
to the upper part of the town we turn to the left we soon reach 
the Piazza del Municipio , commanding a fine view, whence we 
may follow the Via del Duomo and its second side-street to the 
left to the cathedral of S. Proculo. It occupies the site of 
a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, six Corinthian 
columns from which are still outside. The church contains relics 
of St. Proculus and the monuments of the Duke of Montpensier, 
Governor of Naples under Charles VIII. of France, and of Giovanni 
Battista Pergolese of Jesi , the talented composer of the original 
Stabat Mater, who died in 1736 at the age of 26. (This digression 
is, however, more conveniently made in descending, on the way 
back from the Amphitheatre and the Solfatara.) 

At the extreme N. end of the town begins a narrow street 
(bearing the inscription 'Bagni di Serapide'; entrance by the first 
door beyond the baths) which leads from the sea to the so-called 
*Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum, which, however, is more prob- 
ably an ancient market-hall (macellum), including a temple (as at 
Pompeii ; see p. 140). It was known as early as 1538, but not com- 
pletely excavated till 1750. It consisted of a square court, en- 
closed by forty-eight massive marble and granite columns, and 
with thirty-two small chambers adjoining. The portico rested on 
six Corinthian columns (three of which remain) , bearing a rich 
frieze. In the centre of the court stood a circular temple, sur- 
rounded by a peristyle of sixteen Corinthian pillars of African 
marble , which have been transferred to the theatre of the pa- 
lace at Caserta (p. 10), the bases alone being left. The interior 
was approached by four nights of steps. The pavement declined 
inwards towards the centre. The statues of Serapis, now in the 
museum at Naples, were found in the neighbourhood. Two in- 

of Naples. POZZUOLI. 4. Route. 103 

scriptions found here mention the restoration of the temple by Mar- 
cus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. The lower parts of the ruin 
are under water, but the level of the ground has recently been 
raised, in order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. 

In the course of centuries a species of shell-fish (lithodomus, or modiola 
lithophaga, still found in this vicinity) had undermined the bases of the 
central columns, whilst the upper parts remained intact. Interesting obser- 
vations may be made here with respect to the changes which have taken 
place in the level of the sea at different periods. That it had risen con- 
siderably, even in ancient times, is proved by the fact that mosaics have 
been found 6 ft. below the present level of the pavement. After the decline 
of heathenism the sea continued to rise, as the different water-marks testify. 
Subsequently the lower part of the edifice was buried to a depth of 13 ft., 
probably by an eruption of Solfatara, and thus protected against the farther 
invasions of the Crustacea. These extend to a height of 10 ft., so that at 
one period the sea-level must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at 
present. This great change was caused by the convulsion connected with 
the upheaval of Monte Huovo (p. 105) in 1538. Since the last century the 
ground has again been gradually sinking. The salt springs in the ruins 
were called into existence by the last eruption. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin, to the W 
of the Serapeum, consisting of a few pillars rising from the sea. In the 
vicinity, also under water, is situated the so-called Temple of the Nymphs, 
from which a considerable number of columns and sculptures have been 
recovered. Farther on, a few fragments mark the site of Cicero's Puteolaneum, 
a villa delightfully situated on the coast, which the orator in imitation of 
Plato called his Academy, and where he composed his 'Academica' and 
'De Fato'. Hadrian (d. at Baise, A.D. 138) was temporarily interred within 
the precincts of Cicero's villa , and Antoninus Pius erected a temple on 
the spot. 

On leaving the Serapeum , we proceed to the right, and by 
a fountain again to the right, after 4 min. cross the high-road, 
and ascend the broad paved Strada Mandra to the left to an open 
space, whence the Via Anflteatro leads after about 250 paces to 
the Amphitheatre, the most interesting and perfect of all the ruins 
of Pozzuoli (admission 1 fr. ; Sundays gratis). 

The "Amphitheatre rests on three series of arches, which were 
surrounded by an external court ; the two principal entrances were 
adorned with triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of 
seats in several compartments (cunei), connected by flights of steps. 
The imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 
marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, and 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838 , when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered , affording us a distinct idea of the arrangements and 
machinery of the ancient amphitheatres. By means of a water 
conduit (to the left of the principal entrance) the arena could be laid 
under water when naval combats were to be represented; the 
outlet is in the principal passage. The entrances for the glad- 
iators, and the air-holes and outlets of the dens of the animals 
are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator-combats under 
Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia, as a guest 
at his court, took place here, and even the emperor himself 

104 Route 4. SOLFATARA. Environs 

entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were thrown to the wild beasts here in vain, as an 
inscription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they 
were put to death near the Solfatara. The high ground near the 
amphitheatre commands a line view in the direction of Misenum. 

Above the amphitheatre was situated a theatre , the ruins of which 
have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity, externally of 
circular construction, are believed to have been either Baths or a Temple 
of Diana. The Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth , really a 
piscina, or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande , with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of ten columns each, still serves as a reservoir, and 
was doubtless once connected with the ancient aqueduct from the Pausi- 
lypon to Misenum. 

Roman Tombs have been discovered in great numbers on the old 
roads, the Via Puleolana to Naples, and the Via Cmnana to Cumse, but 
most are now mere shapeless ruins. Others in better preservation have 
been found on the Via Campana, leading to Capua, which diverges to the 
right from the road leading to the K.W. beyond the amphitheatre (comp. 
the Map, p. 99). 

We now return to the open space mentioned at p. 103, from 
the opposite end of which, by the small church 'Deiparse Con- 
solatrici Sacrum", the road to the entrance of the town descends 
to the right (p. 102), while that to the Solfatara leads to the 
left. The latter ascends through vineyards. The ascent to the 
Solfatara on foot takes 20 min. ; donkey 1 fr. (not recommended). 

The Solfatara (adm. l /a l' r - eacn person) is the crater of a 
half-extinct volcano, an oblong space enclosed by hills of pumice- 
stone , from numerous fissures ('fumaroli') in which vapours and 
sulphureous gases ascend. The ground is hollow in every direction. 
The powder found at the top , which the guides erroneously call 
saltpetre, is really ceramohalite, or sulphuretted potter's clay. The 
ancients (Strabo) called this crater Forum, Vulcani, and believed 
it to be connected with the crater of Ischia. The only recorded 
eruption from it, attended with an emission of lava, took place 
in 1198. A manufactory of stucco is now established here. 

Above the Solfatara, towards the E. , rise the Colles Leucogaei, the 
white hills whose light-coloured dust was so highly prized by the an- 
cients for colouring groats and other kinds of grain. Several small brooks 
containing alum have their source here, called / Pisciarelli, the Fontes 
Leucogaei of the ancients (Plin. Sat. Hist. xxxi. 2) , which fall steaming 
into a ravine between the Solfatara and the Lago d'Agnano, and are fre- 
quently used as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. The ground is warm 
and saturated with gas in every direction. 

•Shortly before our route reaches the Solfatara it is joined on 
the right by a road coming from the Lago d'Agnano (p. 99). The 
*Yiew on the latter road is so fine that the traveller should not omit 
to ascend as far as (6 min.) the Capuchin monastery of S. Oennaro, 
erected in 1580 on the spot where St. Januarius is said to have 
been beheaded in 305, and (7 2 M - farther) the Villa Sarno (p. 100). 
Ladies are not admitted to the convent; but the view from the high- 
road is practically the same as that from the interior. 

of Naples. LACUS AVERNUS. 4. Route. 105 

The high-road which leads towards the W. from Pozznoli 
passes first the Stabilimento Armstrong, a branch of the well- 
known cannon and armour-plate works of Armstrong & Co. at 
Newcastle. The undertaking, actively supported hy the Italian 
government, has introduced new life into this hitherto deserted 
region. The road divides at the foot of the Monte Nuovo, nearly 
l!/ 2 M. beyond the town. The branch to the right leads to the 
Lago Averno, Arco Felice, and Curate (p. 110); that to the left to 
Baise and Misenum ('Strada di Miniscola'). 

The Monte Nuovo (455 ft.) is a volcanic hill of comparatively 
recent origin, having been upheaved on 30th Sept., 1538, after 
a violent earthquake. Its form is that of an obtuse cone, in the 
centre of which is a very deep extinct crater, enclosed by masses 
of pumice-stone, trachyte, and tufa. The ascent is interesting, 
and not less so the toilsome descent into the crater. 

The road to Bai* (2 l /t M. from the above-mentioned bifur- 
cation) traverses the narrow strip of land which now separates the 
Lacus Lucrinus from the sea. Here stands the small Hotel de Russie. 

The Lacus Lucrinus, which was famed for its oysters in an- 
cient times, was separated from the sea by a bulwark, called 
the Via Herculea, from the tradition that the hero traversed it 
when driving the bulls of Oeryon across the swamps. This barrier 
afterwards fell to decay and was again repaired , but was seri- 
ously damaged by the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. Part 
of it, 250 yds. in length, is still visible under the water, where 
remains of the Partus Julius, or harbour constructed by Agrippa, 
are also distinguishable. Now, as of yore, the lake yields fine oysters 
and also the spigola, a fish much esteemed by the Neapolitans. 

About !/ 2 M. to the N. of the Lacus Lucrinus , a little in- 
land, bounded on three sides by hills clothed with chestnuts, 
vineyards, and orange-gardens, lies the celebrated *Lacus Avernus, 
which was regarded by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal 
regions on account of its sombre situation and environs. Its 
banks are now bordered with blocks of lava. Circumference 
nearly 2 M. ; depth 210 ft. ; height above the sea-level 3'/-2 It- 
Tradition affirmed that no bird could fly across it and live, owing 
to its poisonous exhalations, and that the neighbouring ravines 
were the abode of the dismal, sunless Cimmerii, mentioned by- 
Homer (Odyss. xi). Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of 
the descent of ^Eneas, conducted by the Sibyl, to the infernal 
regions (^En. vi. 237). Augustus, by the construction of the 
Julian harbour, and by connecting this lake with the Laous 
Lucrinus, was the first to dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and 
Virgil accordingly extol the harbour as a prodigy. — The canals 
and wharves of Agrippa were still in existence in l.«S, but the 
upheaval of the Monte Nuovo destroyed every vestige of tttem, 
half filled the Lucrine lake, and so altered the configuration ot tlie 

106 Route 4. BAJA. Environs 

neighbourhood that the two lakes are now quite separate, and the 
intervening space is completely overgrown with underwood. In 
1858 an attempt was made to convert the Lacus Avernus anew 
into a war-harbour, but the scheme was soon found impracticable. 

On the S. Side of the lake are observed grottoes and cuttings, hewn 
in the tuffstone rock, which probably once belonged to the Portus Julius. 
One of these caverns, situated a few hundred paces to the left of the end 
of the road coming from the Lucrine Lake, and now called the Grotto 
of the Sibyl, or Grotta d'Averno, is entered by a gateway of brick , and 
consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and ventilated by 
vertical apertures. Midway between the two lakes a passage to the right 
leads to a small square chamber, the ' Entrance to the Infernal Regions'. 
Near it is a chamber with mosaic pavement and arrangements for a warm 
bath. It contains lukewarm water, 1 ft. in depth, which rises in the 
neighbourhood _ and is styled by the guides the "Bath of the SibyV. The 
grotto is 280 paces in length , and blackened with the smoke of torches. 

Visitors are carried through the pools of water by the guides. Torches 
(1 fr. each) are necessary, and even with their aid the effect is very ob- 
scure. The fee for admission to the grotto is 1 fr., but the custodian 
generally demands 2-3 fr. A distinct bargain should be made beforehand. 
A visit to the grottoes is on the whole scarcely worth the trouble , and 
should certainly not be attempted by ladies. 

On the N.W. Side of the lake is one end of the Grotta delta Pace 
(p. 110). 

On the E. Side are the interesting ruins of magnificent Baths, some- 
times called a Temple of Apollo, Pluto, or Mercury. 

Having returned to the Baja road, we reach, about !/ 2 M. from 
the Lucrine Lake , the ruins of ancient baths , called Le Stufe 
di Tritoli. Near them a path on the slope of the mountain leads to 
the Bagni di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage in the rock, 
at the farther end of which rise several warm springs, the famed 
Thermae Neronianae of antiquity, and still frequented by invalids. 

The water is hot enough to boil eggs (1 fr. ; admission to the baths 
'/a fr-). But there is nothing worth seeing, and the interior is so hot that 
a visit to it is anything but pleasant. 

After we have ascended a little and rounded the projecting 
Punta dell' Epitaffio, a charming view of Baja is disclosed to us. 
On the slope to the right we observe innumerable fragments of old 
masonry, passages , colonnades , mosaic-pavements, etc. The hill 
is pierced by the tunnel of the new railway (p. 98). 

Baja. — Hotel de la Reine, a tavern commanding a charming view, 
not suitable for spending the night ; bargaining advisable in spite of the 
announcement of fixed charges, D. 5, lunch 3>/4 fr., A. 25 c; Albergo 
della Vittoria, at the foot of the castle, >/ 2 M. farther to the left, less 
pretentious, well spoken of, good cuisine, D 5, lunch 31/4 fr. 

Guide unnecessary, l-l'/2 fr. according to bargain. Giosaphata di Luccia, 
who understands English, French, and a little German, is well spoken of. 

Boat to Pozzuoli for 3-4 persons about 2 fr. ; to Bacoli and Miseno 
the same ; there and back 3-4 fr. ; according to bargain in each case. 

Baja, the ancient Bake, now gaining importance as a war-har- 
bour, situated on the bay of the same name and commanding a charm- 
ing view, was the most famous and magnificent watering-place of 
antiquity, and had attained the zenith of its splendour in the age 
of Cicero, Augustus. Nero, and Hadrian. 'Nothing in the world can 

of Naples. BACOLT. 4. Route. 107 

be compared with the lovely bay of Baiae', exclaims Horace's wealthy 
Roman (Epist. i. 85), who is desirous of erecting a magnificent villa 
there. Luxury and profligacy, however, soon took up their abode 
at Baise, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the eye 
point the usual moral. With the decline of the Roman empire the 
glory of Baiae speedily departed. In the 8th cent, it was devastated 
by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely deserted by its inhabitants 
on account of malaria. 

Of the imposing baths and villas of the Romans , the founda- 
tions of which were often thrown far out into the sea, nothing bn t 
mere fragments now remain. In modern times these ruins are often 
exalted into temples, or otherwise dignified in a manner for which 
there is not the slightest foundation. The principal remains consist 
of three extensive colonnades which belonged to baths. 

We first observe in a vineyard to the left, between the high-road 
and the road to the Lago Fusaro, a large octagonal building, with 
a circular interior, a half-preserved dome, and four recesses in the 
walls, and remains of a water-conduit, styled a Temple of Diana 
(fee 30-50 c). 

If we ascend the road to the Lago Fusaro for ~> min. we reach a 
path to the right on the slope, which in 10 min. more leads us to the 
top of the hill, and commands an admirable view of Cumse, Ischia, Lago 
del Fusaro (p. Ill), etc. 

Close to the village, in another vineyard to the right of the road, 
is a large circular building, with a vaulted ceiling, open in the 
centre, and four niches in the walls, obviously a bath, but called 
a Temple of Mercury , or by the peasantry il troglio (troughj. Fine 
echo in the interior (fee 30-50 c. ; women here offer to dance the 
tarantella for the traveller's entertainment, 50 c). 

A little farther on, to the right, is the Hotel della Regina. 
About 100 paces beyond it, to the left, by the small harbour where' 
the boats from Pozzuoli land , is situated an octagonal structure 
with a vaulted ceiling, in the interior circular, and 25 paces iu 
diameter, with remains of the ancient lateral chambers, windows, 
and staircases , somewhat resembling the Minerva Medica at 
Rome, now called the Temple of Venus. (As this is a public 
thoroughfare, no gratuity need be given.) 

The high-road skirts the bay, and passing several columbaria 
on the left, ascends the hill occupied by the Castle of Baja, which 
was erected in the 16th cent, by Don Pedro de Toledo. It now con- 
tains a small garrison; admission is granted, but is not worth the 

About 2 M. beyond Baja we reach the village of Bacoli, which 
is believed (not with absolute certainty) to derive its name from 
the ancient Villa Bauli, and also boasts of a number of antiquities. 
The traveller who is pressed for time, however , had better confine 
his attention to the Piscina Mirabilis (see p. 108). , ., „ , 

The Villa Bauli Is celebrated as having been the frequent re S1 dence ,.l 

108 Route 4. MISENUM. Environs 

distinguished Romans , and it was here that Nero planned the murder of 
his mother Agrippina, in March, A.D. 59, a crime which was afterwards 
perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine Lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. xiv. 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Csesar, but the 
spot cannot now be exactly determined. What is commonly named the 
Sepolcro <T Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, are supposed 
to belong to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
said to be visible. In this villa Nero is believed to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the ileet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by sinking her in a ship. The attempt , however, 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband M. Antony; and here she lost her hopeful 
son, the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that the subterranean chambers, known as 
the Cento Camekelle, or Carceri di Nerone, or the Labyrinth, belonged to 
the basement story of this villa (fee •/« fr. ). They are sometimes 
visited by torchlight, but the view from them is the chief attraction. 

On the hill to the S. of Bacoli, 10 min. from the entrance to 
the village, is situated the *Piscina Mirabilis. (Guide unnecessary. 
We may either leave the road by the Ufflzio Daziario and follow 
the long street of the village ; or, better , follow the road to the 
bifurcation mentioned below , and 60 paces beyond it ascend a 
path diverging to the left from the Misenum road. On the hill we 
turn to the right. Custodian, whose house is on the right, near 
the Piscina, x \^ fr. ; he sells vases and other antiquities found in 
the vicinity.) The Piscina is a reservoir at the extremity of the 
Julian Aqueduct, 230 ft. in length, 85 ft. in width, with a vaulted 
ceiling supported by forty-eight massive columns, and admirably 
preserved. — Following the top of the hill in the same direction 
(S.) for 5 min. more, we reach a cottage (good wine), the roof of 
which commands a very fine view , though inferior to that from 
the Capo Miseno. 

Near Bacoli, about '/4 M. beyond the Ufflzio Daziario, the road 
divides : the branch to the right leads to Miniscola and the 
( 2 /g M.) starting-point of the ferry-boat to Procida and Ischia (see 
p. 110); the road to the left leads in a straight direction to Misenum. 
Both of these roads skirt the margin of the shallow Mare Morto, 
part of the old harbour of Misenum , from which it has only 
recently been separated by the embankment which bears the road. 
The two basins are now connected by a narrow channel only, which 
is crossed by a bridge. 

In the time of Augustus a vast war-harbour was constructed at Mise- 
num by Agrippa, in connection with the works at the Lacns A vermis 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, in order to serve as a receptacle for theEoman 
fleet on this coast, like Ravenna in the Adriatic. The harbour consisted 
of three basins, two outer, one on each side of the promontory called 
Forno, and one inner, the present Mare Morto. The Punla di Pennata, 
a narrow promontory which bounds the harbour of Misenum on the N., 
was penetrated by a double subaqueous passage for the purpose of pre- 

of Naples. CAPO MISENO. J. Route. 109 

venting the accumulation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also con- 
structed on pillars, three of which are still visible under water. Other 
relics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood , but it is a difficult 
matter now to ascertain to what they belonged. Even the situation of 
the Town of Misenum is not precisely known , although it probably lay 
near the modern village of that name. Scanty remnants of a theatre are 
still traceable near the small promontory II Forno. Some ruins on the 
height above are supposed to belong to the once famous villa of Lucullus, 
afterwards the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently 
that of Nero. The Grotta Dmgonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by twelve 
pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval depot or a reser- 
voir for water. 

The fleet stationed at Misenum, to which the place owed its impor- 
tance, was commanded in A.D. 79 by the Elder Pliny, who perished 
during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (p. 123). In 890 the town was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens. 

Beyond the above-mentioned bridge, 1/4 M. from the bifurcation 
of the road, we pass a white powder-mill (smoking forbidden here), 
and soon reach C/2 M.) the village of Miseno , situated at the foot 
of the cape , and proceed to the church. (Driving is not allowed 
beyond the village.) The ascent (to the top and back 1-1 • '4 hr.) is 
fatiguing for ladies. A boy may be taken as guide ('in coppa', to 
the top). "We follow the main road to the Tenuta, a little before 
which we ascend to the right; a steep and narrow path then leads 
to the summit through vineyards. 

The *Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of tufa-rock rising from 
the sea, which was formerly connected with the mainland only by 
the narrow Spiaggia diMiniscola (see below), extending towards the 
W. Its remarkable form gave rise to the belief that it was an arti- 
ficial tumulus of very ancient origin. Thus Virgil (yEn. Yi. 232) de- 
scribes it as the burial-place of the trumpeter Misenus : — 
At pius JSnects ingenti mole sepulcrtem 
Inponit, suaque arrna viro remumque tubamque 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 

The summit (300 ft.) commands one of the most striking 
**Views in the environs of Naples (20 c. to proprietor). It embraces 
the bays of Naples and Gaeta and the surrounding heights, with 
the peculiarity that the spectator appears to stand in the midst of 
a complicated assemblage of straits, peninsulas, bays, lakes, and 
promontories. On the side next the sea rises a picturesque mediaeval 
watch-tower ; another similar tower has recently been removed to 
make way for a lighthouse. 

To the W., opposite the Capo Miseno, rises the Monte di Pro- 
cida, a volcanic rock , covered with vineyards yielding excellent 
wine, and fragments of ancient villas. 

The narrow strip of coast, about 1 M. in length , between the 
Capo Miseno and the Monte di Proeida, separating the sea (Canale 
di Proeida) from the Mare Morto, is called the Spiaggia di Minis- 
cola, or Miliscola, a name which is said to be a corruption of Militis 
Schola ('military exercising-ground'). At the foot of the Monte di 

110 Route*. ARCO FELICE. Environs 

Prooida, at the point where the road from Baja reaches it, is the 
landing-place (sbarcatojo) for boats to Ischia and Procida, to which 
there are frequent opportunities of crossing. (To Procida , for one 
or more persons l'^-^ fr. ; to Casamicciola in Ischia, 10 fr. ; the 
bargain should be made with the boatmen themselves.) — On the 
road to Baja, 1/4 M. to the N. of the landing-place, at the junction 
of the road with that from the Lago Fusaro, is the poor Osteria del 
Monte di Procida (no sign ; good wine). 

The N. (right) branch of the road ascends gradually from the 
bifurcation at the foot of the Monte Nuovo (p. 105), l'/2 M. from 
Pozzuoli, tothe^U/jM.) top of the E. margin of the crater of the Lago 
Averno, which soon becomes visible below to the left. About 72 ML 
farther, where the road turns a little to the right, a cart-track di- 
verges to the left, leading in a few minutes to the Arco Felice, a 
huge structure of brickwork, 63 ft. high and I8Y2 ft- 'wide , sit- 
uated in a deep gully. On the summit are traces of an aqueduct. 
The arch may have been exclusively destined for the latter pur- 
pose, or it may also have carried a road over the higher ground. 

The road to Cumae passes through the arch and then descends. 
About 400 paces beyond it an ancient paved way diverges to the 
left to a subterranean vaulted passage , called the Grotta della Pace 
(after Pietro della Pace, a Spaniard who explored it in the 16th 
cent.). It was constructed by Agrippa for the purpose of affording 
direct communication between Cumae and the Lacus Avernus. This 
tunnel is upwards of 1/2 M. in length, and is lighted at intervals 
by shafts from above. 

The entrance is closed by a gate (admission V2 fr-)i which carriages 
can scarcely pass. The floor is covered inch-deep with fine sand. Torches, 
which are, however, unnecessary, are offered for sale at Pozzuoli (1 fr. per 
pair). — Travellers from Cumse, or those who wish to combine the ex- 
cursion to Baja with a visit to the Lacus Avernus in such a way as not 
to be obliged to traverse the same ground twice, may avail themselves 
of this tunnel in order to reach the N. bank of the lake (see p. 106). 

We continue to follow the road to Cumse, the acropolis of which 
we observe on the hill to the W. About V2 M. from the Arco 
Felice we follow at first the ancient pavement and then a good new 
road. Near the entrance to a vigna, the road forks : to the left to 
the Lago del Fusaro (p. ill); to the right to Cumse. In a vigna 
to the left of the former branch of the road, about 120 paces from 
the bifurcation, is situated an ancient Amphitheatre with twenty- 
one tiers of seats, covered with earth and underwood. If we follow 
the branch of the road to the right, and after 90 paces diverge from 
it, beside a large farm-yard, by a path to the left (last part steep), 
we are led in l / t hr. to the site of ancient Cumae. 

Cumse, Greek Cyme, the most ancient Greek colony in Italy, was 
situated near the sea on a voloanic eminence (trachyte), which 
rises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
the mouth of the Volturno. 

of Naples. CVMM. 4. Route. Ill 

The town is said to have been founded by jEolians from Asia Minor 
in B.C. 1050, or at an even earlier period. Cumee in its turn founded 
Diceearchia, the modern Pozzuoli, and Palceopolis, the modern Naples, and 
exercised the most widely extended influence on the civilisation of the 
Italian peninsula. All the different alphabets of Italy were derived from 
the Cumsean ; and Cumse was the centre whence the Hellenic forms of 
worship, and with them Hellenic culture, became gradually diffused among 
the aboriginal tribes. Rome received the mysterious Sibylline books from 
Cumse, and the last of the Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which 
once boasted of great wealth and commercial prosperity, was often seri- 
ously imperilled by the attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially the 
Etruscans , who were signally defeated in a naval battle near Cumae , by 
Hiero of Syracuse , the ally of the citizens , B.C. 474. Pindar cel- 
ebrates this victory in the first Pythian ode , and a helmet of the en- 
emy dedicated at Olympia as a votive offering from the spoil was found 
there (now in the British Museum). At the close of the 5th cent. Cumse 
participated in the general decline of the Hellenistic towns. In 420 it was 
stormed by the Samnites, and in 337 taken by the Romans, after which 
it became a Roman municipium of little importance. Under the emperors 
it fell entirely to decay, but was restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent, 
it was burned by the Saracens , and in the 13th it was finally destroyed 
as a stronghold of pirates by the inhabitants of Naples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the former * Acropolis 
are still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
Gaeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (to the left) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Ischia, etc. Extensive remains of the ancient fortifications are 
preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. The 
rock on which this castle stood is perforated in every direction 
with passages and shafts. One of these (descend to the left by the 
hut), with numerous lateral openings and subterranean passages, is 
thought to correspond with the description given by Virgil (JEn. 
vi. 41) of the Grotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances 
and as many issues, 'whence resound as many voices, the oracles 
of the prophetess '. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
hill towards the sea, but most of the passages are blocked up. It 
is believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark cavern 
in the direction of the Lago del Fusaro, but the investigations have 
been abandoned as dangerous. Numerous interesting and valuable 
objects found here are now preserved at Naples (p. 76), Paris, and 
St. Petersburg. — The form of the temples of Apollo , Diana , the 
Giants, and Serapis , where recent excavations have brought sculp- 
tures and columns to light, is not now traceable. The scanty ruins 
are concealed by vineyards and underwood. 

From Cumae a good road leads to the S. to (IV2 M.) the Lago 
del Fusaro, perhaps once the harbour of Cumae, to which the poet- 
ical name of the Acherusian Lake is sometimes applied. The lake 
is believed to occupy the crater of an extinct volcano. It is still, as 
in ancient times, celebrated for its oysters. In the lake, near theS.E. 
shore, is a pavilion, erected by Ferdinand I. On the bank, oppo- 
site, is the Grand Restaurant (de'pendance of the Rest, de l'Europe 
at Naples; comp. also p. 99), with garden, good but expensive 
(after June open on Sun. only). At the S. end of the lake is an 

112 Route 5. PROCIDA. Environs 

ancient Roman channel , the Foce del Fusaro , which connects it 
with the sea. To the N. of this channel, on a projecting tongue of 
land, stands the Torre di Oaveta, with extensive ruins of the villa 
of Servilius Vatia, who retired hither when Nero's folly and tyranny 
at Rome had become insufferable. — A road leads from the Lago 
del Fusaro, passing numerous relics of ancient tombs, to ( 3 / 4 M.) 
Baja, and another to (27> MO Miniscola (p. 109). 

5. Procida and Ischia. 

Gomp. the Map. 

The Steamboat Connection between Naples and these two islands 
(once or twice daily, morning and afternoon) is subject to continual altera- 
tion (like the Capri route, p. Ifi5) ; so that before starting on the expedi- 
tion the traveller would do well to make particular enquiries at his hotel, 
or still better, at the sieamboat- office, concerning both the time and 
place of departure (from the Immacolatella, PI. F, 5). The office of the 
Societa Florio - Rtibattmo is at No. 28 Strada Piliero (PI. E, F, 5), and 
that of the Societa Napoletana di Navigazione at No. 14 Marina Nuova. 
The Mail Steamer of the latter company starts daily at 2 p.m. from the 
left side of the Immacolatella, where it lies alongside the quay. It sails 
to Casamicciola , touching at Procida and the town of Ischia, and lays 
to for the night at Porto d'Ischia. In good weather the return is made 
via Casamicciola (which it leaves about 6 a.m.) , in bad weather direct 
to Naples. The towns of Ischia and Forio are also touched at by the Mail 
StEameks to the Ponza Islands (p. 14; leaving the Immacolatella at Naples 
on Mon. and Thurs. at 8 a.m., returning from Ischia on Tues. and Frid. 
at 1 p.m.). During the bathing-season (July and August) a steamer also 
plies daily from Naples to Ischia, returning in the evening. — The voyage 
from Naples via Procida and Ischia to Casamicciola takes 3 ! /4 hrs. ; fares 
5 and 3 fr. Embarking or landing at Naples 30 c, at Procida, Ischia, or 
Casamicciola 15 c. ; the boatmen are rarely satisfied with this tariff, but 
their importunities should be disregarded. 

The most convenient arrangement for visiting these islands varies 
with the hour at which the start is made from Naples. Travellers who 
start early in the morning, and omit Procida, need spend only one night 
on the excursion. Starting from Naples by the Ponza steamer, we reach 
the town of Ischia in the course of the forenoon, walk or ride to the top 
of the Epomeo (with guide), and descend to Casamicciola, where we spend 
the night. Xext morning we proceed by Lacco, Forio, and Porto d'Ischia 
to Ischia, where we catch the return Ponza steamer. — Those who leave 
Naples in the afternoon may quit the steamer at Procida , ascend to the 
fort for the sake of the view, and then traverse the island lengthwise to 
the creek of Chia.iolclla (2 M.), where boats (l'/a fr.) are found for the 
crossing to Porto d'Ischia. The night is spent here or at (i/j hr's. drive) 
Ischia. Next morning we take a one-horse carriage (about 5 fr.) via Ca- 
samicciola to Forio, in 2'/ 2 hrs., ascend thence to the top of the Epomeo 
(donkey 3-5 fr.), and descend by Barano to Porto d'Ischia. Next morning 
an early steamer conveys us back to Naples. 

A visit to these islandsmay be very conveniently combined with the 
excursion to Cumse and Baja. After breakfasting at Baja, we arrange to 
start thence about 10 a. m., drive via Bacoli (p. 107; visit the Piscina 
Mirabilis; see the view from the roof of the cottage; no time for the Capo 
Miseno) to Miniscola in l-l'/2 hr., cross to Procida (p. 110) in 3/ 4 _l hr. (visit 
the castle if time permits , 3 / 4 hr.) , and then proceed by steamboat to 
Ischia ( 3 /4 hr.). Torre Gaveta, Procida, and Ischia will be connected by a 
service of steamers on the completion of the Fermvia Cumana (p. 98). 

A rowing-boat takes 6 hrs. to cross from Ischia to Capri in fine wea- 
ther (20 fr.). 

of Naples. PROCIDA. 5. Route. 113 

Frocida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, like its 
sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been con- 
nected, is of volcanic origin, being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now form 
two semicircular bays , their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiajolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 
of Vivara, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 2 M. in length, and of varying 
width ; population 14,000, whose occupations are fishing and the 
cultivation of the vine and other fruit. The surface is somewhat 
flat compared with that of its more majestic sister isle. 

As the island of Procida is approached, the most conspicuous 
object is the fort, situated on the Punta di Rocciola, the N.E. ex- 
tremity. Below lies the town of Procida, extending along the N. 
coast, partly built on the higher ground above, and stretching 
thence towards the S. side. The white , glistening houses with 
their flat roofs present a somewhat Oriental aspect. The chief festi- 
vals on the island are St. Michael's Day (29th Sept.) and 8th May. 

The landing-place ('Marina') is on the N. side, and close to it 
the indifferent Vittoria inn (R. 2, D. 3-4 fr., also furnished apart- 
ments, bargaining necessary). In order to reach the castle we follow 
the main street of the village, which ascends to the left by the Cafe' 
del Commercio at the W. end of the Marina, and take the first side- 
street to the left. This leads to the small Piazza dei Martiri, 
with a tablet in memory of twelve Procidans who were executed 
during the reaction of 1799 (fine view towards the S.). In 5 min. 
more we reach the Castle, now a house of correction, situated on a 
precipitous rock, and commanding fine *Views of Procida and the Epo- 
meo, Capo Miseno, Capri, Vesuvius, and the peninsula of Sorrento. 

The above-mentioned main street intersects the town from E. 
to W., and is prolonged to the left by the 'Strada Vittorio Ema- 
nuele', which nins between garden-walls and rows of houses, and 
traverses the whole island towards the S.W. In 40 min. we reach 
the Bay of Chiajolella, situated below the old chateau of S. Mar- 
garita , and near the small olive -clad island of Vivara. At the 
Chiajolella boats for the passage to Ischia are always to be found 
(3/ 4 hr. ; fare 2 fr.). As soon as we have passed Vivara, we obtain 
a view of Ischia with its beautiful hills, commanded by the summit 
of the Epomeo, with the town and castle of Ischia in the foreground. 

Ischia, the Pitheeusa, Mnaria, or Inarime of antiquity, and 
the mediaeval Iscla, the largest island near Naples, is about 19 M. 
in circumference, without taking the numerous indentations into 
account, and has about 20,000 inhabitants, who are principally 
engaged in the culture of the vine (white wine, light and slightly 
acid) and other fruit, and to a certain extent in fishing. The 

Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 8 

114 Route 5. ISCHIA. Environs 

manufacture of Mattoni, a kind of tiles, and other articles from a 
variety of grey clay (creta) found in the island, is of great an- 
tiquity. Straw-plaiting has recently been considerably developed 
at Lacco (p. 27). The island -was almost entirely neglected by 
travellers after the severe earthquake of 1883, but visitors are now 
beginning to find their way back to the mineral springs, which 
still retain their efficacy. The climate is genial, the soil extremely 
productive ; the scenery almost everywhere singularly beautiful, 
though only seen in its full glory in summer. The entire island 
is of volcanic origin. Monte Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epo- 
peus) was an active volcano at a much earlier period than Vesu- 
vius, and in consequence of its eruptions the island was deserted 
in B. C. 474 by the greater number of the Greek inhabitants. 
Eruptions also took place in B.C. 92, and in the reigns of Titus, 
Antoninus Pius, and Diocletian. According to the ancient poets, 
the giant Typhosus, transfixed by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, lay 
buried beneath this mountain, like Enceladus under ^Etna, period- 
ically groaning and causing fearful eruptions of tire. The last 
eruption recorded took place in 1302. The stream of lava which 
on that occasion descended to the sea near Ischia is not yet wholly 
covered with vegetation. The earthquake of 28th July 1883 dis- 
placed a large mass from the mountain. 

After the fall of Rome Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
but was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchese Pescara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
Pescara's widow, Vittoria Colonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
beauty, the poetical friend of Michael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So too Maria of Arragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 

Ischia, the capital of the island, with 7000 inhab., and the 
seat of a bishop , stretches picturesquely along the shore in the 
form of a street, 1 M. in length, extending from the Castle on its 
lofty isolated Took on the S. to the Punta Molina on the N. The 
castle, erected by Alphonso V. of Arragon (Alphonso I. of Naples) 
about 1450 , afterwards the residence of Vittoria Colonna (see 
above), and connected with the land by a stone pier (280 ft. in 
length), is now a prison (adm. by permesso from the Deleyato delta 
Pubblica Sicurezza, in Ischia). View from the roof. 

From Ischia a good road skirts the whole N. coast of the Is- 
land, passing Porto d'Ischia and Casamicciola, to (7 M.) Forio, 
which is situated on the W. coast, and thence to the Monte Im- 
peratore. It is to be conducted round the S. side of the island to 
Moropano, the present terminus of the new road from Ischia. From 

of Naples. ISCHIA. 5. Route. 1 15 

the landing-place at Ischia we follow the road to the right in a 
straight direction, crossing the Lava dell' Arso, or lava-stream of 
1302. About 1 M. from Ischia we reach — 

Porto d'Ischia ( Grand Hotel Fasolini, definite bargain advisable ; 
Cafe dei Viaggiatori ; Cafe Epomeo; Cafe Angarella ; Cafe Isolano, 
well spoken of; all also restaurants, with rooms), also called Bagno 
d'Ischia, from several warm salt springs, which are used at (lif- 
erent bathing establishments. In the piazza, close to the harbour, 
are the large Bathing Establishment, and a royal park and casino 
(now a bath). The harbour, the circular shape of which denotes 
that it occupies an old crater, was at onetime a lake, but it was 
connected with the sea in 1853-56 in order to afford refuge to 
vessels in stormy weather. 

The highly attractive excursion to Moropano (by carriage in I 1 /? hr.) 
may be combined with the ascent of the Epomeo (see below). The new 
road crosses the Lava deH'Arso (see above), the course of which is still 
distinctly visible above , and leads first through pine-woods and then 
through luxuriant vineyards and orchards to Barano, beyond which we 
enjoy a fine survey of the sea and the fertile island. We then cross a 
gorge and reach Moropano, where the road ends at present. The ascent 
of the Epomeo hence takes about I1/2 hr. 

The road ('Via Queroia') ascends to the left by a yellow church 
with Ionic columns, being accompanied by the telegraph-wires, and 
commanding a beautiful view of the coast and the sea. About 
2*/2 M. farther we reach — 

Casamicciola (Bellevue, on the coast, V 4 M. from the steamboat- 
quay, with pretty view ; Villa Balsamo and Grande Sentinella, higher 
up; Restaurant des Etrangers, on the beach, unpretending; A/6. 
Pithecusa, new ; best accommodation, however, with simple fare if 
required, at a private house, such as Capitano Menella's, to the 
right in the Marina), formerly a little town with 4500 inhab., 
frequented by Italians and foreigners as a summer-resort on ac- 
count of its charming situation on the N. slopes of the Epomeo and 
its warm alkaline and saline springs. The terrible earthquake of 
28th July 1883, however, in which about 7500 lives were lost, laid 
it almost entirely in ruins. The church, the bath-houses, and the 
Monte della Misericordia hospital were laid in shattered heaps, and 
most of the few houses that remained standing suffered severely. 
The rebuilding of the town is superintended by a Comitato di Re- 
sorgimento ; and by order of government the new houses are all built 
of light timber and plaster work. The hospital is to be rebuilt, and 
a wide street is to be constructed along the shore. The Baths at 
Belliazzi have been reopened ; but many of the townspeople still 
live in the wooden huts hastily erected after the disaster. A visit 
to the scene of the calamity takes 2 hrs. ; the coachman should be 
directed to drive to the upper part of the former town, in which the 
earthquake was most severely felt. One-horse carriages may be hired 
at the quay for l*/2 fr. per hr. (bargaining necessary), donkeys for 
1 fr. The hill commands a fine view. 

116 Route 6. EPOMEO. 

The road continues along the slope a little longer, and then 
descends to Lacco, a village where the earthquake was much less 
disastrous. Here is situated the church of Sta. Restituta , the pa- 
troness of the island, whose festival (17th May) is celehrated by the 
illumination of the neighbouring Monte Vico. Near the former 
monastery and in the garden attached to it rise hot springs which are 
used for vapour-baths. 

Forio, the most populous place in the island, with upwards 
of 7000 inhab., lies on the W. coast, 3 M. from Casamicciola. The 
Ponza steamers (p. 112) touch here. The Franciscan monastery by 
the sea merits a visit on account of the beauty of its situation. 

The Ascent of the Epombo (horse or donkey 4-5 fr. and fee) 
may be undertaken from any of the principal towns. It occupies 
2'/2-3hrs.; the descent, direct or via Barano to Ischia, 2-21/2 hrs.; 
while I1/2 hr. is usually spent at the top. The ascent on foot is 
very fatiguing and should not be attempted without a guide •, pro- 
visions should be taken. — The **Epomeo (2600 ft.) falls away on 
the N. side almost perpendicularly, but is less steep on the other 
three sides. At the top are a Hermitage and the Chapel of S. Nicola, 
hewn in the volcanic rock, from which the mountain is also called 
Monte S. Nicola. Wine and bread (bargaining necessary) may be 
obtained from the hermit, and in any case a trifling donation is 
expected. Passages and steps cut in the rock ascend to the Belvedere, 
commanding a strikingly beautiful panorama, embracing the bays 
of Gaeta and Naples. At our feet lies the island of Ischia itself; 
to the W. the open sea; to the E. the coast of Italy from Terra- 
cina , the promontory of Circello, and the Ponza islands to Capo 
Miseno, Vesuvius, and the Capo Campanella, the extremity of the 
peninsula of Sorrento ; in the foreground Prooida, then the inden- 
tations of the Bay of Naples, to the right the island of Capri; to- 
wards the N. the distant snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. 

The following extracts from the writings of Nicolovius, an eminent 
German author, and husband of Goethe's niece, although dating from 1792, 
are in many respects still applicable to Ischia. 

'The climate of this charming island is genial, the sky rarely overcast, 
the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied by nature with the 
necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs, and 
all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in the rich volcanic soil. Here and 
there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. Orange, pome- 
granate, fig, and arbutus trees are the most common in the gardens ; the 
myrtle and mastich-tree form the most frequent underwood in the unculti- 
vated parts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar dialect, 
costume, and figure. Fashion is unknown. The island cannot boast of a 
single carriage or horse. The king himself on landing here must, like the 
humblest inhabitant, have recourse to a donkey, unless he prefers to 
walk .... Nowhere have we seen the tarantella, or national Neapolitan 
dance, in greater perfection than here. It is usually performed by two 
girls ; a third plays on the tambourine and sings. The woes of an absent 
or unhappy lover are usually the theme of the song. In many of them 
the Madonna and Cupinto (Cupid) are depicted as in perfect harmony with 
each other. The dancers stand opposite to each other, grasp the corners 
of their broad aprons, and begin their evolutions. They place their arms 

RESINA. 6. Route. 1 1 7 

alternately akimbo, while the disengaged hand grasping the apron raises 
it high in the air, and occasionally draws it tightly across the knee. The 
posture and the manipulation of the apron changes incessantly. At one 
time the dancers flit past each other, at another with a slight curt- 
sey and sweep of the foot give the sign to meet again, whereupon they 
let go their aprons and career round in a circle, striking their castanets 
with upraised hands , or imitating the sound with their fingers. The ca- 
price of the dancer is capable of imparting an entirely different character 
to the dance, which is generally intended to manifest the state of the feel- 
ings. Fortunata, a relative of our host, performed the dance one evening, 
at our request, with an uncouth Lombard youth, and the expression of the 
dance was one of bitter derision. 1 

6. From Naples to Pompeii [and Salerno). 

Railway to Pompeii, 15 M., in 50 min.; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 10 c. 
(return-tickets 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 85 c). — High-road, see p. 120. 

The railway from Naples to Pompeii , and thence to Salerno 
and Metaponto (best views to the right), traverses the suburbs 
and crosses the insignificant Sebeto, a stream which bounds Naples 
on the E. The large red building on the right is the Oranili, 
used as barracks and (as the name imports) corn-magazines. 
Beyond these we obtain a retrospect of the Castel S. Elmo. 
This district is densely peopled ; the first village is the straggling 
S. Giovanni a Teduccio. To the right the view becomes less cir- 
cumscribed; and Naples, thePosilipo, beyond which rise the moun- 
tains of Ischia, the island of Capri opposite , and the peninsula 
of Sorrento are now visible. 

5 M. Fortici. — Trattoria. Asso di Coppa, clean, cuisine well spo- 
ken of. 

Carriages. With one horse to the Piazza del Municipio at Naples 
l'/2 fr., or from one hour after sunset till midnight 2 l /t fr. ; to the Rivi- 
era di Ohiaja 2 or 3 fr. ; to the Museo Nazionale 1 fr. 75, or 2 fr. 60 c; 
to Resina 50 or 75 c. — With two horses double these fares. 

Tramway, see p. 24. 

Portici, a town with 12,500 inhab., is also the station for Re- 
sina (see below). It has a small harbour formed by a molo, from 
the end of which a fine view is obtained of the bay. The high- 
road from Naples to Salerno traverses the town, and also leads 
through the court of the palace built by Charles III. in 1738. 
In the somewhat neglected park of the latter is now a school of 
agriculture. — Continuation of the Railway Journey, see p. 119. 

Adjoining Portici , immediately beyond the palace , are the 
houses of Resina [Pension Helvetia, Villa Vargas 130, well spoken 
of), a town with 13,000 inhab., built upon the lava-streams which 
cover the ancient Herculaneum. About y 4 M. beyond the palace, 
and 200 paces beyond the office of the Vesuvius guides, immediately 
on this side of a viaduct crossing the Vicolo di Mare, and to the 
right of the high-road, is the entrance to the excavations. — Dis- 
tance thither from the Portici station 2 /3 M. (guide unnecessary). On 

118 Routed. HERCULANEUM. From Naples 

leaving the station we follow the main street to the right, and after 
7 min. turn to the left ('Linea Daziaria del Comune di Resina') ; 
in 5 min. more , near the palace of Portici (on the left) we reach 
the above-mentioned high-road, which we follow to the right. 
Over the entrance is the inscription, 'Scavidi Ercolano'. Admission 
2 fr., for which the visitor is provided with a guide (no fees) ; on 
Sundays gratis. 

Herculaneum, the Heracleia of the Greeks, derived its name from the 
worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. Tradition attributed its 
foundation to the hero himself, who during his wanderings in the West 
visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, the aboriginal natives 
of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites , before it became subject 
to Rome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a height , between two 
rivers, and being near the sea, it became a favourite site for Roman 
villas. The spot retained its name even after the total annihilation of the 
town by the eruption of 79. A number of poor families then took up their 
abode here, but in 472 their village was again destroyed by an eruption, 
which altered the configuration of the whole coast. Subsequent eruptions 
increased the depth of ashes and lava under which the old town was 
buried to 40-100 ft. , that being the depth of the remains at the present 
day below the surface of the soil. The discovery of Herculaneum took 
place in 1719. Prince d'Elboeuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino at 
Portici, caused a well to be dug to supply it with water. This led 
to the discovery , at a depth of about 90 ft. , of the ancient theatre , 
where a number of statues were found. Two of these, beautiful portrait- 
statues of an old and a younger woman, are now in the museum at 
Dresden. The excavations were then discontinued, but in 1737 Charles 
III., when engaged in erecting a palace at Portici, recommenced opera- 
tions, which were unfortunately directed by unskilful hands and led 
to no satisfactory result; nor was it an easy task to remove the thick 
layer of ashes, that had hardened into tufifstone, especially as the build- 
ings and streets of Portici and Resina were thereby undermined. In 
1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn through the rock, leading to 
the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level of the street, and this 
is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the Accademia Ercolanese 
was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities discovered, and 
under their auspices was published the 'Pitture d'Ercolano' in 9 vols. 
(Napoli, 1757), which caused immense sensation in the learned world. 
The excavations during the next 50 years were conducted too superficially 
and unsvstematically, but progressed more favourably under the French 
kings Joseph Napoleon (1806-8) and Joachim Murat (1808-15). Under theBour- 
bons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most interesting objects 
were excavated and again covered; thus the theatre , part of the forum 
with its colonnades, a colonnade (erroneously called a basilica), resembling 
the building of Eumachia at Pompeii (p. 138), various temples, a large 
villa, in which were found most (and by far the finest) of the bronzes 
now in the museum at Naples, as well as the 3000 papyrus-rolls (p. 76), 
private houses, etc. Although the works were carried on without any defin- 
ite plan, the yield was remarkably rich, and has furnished the museum 
of Naples with a large proportion of its most valuable treasures, including 
statues, busts, mural paintings, inscriptions, and utensils of all kinds. 
The excavations were recommenced with great ceremony in 1868 , but 
as they are conducted on a limited scale no great results have yet 
been obtained. In due time , however , a number of interesting dis- 
coveries may confidently be expected. This is all the more likely as the 
ancients appear soon to have given up their search for objects of value 
here as being unprofitable; and while Pompeii was thoroughly explored 
and ransacked, the treasures of Herculaneum have been preserved for the 
benefit of posterity by the mantle of lava with which they are enveloped. 

The attractions presented by Herculaneum are at present of a very 

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to Pompeii. TORRE DEL GRECO. 6. Route. 119 

limited character, but an opportunity of seeing them should not be neglect- 
ed. The visit may be paid on the way to Mt. Vesuvius, or, better still, 
after the excursion to Pompeii. 

From the entrance we are first conducted down a dark flight 
of more than a hundred steps to the Theatre, of which an accurate 
idea is not easily formed by the light of the flickering candle. 
Owing to the buttresses built to support the rock above, the 
place rather resembles a profoundly dark subterranean labyrinth. 
It contained four broad tiers or steps for the chairs of the more 
dignified spectators, above which were sixteen tiers of seats in six 
compartments (cunei) : between these, seven flights of steps as- 
cended to a broad corridor, above which were three more tiers 
of seats. The number of spectators cannot have exceeded 3000. 
The orchestra lies 85 ft. below the level of the modern Resina, 
and is faintly lighted from above through the shaft of the well 
which was the occasion of the discovery. One inscription records 
that L. Annius Mammianus Rufus erected the theatre, another 
that Numisius, son of Publius, was the architect. On each side 
of the proscenium are pedestals for honorary statues, with in- 

A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1837, and resumed in 1868, is of far higher interest. 
We are conducted by the custodian down the Vicolo di Mare 
(p. 117) for 4 min. ; the entrance is by an iron gate to the left. 
A street, part of a large private house, and several houses used for 
trading purposes have been excavated here. They lie 40 ft. below 
the present surface, and the different layers of the superincumbent 
lava are readily distinguished. The houses with their fittings and 
decorations resemble those of Pompeii. The building-material is 
a yellow tufa from Mte. Somma, of very soft consistency, which 
accounts for the thickness of the walls. The garden of the principal 
house, that of the Argus, is one of the most interesting objects. 
It is enclosed by an arcade of twenty columns and six buttresses. 
To the right of it is a triclinium with a painting (not now visible) 
of Mercury before Argus and Io, from which the house derives its 
name. Towards the sea, the proximity of which at that period is 
indicated by the rapid descent of the street, are situated magazines, 
three stories in height, and well preserved. 

Near Portici we enjoy a fine view from the railway of the Bay 
of Naples with the Castello dell' Ovo and Pizzofalcone, commanded 
by Camaldoli ; in the background the Capo Miseno and the moun- 
tains of Ischia. Farther on, to the left, Vesuvius and Resina. 
The train skirts the coast and traverses the huge lava-stream of 
1794, 38 ft. in thickness and 700 yds. in breadth. 

7'/ 2 M. Torre del Greco. — Hotels. 'Pension Suisse, in the Villa 
Ferro, between Torre del Greco and Resina, moderate, pens. 5 fr.; 
Hotel-Pension dv Vesuve, in the Villa Vallelttnga, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Pension 


Belvedere, with garden, pens. 5 fr. — Restaurant, at the tramway- ter- 
minus (p. 22). 

Torre del Oreco , a flourishing town with 25,000 inhabitants, 
stands on the lava-stream of 1631, which destroyed two -thirds 
of the older town. The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 also caused 
great damage. The earthquake of 1857, and particularly the 
eruption of 8th Dec. 1861, proved still more destructive. On 
this last occasion eleven small openings were formed immediately 
above the town, whence vast showers of ashes were precipitated, 
while the shore in the vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 
3 ft., causing the ruin of many houses. Although the entire base 
of Vesuvius as far as Torre Annunziata is covered with traces 
of similar catastrophes, yet the inhabitants appear never to be 
deterred from rebuilding their dwellings , a circumstance which 
has given rise to the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, 'Napoli 
fa i peccati e la Torre li paga\ The town has recently risen into 
favour as a health-resort. In June the great popular festival '■Dei 
Quattro Altar? is annually celebrated here, in commemoration of the 
abolition of the feudal dominion in 1700. Every April a large fleet 
of boats leaves Torre del Greco for the coral-fishery off the coasts 
of Africa and Sicily, returning in November. 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the right a small har- 
bour), and then skirts the sea. To the left the monastery of Ca- 
maldoli della Torre is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak 
at the base of Vesuvius, and protected by its situation against 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches — 

12^2 M. Torre Annunziata, Citth station, a prosperous town of 
17,000 inhab., with a small harbour and an office of the Vesuvius 
guides (p. 122). A beautiful glimpse is disclosed here of the bay of 
Castellammare with the town, commanded by Monte S. Angelo, the 
summit of which is crowned by the chapel of S. Michele ; beyond 
it Vico Equense, in the distance Sorrento. 

13y 2 M. Torre Annunziata, Central station, the junction for 
the railways from Caserta to Castellammare (p. 10), and from 
Naples to Oragnano (p. 157) via. Castellammare. 

The Pompeii train now proceeds inland towards the S. E., and 
on the left the partially overgrown heaps of ashes thrown up by 
the excavations soon become visible. 

15 M. Pompeii, see p. 129. 

Continuation of the line to Salerno, see R. 10. 

High Road prom Naples to Pompeii. 

The High Road from Naples to Pompeii is also still much frequented, 
and in cool weather may he recommended as a route as far as Portici 
and Resina, as the railway-stations at Naples and Portici are inconveni- 
ently situated. In the hot. season the dust is extremely unpleasant. 
(Carriages take 50 min. from the Piazza del Municipio to Resina, see 
pp. 24, 117; tramway to Torre del Greco, see p. 24.) 

MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 1 21 

The road, which traverses the busy and bustling E. suburb of 
Naples, leaves the town near the Castello del Carmine, skirts the 
Marinella, and crosses the Sebeto by the Ponte della Maddalena, 
passing the barracks of the Granili (p. 117) to the right. It then 
leads along the coast, which, however, is so covered with villas and 
other houses that the route is more like a long street than a country 
road. Maccaroni hung out to dry is seen on every side. The first 
village reached is 8. Giovanni a Teduccio , which is adjoined on 
the left by the small town of La Barra, a favourite summer-re- 
sort. "We next reach Portici and Resina (p. 117), which stretch 
along the Toad for a distance of 2 M. , the boundary between them 
being immediately beyond the royal palace, through the court of 
which the road passes. At the beginning of Resina on the left is 
the office for the Vesuvius guides (p. 117). On the right, farther 
on, is the entrance to the excavations of Herculaneum (p. 117), 
beyond which the road to Vesuvius diverges to the left (see p. 127). 
We next pass the chateau of Favorita on the right, with a fine 
park, now in the possession of the ex-khedive Ismail Pasha (no ad- 

As far as Torre del Oreco (p. 119) the road runs between 
houses and garden-walls , but farther on it commands an unim- 
peded view. Torre Annunziata, see p. 120. The drive from 
Naples to Pompeii takes 2-3 hrs. (carr. and pair 20 fr.). Pompeii, 
see p. 129. 

7. Mount Vesuvius. 

Comp. Map, p. 118. 

The great majority of travellers now make the ascent of Mt. Vesuvius 
by means of the Wire Rope Railway (Ferrovia Funicolare del Vesuvio), 
which was opened in 1880 and approaches to within 150 yds. of the mouth 
of the crater. In 1889 this line became the property of Messrs. Cook d- Son, 
whose office at Naples (p. 31), Piazza dei Martiri 52, is open in summer 
(May-Sept.) from 6.30 a.m. to 7 p.m., and in winter from 7.30 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Messrs. Cook undertake the conveyance of passengers from Naples 
to the top of the cone. Their carriages ('victoria 1 with 3 seats, 'landau' 
with 5 seats) start from the office at 7 a.m. in summer and 8.30 a.m. in 
winter. A party of three persons is entitled to a victoria and a party of 
Ave to a landau, which they may order to fetch them from their hotel at 
a later hour (see p. 122). The drive from Naples to Resina (p. 117), and 
thence up Vesuvius and past the Observatory (p. 124) to the foot of the 
cone, occupies about 4 hrs. The railway-station here (Stazione Inferiore) 
contains a good restaurant, where time is generally allowed for refresh- 
ments (lunch with wine 3!/4, D. incl. wine 6*/4 fr., bottle of Vesuvian wine 
l'/a fr. ; fee 25 c). The railway-carriages contain 12 seats each, for which 
tickets are distributed on the arrival of the travellers, who, however, are 
not bound to proceed by the first train that starts. Trains start at various 
intervals, according to the number of visitors, from 10 a.m. till 5 or 6 p.m. 
Ascents are also sometimes made at night with the aid of electric light. 
The ascent or descent occupies 12 minutes. At the upper station the trav- 
ellers receive a guide, who conducts them to the crater. Ladies and the 
less vigorous travellers had better engage a 'portantina' or porte-chaise to 
carry them up (see p. 122). A stay of 3 hrs. is allowed on the mountain 

122 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Railway. 

(i.e. between departure from and return to the Stazione Inferiore). Those 
who remain longer do so at the risk of finding no disengaged seat in the 
train. The coachmen below also are not bound to wait longer. 

Tickets should be taken on the evening before. The cost of the ascent 
for a single traveller amounts to 25 fr., or if the ascent is made at night 
32 fr. This sum includes the carriage to and from Naples , the ascent 
and descent in the train , the use of a guide to the Old Crater, and all 
gratuities. For an 'aiuto', or aid of a strap (comp. p. 128), from the upper 
station to the crater (about 10-15 min.) a charge of 2 fr. is made, to the 
central cone and back 6 fr. ; a 'portantina' to the crater costs 5 fr., there 
and back 10 fr., to the central cone and back 25 fr. Parties leaving Naples 
at other than the regular hours above noted pay a small additional sum if 
there is a seat vacant in the carriage: thus 2 persons pay 8'/2 fr. for the 
empty seat in a victoria, 4 persons pay 6 fr. for the 5th seat in a landau. 
It is not advisable to drive to Vesuvius in carriages not belonging to the 
railway, for in that case each person pays 18 fr. (23 fr. at night) for the 
railway-ticket alone, besides 5 fr. for the use of the railway-proprietor's 
carriage-road between the Observatory and the lower station. 

The Guides of the Railway , to whose care the passengers are 
entrusted at the upper station , are distinguished by numbers on their 
caps. The services of men without such numbers should be at once re- 
jected. Those who wish to visit the 'New Crater'' and the 'Lava' (comp. 
p. 128) should make a bargain with the guide in the presence of the 
Inspector at the lower station, as the demands of the guides at the upper 
station are very extortionate. A fee of 1 fr. is sufficient, whether the 
guide is hired by a single person or by a party. 

The traveller should in no case attempt to combine a visit to Pom- 
peii with an ascent of Mt. Vesuvius, though railway-tickets are issued 
for the double excursion (52 fr.), including luncheon at the Hotel Diomede 
in Pompeii and dinner in the railway-restaurant on Mt. Vesuvius. 

Those who wish to make the ascent of Mt. Vesuvius on foot or on 
horseback procure guides and horses at the offices ('Officina delle Guide 
del Vesuvio') at Resina (p. 117) or at Torre Annunziala (p. 120; the latter 
with a branch at Bosco). The prices are fixed by tariff, which may be seen 
at the offices. Guide 6-7 fr. ; horse or mule 5 fr. ; for holding horse during 
the ascent of the cone V2-I fr. ; use of a stout stick 25 c. ; gratuities 2-3 fr. 
Travellers who are experienced in bargaining may pay even less than the 
above fees. It is quite unnecessary to hire a horse for the guide. — Use 
of the railway-proprietor's road and of the railway by those not using the 
carriages in connection from Naples, see above. — Ascent from Pompeii, 
on which the railway is not approached, see above. — Sig. Humbert of 
Naples (p. 28) organises parties for the expedition, at 22 fr. per head. 

Numerous other attacks on the traveller's purse are of course made 
en route , especially by unauthorised persons offering their services as 
guides ; these should be silently disregarded. 

A good popular account of the volcano is given in Prof. J. Logan 
Loblei/s 'Mt. Vesuvius' (London; 1889). 

Mount Vesuvius, sometimes called Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises in isolated majesty from the 
Campanian plain, near the sea. The height varies, according to 
the different effects of the eruptions , from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., and in 1868 it had increased 
to 4255 ft. ; it was somewhat diminished by the eruption of 1872, 
but is now steadily increasing. The N.E. side of the mountain is 
named Monte Somma, of which the highest peak is the Punta del 
Nasone (3730 ft.). A deep sickle-shaped valley, the Atrio del Ca- 
vallo, separates Somma from Vesuvius proper, which consists of a 
cone of ashes with the crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. 

Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 1 23 

The summit is also liable to constant change after eruptions, having 
sometimes a single crater with an opening in the middle , and 
sometimes two or three craters adjacent to each other. The moun- 
tain rises from the sea at an angle of 10°, while the cone itself 
has a gradient of 30-35°. Monte Somma descends almost perpen- 
dicularly to the Atrio del Cavallo , but slopes very gradually 
down to the plain (3°). 

Vesuvius in Ancient Times. Vesuvius forms the S. E. ex- 
tremity, and has for the last three centuries been the only active 
crater, of a highly volcanic district, which includes Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara, and the Monte Nuovo. The case was reversed in 
ancient times , as we are informed by the geographer Strabo 
(Bk. v., chap. 4), who lived in the time of Augustus: 'Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the most part level, but 
quite sterile ; for it has an appearance like ashes , and shows 
rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour, as if they had 
been consumed by fire. One might conclude from this that the 
mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, and had 
become extinguished when the material was spent. And just 
from this cause its fertility may arise , as in the case of Catania 
the eruption of ashes from ^Etna renders it so productive of 
wine'. About fifty years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, 
the volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 
earthquake , which destroyed a great part of the prosperous en- 
virons, and seriously damaged Herculaneum and Pompeii. This was 
repeated at Naples in 64, and again at intervals till the reign 
of Titus, when, on 24th Aug. 79, the first (recorded) eruption 
took place with appalling fury , and devastated the country far 
and wide , covering it with showers of ashes and vast streams 
of lava. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak now call- 
ed Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a rounded 
crater; the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, having been the 
lowest. The crater-like form of M. Somma is still distinctly re- 
cognisable, although somewhat concealed by the more recent de- 
posits of ashes. It was on that eventful day that Pompeii, Her- 
culaneum , Stabiae , and other villages of this smiling district 
were overwhelmed. The naturalist Pliny, then in command of a 
section of the fleet stationed at Misenum, also perished on 
this occasion. He had ventured too near the scene of desolation, 
both as an observer and for the purpose of rendering aid to 
the distressed, when he was suffocated near Castellammare by 
the ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in 
two letters (Ep. vi. 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, 
gives a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He 
mentions the premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, 
the extraordinary agitation of the sea, the dense clouds over- 

124 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Eruptions. 

hanging land and sea, and riven by incessant flashes, of light- 
ning, the emission of fire and ashes, the descent of streams of 
lava, and the universal terroT of men, who believed the end of 
the world had arrived. A similar description is given of an erup- 
tion in the reign of Alex. Severus, A.D. 222, by Dion Cassius 
(lxvi. 23), who describes how the clouds which hovered over the 
mountain assumed the form of awful colossal figures. Herculaneum 
and Pompeii were thus lost to the world for seventeen centuries. 
The eruptions of Vesuvius have been repeated at intervals with 
varying violence, down to the present day. The next took place 
in 203, under Septimius Severus , and another in 472, sending 
its showers of ashes as far as Constantinople. 

Vesuvius in Modern Times. Down to the year 1500 nine 
eruptions are recorded, and from that date to the present time 
fifty. The mountain has been known to be quiescent for centuries 
in succession, while at other periods its activity has been al- 
most uninterrupted, e.g. from 1717 to 1737. From 1500 to 
1631 Vesuvius was quiescent, while in 1538 the Monte Nuovo 
was upheaved near Pozzuoli, and ^Etna was labouring without 
intermission. During that period Vesuvius was entirely covered 
with wood and bushes, like the deer park of Astroni at the 
present day, and cattle grazed peacefully within the crater. After 
this lull, on 16th Dec, 1631, came a most terrific eruption, the 
first of which we possess detailed accounts. A huge cloud of 
smoke and ashes rising in a conical form , cast a profound 
gloom over Naples in the middle of the day, and extended 
with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of Italy, as 
far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a distance of 
15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma being 25 tons 
in weight) , while the earth was convulsed by violent earth- 
quakes , and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 
overwhelming Bosco, Torre Annunziata, Torre del Greco, Re- 
sina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on that 
occasion. The following year an eruption of ^Etna also took 
place , although that mountain is usually quiescent when Ve- 
suvius is in an active state. An eruption in 1707 was of a 
very alarming nature, lasting from May to August, and covering 
Naples with dense showers of ashes, to the terror of the cit- 
izens. The eruptions of 1737, 1760, and 1767 emitted consider- 
able quantities of lava and scoriae, which in 1767 descended on 
Portici, and even reached Naples. One of the most stupendous 
of these phenomena took place in Aug. 1779 , when a vast 
number of red-hot stones were hurled to a height of 2000 ft., 
some of them exceeding 100 lbs. in weight, spreading terror 
among the inhabitants far and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 
was even more fatal in its effects ; the streams precipitated 
themselves into the sea by Torre del Greco, heating the water 

Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 125 

for a considerable distance ; upwards of 400 lives were lost, 
and the ashes were carried as far as Chieti and Taranto. Erup- 
tions during the present century took place in 1804, 1805, 
1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855 ; in June 1858 the upper crater 
sank about 195 ft. below its former elevation ; and on 8th Dec. 
1861 an outbreak devastated Torre del Greco. These outbreaks 
were remarkable for their violence, and interesting from the fact 
that some of them were witnessed by Leopold von Buch (1805), 
Humboldt (1822), and other men of science. After this the 
mountain remained quiescent until 1865. In November of that 
year the lava began to overflow, and at length in November, 1868, 
it forced a passage for itself through a Assure in the side of the cone, 
after which no change took place till 1871. 

The most recent period of great activity began in January 
1871 , when the mountain showed renewed symptoms of internal 
disturbance by the emission of a stream of lava through a fissure 
on the N.E. side. This was followed by another on the W. side 
about the end of October, and early in 1872 these phenomena grad- 
ually increased in violence , until at length they culminated in 
the great eruption of 24th-30th April of that year. During these 
days the lava burst forth on every side — on the N.E., S.W., and 
more particularly at the Atrio del Cavallo (p. 122), from which a 
huge stream issued with such suddenness on 26th April as to 
overtake and destroy 20 persons out Of a crowd of spectators who 
were watching the spectacle , while others were injured by the 
stones thrown from the summit. The torrent descended to Massa 
and S. Sebastiano, and passed between these villages, which it partly 
destroyed, in a stream upwards of 1000 yds. wide and 20 ft. deep. 
This overflow ran to a distance of 3 M. in 12 hours. At the same 
time, amidst terrific thundering, the crater poured forth huge vol- 
umes of smoke mingled with red-hot stones and lava to a height of 
4000 ft., whilst clouds of ashes, rising to double that height, were 
carried by the wind as far as Cosenza, a distance of 140 M. The lava 
emitted during this eruption covers an area of 2 sq. M., and aver- 
ages 13 ft. in depth. The damage was estimated at upwards of 3 mil- 
lion francs. 

Volcanic Phenomena. Notwithstanding the long series of 
works on the subject which have appeared since 1631, the 
cause of these phenomena is still to some extent a matter of 
mere conjecture. It is highly probable that they are intimately 
connected with the water of the sea, near which all the prin- 
cipal volcanoes are situated. There is reason to believe that the 
enormous clouds of steam generated during eruptions are due to 
some temporary communication of the water with the burning 
liquids of the interior of the earth, and that the premonitory 
earthquakes are occasioned by the vapours and gases as they expand 
and endeavour to find an outlet. The red-hot fluids expelled from 

126 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Ascent 

the volcano by means of these vapours are called Lava. When, 
however, they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the 
larger of these are known as Lapilli (Bapilli) or Scoria, whilst the 
minute portions form Volcanic Sand or Ashes. If the sides of the 
cone are strong enough to resist the pressure of the molten lava, 
the latter flows out from the top of the crater ; but if not, it flows 
out at the sides, generally in several streams. When freed from 
the pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of 10,000 ft., 
resembling a pine in form , as Pliny has aptly described it, car- 
rying dense masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they 
are then condensed in the air, and in descending give rise to 
those formidable streams of mud (Lave d'Acqua) which proved so 
destructive to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in 
the manner described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting 
vapours and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery; 
but the effects of this action have been confined to the formation 
of the cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied 
by loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, owing to the electricity produced by the 
unwonted pressure of the air. The temperature of the lava as it 
descends occasionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the 
streams, as well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external 
circumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
crater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes mingled with it. The appearance of fire at night is not 
flame, but the reflection of the molten lava in the interior of 
the crater on the rising clouds of vapour and ashes. 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano, most of which are 
found in the older lava of Mte. Somma, as well as in that ejected 
during later eruptions, about 50 species, according to the investi- 
gations of Professor Scacchi of Naples, are at present known. Most 
of these minerals are sold by the guides at Resina ; a small box 
may be purchased for i/ 2 fr - The yellow masses, usually taken for 
sulphur, really consist of lava coloured by chloride of iron. 

The ** Ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion 
of extreme interest, though not unattended with fatigue, and 
it should not be undertaken in rainy or stormy weather. When 
the mountain is covered with snow in winter the difficulty of 
the ascent is of course greater. The ascent is most interesting 
when the mountain 'works', or ejects scoriae and ashes, a con- 
dition indicated by smoke during the day and a reflection of fire at 
night, which may be observed from Naples. Even if its state is that 
of perfect repose, which is not often the case, the fatigue of the 
ascent is repaid by the imposing appearance of the crater and the 
magnificent *Panorama commanded by the summit, extending as 
far as the Ponza Islands and Mte. Circello , and most beautiful 

of Vesuvius. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 127 

about sunrise or sunset. An ascent at night is , of course, made 
only when the mountain 'works'. 

Fbom Rbsina. The road to Vesuvius diverges to the left from 
the high-road immediately beyond the entrance to the excavations 
of Herculaneum (comp. p. 117]. The luxuriant vineyards here, 
which are interspersed with gardens and cottages , presenting a picture 
of teeming fertility , yield the famous 'Lacrinice Christi' wine, 
which is generally strong and heavy, and never of a very re- 
fined quality. The Wine is offered for sale at nearly every cottage, 
but had better not be partaken of before the ascent (usual price 
1 fr. per bottle, bargain beforehand; change for coins larger than 
a franc is almost invariably withheld). Higher up , beyond the 
garden-walls, the beautiful view is gradually disclosed. In about 
3 / 4 hr. we reach the huge dark lava-stream of 1872 , which we can 
trace down to S. Sebastiano and Massa di Somma (p. 125), and 
which the windings of the road cross several times. 

In 3/4 hr. more we reach the so-called Hermitage and the Me- 
teorological Observatory, situated 2220 ft. above the level of the 
sea and 1965 ft. above Resina, on the shoulder of the hill which 
divides the lava-streams descending from the crater into two 
branches. The Observatory, which the railway-passengers have no 
time to visit, contains , in addition to the usual instruments , a 
'seismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the famous Mel- 
loni (d. 1854). The late director Palmieri (d. 1882) published an 
interesting account of the eruption of 1872. A slab has been 
placed at the entrance of the building in memory of the tra- 
vellers who perished in the Atrio del Cavallo in 1872 (p. 125 ; 
on which occasion Sign. Palmieri remained at his post in the Ob- 

The road from the observatory to the foot of the cone (about 
l 3 / 4 M.) was constructed by the railway -proprietor , who exacts 
5 fr. for its use from each person not a railway-passenger. About 
V4M. beyond the observatory is the Office of the Wire -rope Rail- 
way, where tickets are examined. Travellers who have reached this 
point in vehicles not'belonging to the railway must here alight, 
take railway-tickets, and proceed to the station on foot. The road at 
first leads towards the S.E., and then ascends in long windings to 
the Stazione Inferiore (see p. 127), which lies 2600 ft. above the 
level of the sea. The length of the railway is 900 yds., and the 
upper end is 1300 ft. higher than the lower. The gradient varies 
from 43 : 100 to 63 : 100. After leaving the railway the traveller 
has still to make an ascent of 10-15 min. by a tolerable footpath 
leading over slag and loose ashes. Travellers who wish to make 
the whole ascent on foot, so as to avoid the high charges of 
the railway, leave the road at the above-mentioned ticket-office 
and follow a rough path, which brings them in % hr. to the foot 

1 28 Route 8. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

of the cone, near the lower railway- station. They are then con- 
ducted across the line by the railway officials , and begin the 
ascent on the S. side of the station. The ascent of the precipitous 
cone, consisting of slag and loose ashes, takes IV4-IV2 hr. and 
is extremely fatiguing, but possesses considerable attraction for 
the robust mountain-climber. The lava by the sides of the path 
generally affords a tolerably firm foothold. An 'aiuto', or aid of a 
strap in ascending the cone , may be obtained for 3 fr. It is ad- 
visable to be provided with refreshments. The descent is usually 
made over the loose ashes on the N. side of the railway, and takes 
scarcely 10 minutes. 

From Pompeii. This ascent is a better method of avoiding the 
railway than that just described, and it is recommended to those 
who are not afraid of a ride of some hours. The cost is less than 
by the other routes, and the traveller is much less harassed for 
payments and gratuities. The landlords of the hotels (p. 130) 
supply horses and guides for 7 fr. per person ; guides alone (one 
suffices for a party) for 5 fr. The route leads by Boscoreale, now a 
railway-station (p. 10), and ascends through vineyards and across 
fields of lava, reaching the foot of the cone in 2-2'/4 hrs. Thence to 
the top in l 1 ^ hr., see above. The guide conducts travellers to all 
the interesting points, without extra fee (if so agreed beforehand). 
Another route leads from Boscotrecase (to the W. of Boscoreale, see 
above; carriage from Pompeii in % hr., l 1 /^-^ fr.) to the summit 
in 3-4 hrs. Guide not necessary for practised climbers. Provisions, 
especially oranges to quench thirst, should be taken. 

The crater, which changes its form after every great eruption, 
presents a most striking appearance. Several openings near the 
Central Crater, formed for the escape of the lava, are named the 
Cratere Nuovo. To see fresh lava we must descend about 100 yds. 
below the rim of the crater, on the side next the Atrio del Cavallo. 
Under ordinary circumstances there is no danger unless one ap- 
proaches the shelving brink incautiously, or exposes oneself to the 
fumes of sulphur and showers of stones. Thus in 1854 a young 
German, imprudently approaching the aperture of the active cone, 
lost his footing, fell in, and was killed by the fall. As the moun- 
tain was quiescent at the time, his body was recovered. — The 
guides are in the habit of making impressions on the hot lava with 
copper coins (charge according to railway-company's tariff, 1 fr.), 
roasting eggs, and inviting the traveller to make similar experi- 
ments. The only risk incurred in doing so is that of damaging the 
soles of one's boots. 

The *Monte Somma (3730 ft.) also affords a fine view, and 
is interesting to geologists and botanists. The ascent may be made 
from Massa, Somma, or from Ottaiano (*Locanda in the Piazza 
Mercato ; also guides, see p. 10). 

Guides. POMPEII. 8. Routt. 129 

The ascent is most advantageously made from Somma (no inn : con- 
veyance from Marigliano, see p. 186, in connection with the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th trains from and to Naples, in 40 min.; fares from Naples to Somma 
2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40, 85 c, return-tickets 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 40 c). We 
first proceed through vineyards and a broad sunken road to the pilgrimage- 
church of S. Maria del Castello (1425 ft."), situated in a commanding po- 
sition on the verge of the Bagno del Pnrgalorio, a gorge diverging to 
the S. At the steps leading up to the church we descend to the right in 
the gorge, and then ascend steadily through woods of chestnut and beech 
to (lVs hr.) the Croce f3690 ft.), a point frequently visited by the sur- 
rounding inhabitants. The summit (3730 ft.) is attained in a few minutes 
more, and affords an imposing 'View of Vesuvius and the Atrio del Ca- 
vallo to the S., and of the Abruzzi to the N. and E. The descent may 
be made to the W., by rounding the rocky pinnacles first on the N., then 
on the S., and crossing the lava-deposits of 1872 (p. 127) to the Obser- 
vatory (p. 127). 

8. Pompeii. 

Railway to Pompeii (Stazione di Pompei), see R. 6. — (The distance 
to Pompeii from Torre Annunziata, Stazione Centrale, is only I1/4M., so 
that the traveller may find it convenient to take one of the Castellam- 
mare trains to that station; the high-road thence to Pompeii is apt to 
be very dusty. As a rule carriages are to be found only at the Stazione 
Citta at Torre Annunziata.) — From the Pompeii Station a walk of about 
200 paces in a straight direction brings us to the Hotel Suisse (with restau- 
rant) and the Hotel Diomede (p. 130), situated close to the Entrance, with 
the office where tickets are obtained. We are then provided with a guide 
at the turnstile (no attention should be paid to those offering themselves 
outside), and soon reach the Porta Marina, where our description begins 
(see p. 135). 

High Road to Pompeii, very dusty in summer, like all the roads 
near Naples. Carriage with one horse 10 , with two horses 20 fr. and 
gratuity; drive of 2-3 hrs. See p. 120. 

Dueation of Stat. The time which the traveller devotes to the 
ruins must depend on his own inclination. A superficial inspection may 
be accomplished in 4-5 hrs. ; but in order to summon up from these mutilated 
walls a tolerably accurate picture of ancient life , frequent and prolonged 
visits and patient observation are indispensable. The enthusiasm called 
forth by the discovery of Pompeii and the fascination attaching to the 
name are calculated to raise the expectations of the non-archseologist to too 
high a pitch. The remains are simply the bare ruins of a town destroyed 
by fire, which have been extricated from the rubbish accumulated during 
seventeen centuries. 

Admission on Sundays gratis, on other days 2 fr. (If the ruins be 
quitted and re-entered, the entrance-money is exacted a second time ;- 
tickets must be shown at the Amphitheatre and elsewhere.) At the en e 
trance visitors are provided with a guide (except on Sundays , when ony 
cannot be had even by payment of a fee), who is bound to accompan e _ 
them and pilot them through the ruins during any number of hours b n( j 
tween sunrise and sunset. These guides are about 60 in number, a - 
each is provided with a badge (numbered according to the seniority 
service, No. 1 being the oldest). One of those who speak French 
or a little English will be assigned to the traveller on application. They 
are forbidden to accept any gratuity. Complaints made to the inspector 
(soprastanle), or better 'still to the director Ruggiero at Naples, are sure 
to receive attention. The discipline and order maintained by the latter are 
deserving of the highest commendation. Permission to draw, take mea- 
surements , etc. , is obtained at the Segreteria of the Museum at Naples 
(comp. p. 61), where the applicant must show his passport. Artists or 
students who desire to make prolonged studies may, on application at the 
office and production of their passports, obtain a free ticket of admission. 

Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 9 

130 Route 8. POMPEII. 


Permission to visit the ruins by moonlight is accorded only to persons 
specially introduced to the director. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller should acquire some previous' 
acquaintance with the place from books and plans, t The more familiar 
the objects are to him, the greater will be his enjoyment. Implicit confi- 
dence cannot be placed in the guides for anything beyond mere technical 
explanations. Those who visit the ruins once only should avoid occupying 
much of their time with the minutiee, as the impression produced by the 
whole is thereby sacrificed, or at least diminished. On account of the phy- 
sically and mentally fatiguing nature of the expedition, the stay should not 
be extended much beyond 3 hrs. In summer the streets of Pompeii are 

fascination. The traveller should, if possible, contrive to visit it at least 
twice, once with and once (on a Sunday) without a guide. 

Hotels. At the entrance to Pompeii, opposite the railway-station Ho- 
tel Diomede, well spoken of, lunch 2'/2-3'/4, D. 4fr., and 25 c. for atten- 
dance, pension 5fr., beefsteak iy 2 fr., bargaining advisable; guide and 
horse to Vesuvius 7-10 fr. — Hotel Suisse, also opposite the station, lunch 
2-272, D. incl. wine 3-4, pens. 5 fr. ; guide to the top of Vesuvius with 
horse 7, including D. and a visit to Pompeii 12 fr. — A little farther on, 
near the Amphitheatre, Hotel dd Soleil, lunch 2-2'/ 2 , D. incl. wine 3, 
B. 2, pension for scholars and artists 4V2, for passing travellers 5 fr. ; the 
landlord procures guides for Vesuvius and other excursions in the neigh- 
bourhood (see p. 128). 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town, with a popu- 
lation of 20-30,000 souls. The original Oscan inhabitants had at the 
close of the republic become completely Romanised, and after the 
earthquake of A.D. 63 the town was re-erected in the new Roman 
style composed of Greek and Italian elements. Pompeii, therefore, 
represents one definite epoch of antiquity only, but it is the most 
important and almost the only source of our acquaintance with ancient 
domestic life. The investigation of the various phases of this life, 
even in its minuter details, forms a pursuit of inexhaustible interest. 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B.C. 310; but 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple, clearly prove it to be of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans, it soon became imbued with the elements of Greek civilisation, like 
the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social War. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war, however, B.C. 82, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third of their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes, who (e.g. 

t Works recommended to the traveller's notice are Prof. Overbed?! 
Pompeii, which contains numerous plans, views, and woodcuts (4th ed. 
Leipzig, 1881; 20 marks); Prof. Nissen's Pompejanische Studien (Leipzig, 
1877 ; 25 m.) ; Man's Pompejanische Beitrage (Berlin, 1879 ; 6 m.), a supple- 
ment to the last. Hr. Furchheim's (p.'26) 'Bibliotheca Pompejana' (1889) 
contains a full list of works published on Pompeii and Herculaneum. 

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Mistory. POMPEII. 8. Route. 131 

Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 
theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of ten years. A few years later, A.D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, evidencing the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. A great part of Pompeii, 
its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private dwellings were destroyed on 
that occasion. This disaster afforded the inhabitants an opportunity of 
carrying out still more thoroughly the alterations which they had already 
begun on their town, in a style more conformable to the improved 
architecture of imperial Rome , and it accounts for the comparatively 
modern and often unfinished character of the buildings. The new town 
had not long been completed, although it had been restored in a re- 
markably short period with the aid afforded by private liberality, when 
it was overtaken by the final catastrophe of 24th Aug. 79. The first 
premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes , a stratum of which 
covered the town to a depth of about 3 ft. , allowing the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. In the years 1861-78 were found 116 human skeletons, and those 
of four dogs and eight horses. The whole number of those who per- 
ished is estimated at 2000. The ashes were followed by a shower of red 
hot rapilli, or fragments of pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the 
town to a depth of 7-8 ft. , and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes 
and again by rapilli. The present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in 
thickness. Part of this was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town 
had already been completely buried by the original catastrophe, and was 
entirely lost to view. Extensive excavations, however, had been made 
in ancient times. Immediately after the calamity the survivors doubtless 
recovered as many valuables from their buried homes as they could ; and 
in subsequent centuries the ruins were repeatedly ransacked for the 
marbles and precious stones used in the embellishment of the temples 
and other buildings. We therefore now find the town in the con- 
dition in which it was consigned to oblivion some fifteen centuries 
ago as no longer containing anything of value. During the middle ages 
Pompeii was entirely unknown. In 1592 the architect Fontana constructed 
a subterranean water-conduit in order to supply Torre Annunziata from 
the Sarno, actually intersecting the ruins, and to this day in use ; yet no 
farther investigations were then attempted. In 1748 the discovery of 
some statues and bronze utensils by a peasant attracted the attention of 
Charles III., who caused excavations to be made. The amphitheatre, the- 
atre, and other parts were then disinterred. The enthusiasm caused by the 
discovery has been the frequent theme of poetical and other compositions 
by Bulwer Lytton, Schiller, and other celebrated authors : 
What wonder this ? — we ask the lymphid well, 
Earth ! of thee — and from thy solemn womb 
What yield'st thou? — Is there life in the abyss — 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell? 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb ? 

The earth, with faithful watch, has hoarded all! 
Under the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of Murat, however, we are indebted for the excavation of the Forum, 
the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. Under the able 
superintendence of Sig. Fiorelli, instead of the former predatory operations, 
a regular plan has been adopted, according to which the ruins are systema- 
tically explored and carefully preserved, and highly satisfactory results thus 
obtained. The movable objects found, as well as the more important 
frescoes, have been removed to the Museum at Naples, — a very desirable 


132 Route 8. POMPEII. Topography. 

course, as is obvious from the injury caused by exposure to those left 
behind. At Pompeii itself a museum and library have been instituted, a 
dwelling-house erected for students supported by government, and a railway 
constructed for the removal of the debris. The workmen employed in the 
excavations average eighty in number, but several hundred are at times 
engaged. If the works continue to progress at the same rate as at present, 
the complete excavation of the town, according to Fiorelli's calculations, 
will occupy 60 years more, and will cost about 5 million francs. A sum of 
30-40,000 fr. is realised yearly from the admission-fees of visitors. 

Before beginning our walk, we may make a few remarks on the 
plan and architecture of the town. 

Town Walls. The town is built in the form of an irregular 
ellipse, extending from E. to W. The circumference of its walls 
amounts to 2843 yds. There are eight gates, to which the 
following names have been given : Porta di Ercolano , della 
Marina, di Stabia, di Nocera, del Sarno, di Nola, di Capua, and 
del Vesuvio. In consequence of the prolonged peace, however, the 
walls had entirely lost their importance. Towards the sea they 
had been demolished, and a considerable suburb had sprung up 
(perhaps outside the Gate of Herculaneuni), called Pagus Augustus 
Felix, after the settlement established by Augustus. 

Plan of the Town. The excavated portion (in 1878, about 
'275,000 sq. yds.) embraces not quite one-half of the town, but prob- 
ably the most important part, including the Forum with the con- 
tiguous temples and public buildings , two theatres with large 
colonnades, the amphitheatre, and a considerable number of private 
dwellings of more or less ornate character. The principal streets 
are : 1 . The Consular Street, or Via Domitiana, which , prolonged 
by the Strada de' Sepolcri , or Street of Tombs , leads to the Porta 
di Ercolano, and thence in several ramifications to the Forum; 
2. The Street of Mercury (named Street of the Forum as far as the 
Temple of Fortuna), from the Forum to the N. extremity of the 
town ; 3. The street leading from the sea, past the Therms and the 
Temple of Fortuna, to the Porta di Nola (called successively the 
Street of the Thermae, Fortuna, and JVbZa); 4. Strada dell' Abbon- 
danza, leading apparently from the Forum to the Porta del Sarno ; 
5. Strada Stabiana, from the Porta di Stabia to the Porta del Vesuvio. 

According to the new Official Arrangements the town is 
divided into nine 'Regions' (Reyiones) by the four principal 
streets connecting the gates (Strada dell' Abbondanza, Str. della 
Fortuna, Str. Stabiana, and another, parallel to the last but not 
yet excavated). Seven of these quarters have been wholly or partly 
excavated, viz. the Vlth, Vllth, and Vlllth to the W. of the 
(•-tr. Stabiana, and the 1st, Ilnd (amphitheatre), Vth, and IXth to 
the E. of it. Each region is subdivided into Insulae, or blocks of 
houses bounded by four streets , each provided with a number. 
Each house is also numbered. Thus 'Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5' means 
the house No. 5 in the eighth insula of the sixth region. Lastly, the 
streets of each region are numbered (Via prima, sccunda, etc.), 

Topography. POMPEII. 8. Route. 133 

while the Str. Stahiana is entitled the 'Cardo' (line through the 
centre from N. to S.), the Str. della Fortuna the 'Decumanus 
Major' (major transverse line), and the Str. dell' Abbondanza the 
'Decumanus Minor' (minor transverse line). The older names of 
the houses , by which many of them are known, were generally 
chosen in a very arbitrary fashion ; the newer names are generally 
taken from signet-rings or seals found in the interiors. 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, sel- 
dom above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed 4^ ft- 
in width ; and the horses' hoofs have made impressions on the 
stepping-stones over which they were obliged to pass. At the 
corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated with the head 
of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as aedile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very 
rare. On the other hand an occasional 'phallus' is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye ; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. Stuccoed walls are often covered with 
graffiti, or roughly scratched drawings resembling those with which 
our 'Street Arabs' still delight to decorate blank surfaces. 

Construction. The houses are slightly built of concrete 
(small stones consolidated with cement) or brick, and sometimes, 
particularly the corner pillars, of blocks of stone. The hasty 
and patched character of the construction is accounted for by the 
earthquake of 63. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove 
that the houses must uniformly have possessed a second and per- 
haps also a third story-. These upper portions, consisting chiefly 
of wood, have, with a single exception (p. 153), been destroyed 
by the red-hot scoria of the eruption. 

Shops. In traversing the streets of Pompeii, we soon ob- 
serve a difference between the various houses, which were shops 
(tabernae) or dwelling-houses according as their rooms are turned to 
or from the street. The former belonged to the large dwelling-houses, 
and were let to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same way as the 
ground-floors of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by shops at 
the present day. These shops were generally in no way connected 
with the back part of the house, and presented their whole fron- 
tage to the street, from which they could be separated by large 
wooden doors. Many of the shop-tables, covered with marble, 

134 Route 8. 



and not unfrequently fitted up with large earthen vessels for the 
sale of wine, oil, etc., are still preserved. At the hack of the 
shop there was occasionally a second room, prohahly occupied "by 
the shopkeeper , who in other cases must have lived in the upper 
part of the house, or in a different part of the town. In the case 
of eating-houses these second rooms probably served to accommo- 
date the customers. The great number of these shops affords proof 
of the importance of the retail traffic at Pompeii. Where the street 
was not thus enlivened, it was flanked by bare walls , adorned here 
and there with a painting. The absence of glass forms one of the 
chief differences between an ancient and a modern dwelling. The 
ancients therefore conoentrated their domestic life in the interior 
of their houses, which presented to the street a blank wall with 
as few openings as possible , and these covered with an iron 

mmmmzmmmm mmwm^ ^^ 

Souse of Pansa (p. 142). 

grating. A distinct idea of this mode of building, so different 
from that of the present day , and without parallel except in 
some Oriental countries , is best obtained in the more recently 
excavated and better preserved streets between the Forum and 
the Stabian Street, and to the E. of the latter. 

Plan of the Houses. The dwelling-houses of Pompeii vary 
greatly in size, and have obviously been very differently fitted up, 
in accordance with the nature of the situation, or the means and 
taste of their owners. Their chief peculiarity is the internal court, 
which provided the surrounding chambers with light, and was the 
medium of communication between them. Most of the Pompei- 
an houses of the wealthy middle class are entered from the 

Architecture. POMPEII. B. Route. 135 

street by a narrow passage (vestibulum) leading to the court (atri- 
um), ■which is surrounded by a covered passage, with the implu- 
vium, or reservoir for rain-water, in the centre. The roof sloped 
inwards and had an opening in the centre (compluvium) which 
afforded light and air to the court and the adjoining rooms. 
Beyond the atrium is a large apartment opening into it, called 
the tablinum. This front portion of the house was devoted to 
its intercourse with the external world; and it was here that 
the patron received his clients and transacted business. The rest 
of the house was destined solely for the use of the family. Its 
centre also consisted of an open court, enclosed by columns, and 
thence termed the peristylium, the middle of which was laid 
out as a garden. Sometimes, however, there is a flower-garden 
(xystus), surrounded by columns, beyond the peristyle. At the back 
of the peristyle are generally several business rooms, called oeci. 
Around these principal apartments , in which the magnificence 
of the house is concentrated, are situated the sleeping and eat- 
ing-rooms, slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. The upper floor 
was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the apartments 
are very small, but the family worked and spent most of their 
time in the light and airy courts. 

The reconstruction of a complete house in its original form would 
be most interesting and instructive, but has not yet been carried out. 

Decoration. Marble is rarely met with in the public or 
domestic architecture of Pompeii , the columns being invariably 
constructed of tuffstone or bricks, cemented by mortar. The brick 
walls and columns were then covered with stucco, which took the 
place of marble, and afforded ample scope for decorative painting. 
It is in fact hardly possible to imagine a gayer or more richly 
decorated town than Pompeii must have been. The lower halves of 
the columns are generally red or yellow, the capitals tastefully 
painted; the walls, too, where undecorated, are painted with bright, 
and almost glaring colours , chiefly red and yellow , harmonising 
well with the brilliancy of a southern sun. The centre of the walls 
is generally occupied by a painting unconnected with the others. 
The best of these were removed to the museum at Naples, to pro- 
tect them from exposure to the elements; many, however, of those 
left merit inspection. The scenes present a uniformly soft, erotic 
character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking taste 
of the age (comp. Introd., p. xl). 

We now proceed to describe the different streets and build- 
ings , beginning with the Porta Marina , by which we enter the 
town on arriving from the station (p. 129). We shall then proceed 
(comp. Plan) to the Forum and first explore thence the streets in 
the N.E. quarter of the town — those of the Forum, of the 
Thermae, of the Herculaneum Gate, and of the Tombs. Returning 
to the Scuola Archeologica, we shall next traverse the Vicolo di 

136 Route 8. POMPEIT. 


Mercurio to the Strada di Mercurio , then follow the Str. della 
Fortuna to the recently excavated quarter near the point where it 
intersects the Stabian street, and then proceed by the Stabian 
street, crossing the Str. dogli Augustali and the Strada dell' Abbon- 
danza, to the Forum Triangulare and the theatres. Our description 
terminates with the Amphitheatre. The names of the chief sights 
are printed in heavier type. Those who are pressed for time had 
better omit the Amphitheatre. 

The Guides usually conduct visitors from the Forum to the E. into 
the Strada dell' Abbondanza, and to the theatres and the Amphitheatre, 
and then return through the street of the Augustales to the Fortuna 
street and to the excavations now going on. They next show the N. pro- 
longation of the Strada Stabiana, and beyond it the Mercurius street; and 
they end with the Herculaneum Gate and the Street of Tombs. Those 
who desire to form a distinct idea of the topography and arrangements 
of the town are recommended either to adopt the following plan, or to 
frame one for themselves and name to the guide in order the places they 
desire to see. Travellers who intend to dine or put up at the Hotel du 
Soleil should intimate this to the guide at once, and arrange to visit the 
Amphitheatre last. 

The above-mentioned Porta Marina is a vaulted passage under 
and between ancient magazines. The street here ascends rapidly, 
like all the other approaches to the town , which lies on an emi- 
nence. The passage, 17'/2 ft. in width and 75^2 ft. in length, has 
a path for foot-passengers on the left. 

On the right in this passage is the entrance to the *Museum, 
which contains many interesting objects, though none of artistic 
value, arranged in three rooms. 

Among these are casts and models of doors, windows, shop-shutters, 
and other objects in wood. 

In glass-cases are preserved casts of several human corpses, and one 
of the body of a dog. Although the soft parts of the bodies had decayed 
in course of time, their forms frequently remained imprinted on the 
ashes, which afterwards hardened. In 1863 Fiorelli made the ingenious ex- 
periment of carefully removing the bones of a body thus imbedded, 
and filling the cavity with plaster, and he has succeeded in preserving 
the figures and attitudes of the deceased after their death-struggle. On 
the point of flight, many of them had divested themselves of most of 
their clothing. Among the figures are a young girl with a ring on her 
linger, two women, one tall and elderly, and the other younger; a man 
lying on his face; and a man lying on his left side with remarkably well- 
preserved features. 

Immediately to the right in the second room is a handsome Table. 
There are also amphorae, vases, rain-spouts, etc., in terracotta; vessels 
in bronze; carbonised articles of food like those at Naples (p. 76); 
skulls, and skeletons of men and animals. 

The Via Marina ascends hence in a straight direction to the 
Forum, being bounded by a wall on the right, and by uninteresting 
shops on the left. Behind these are a number of houses presenting 
little attraction. 

On the right at the end of the Via Marina is a side-entrance to 
the Basilica (Reg. VIII, Ins. 1), an oblong edifice, 220 ft. long and 
82 ft. broad, with its facade towards the Forum. This was used as 
a market and also accommodated a law-court. A passage round 

Temple of Apollo. POMPEII. 8. Route. 137 

the interior consists of twenty-eight brick columns with capitals 
of tufa ; the entire space in the centre was roofed in , and was 
lighted by openings in the upper part of the side-walls. On the 
walls are half-columns, all covered with stucco, slighter and lower 
than the brick columns , and above them was another system of 
columns and half-columns , placed tolerably far apart. The frag- 
ments of tufa-columns by the walls belonged to this upper row. 
At the end of the building was the elevated tribune, or seat of 
the presiding magistrate, which was probably approached by mov- 
able steps. In front of it is a pedestal for a statue ; below are 
vaults (perhaps a prison), reached by a staircase. In the year 79 
the building seems to have been in a state of ruin occasioned by 
the earthquake of the year 63. 

Also on the W. side of the Forum , to the left of the Via 
Marina , is situated the Temple of Apollo (Reg. VII , Ins. 7), 
usually called the Temple of Venus, though the deity to whom it 
was really dedicated is named in an Oscan inscription on the 
flooring (a reproduction ; original now at Naples , p. 65). It is an 
edifice of very early origin, but restored after the earthquake of 63. 
The temple is surrounded by a spacious, irregular quadrangle. 177ft. 
long, on the S. side 103 ft. and on the N. side 109 ft. broad. As 
the side towards the Forum was not parallel with it, the wall, in 
order to prevent the eye being offended by this irregularity, was 
furnished in the interior with eight buttresses at intervals, each 
projecting farther than the last. The portico is borne by forty-eight 
columns, originally Ionic, which had been converted by means of 
stucco into Corinthian ; but this coating has now fallen off. The 
Temple itself rises in the centre of the court, on a basement 65 ft. 
in length, 39 ft. in width, and 7^2 ft. in height, and is approached 
by thirteen steps. The column to the left of the steps, with an 
inscription of the duumviri, who erected it, bore a sun-dial. Facing 
the steps stands an Altar, with an inscription of the donors, the 
quatuorviri of the town. Against the columns of the portico are 
six bases arranged in pairs , which formerly bore six Statues : 
Mercury and (probably) Maia (marble hermse), Apollo and Diana 
(bronze statues), Venus and a Hermaphrodite (marble statues). The 
Mercury is still in situ, the Maia is lost, and the four others are now 
at Naples. To the left, in the corner in front of the Venus and 
Diana, are two small Altars. The temple itself was surrounded by 
a Corinthian colonnade, and had a facade of six columns. Within 
the vestibule was the shrine, where the figure of the god stood 
on a lofty pedestal. On the left was the conical Omphalos, the 
well-known symbol of Apollo. The large tripod painted on the 
first pilaster to the right in the portico is also an attribute of this 
deity. — Behind the court of the temple are chambers for the 
priests, decorated with paintings. 

The *Forum (Reg. VII, Ins. 8) forms the central point of the 

138 RouteS. POMPETT. Building of Eumichia. 

town (1 Oil ft. above the sea-level). On tlie N. side, detached, 
stands the temple of Jupiter (p. 139); the other sides are en- 
closed by an arcade. The Area, or open space in the centre, 
")15 ft. in length and 107 ft. in breadth, was paved with large slabs. 
Six streets converge here, but the forum was protected against the 
trespass of riders or waggons by stone pillars round the margins, 
and could even be entirely shut off by gates. In the area are 
twenty-two bases for statues of honour , five of which (four on the 
W. side, one at the S.E. corner) still bear incriptions. dedicat- 
ed to officials of high rank, the duumviri ( similar to the consuls 
of Rom ) and quinquennales (censors) of the town. The exten- 
sive basements on the S. side were de.-tined for equestrian statues, 
most of the pedestals never having been completed. The colon- 
nade surrounding the Forum varies in breadth from '2(> to 4F) ft., 
a number of the buildings which adjoin it having been erected 
at a date prior to the construction of the Forum. Above the 
lower columns of the Doric order rose a second series of the Ionic, 
thus constituting an upper, covered passage, approached by steps, 
several of which are still preserved. Even before the earthquake 
of G3 the builders seem to have begun to substitute travertine col- 
umns for the older columns of tuffstone on the S. and E. sides, 
and to have been employed in carrying on the work at the time 
when the town was destroyed. Rough, unfinished portions of the 
new columns and architrave lie round the colonnade. 

To the right of the Basilica, on the S. side of the Forum, are 
situated the Tribunals (Reg. VIII, Ins. 2), three adjacent cham- 
bers, the centre one with a rectangular, the others with semicircular 
extremities, handsomely built of brick which was once covered with 
marble. Probably one of them (that in the centre?) served as the 
meeting-place of the town-council, while the others were used for 
administrative or judicial purposes. 

Farther on , the Street of the Schools diverges to the right, 
pursuing an E. direction as far as the Forum Triangulare (p. lf>3). 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the handsome 
Strada dell' Abbondanza (p. 151), is a square hall, erroneously 
supposed to be a school. 

On the opposite side of the street, Forum No. 1, is situated 
the Building of Eumachia (Reg. YII, Ins. 9), erected by the 
priestess Eumachia, and perhaps used as an exchange. On the 
frieze of the portico facing the Forum, anil still more fully over 
the entrance in the Str. dell' Abbondanza, may be read the follow- 
ing inscription : •Eutnnchin Lurii filia sacerdns publico nomine su<> 
el M. Swnislri Fronton in fill rhalridicum cryptam portions Con- 
cordiae Auyustae Pietati sua perunia fecit eademque dedicavit.' The 
interior is separated from the vestibule (clndcidicum) by a number 
of small chambers . where a great number of marble slabs , des- 
tined fur the completion of the edifice, were found. In the interior 

Temple of Jupiter. POMPEIT. ft. Route. 139 

is an open court, 123 ft. in length and 62 ft. in width, once sur- 
rounded by fifty - four columns of white marble , of which two 
only are left, and these in a mutilated condition. (The other columns 
found here appear not to have belonged to this colonnade.) This 
colonnade (porticus) is surrounded by a covered passage (crypta), 
which afforded protection against the weather. At the back of this. 
in a niche, stands the statue of Eumachia (a copy, the original being 
at Naples, p. 69), erected by the fullers (full ones) of Pompeii. — 
On the external wall of the Chalcidicum is the copy of an inscrip- 
tion found here, dedicated to Romulus. 

We next reach No. 2, the so-called *Temple of Mercury (Reg. 
VII, Ins. 9), really a Temple of Augustus, S3 ft. in length and 
53 ft. in breadth. Visitors are not admitted, but may inspect 
through the gate a number of excavated objects placed here : feet 
of tables, fountain-figures, shallow mortar (to the right), with a 
pestle in the form of a bent finger; to the left, sun-dials, and (nearer 
the front) vessels of lead, fragments of glass , bone articles, iron 
gratings, fetters, tires of waggon-wheels; farther back, capitals, 
clay spouts of fountains; by the walls, amphorae and other vessels, 
roof-tiles , etc. In the centre an '"'Altar in marble with reliefs : 
on the front victims, on the sides the sacrificial utensils, on the 
back an oak-garland between two laurels, the symbol of Augus- 
tus. The form of this temple has been skilfully adapted to the 
very irregular site on which itj stands. At the extremity of the 
area is the small shrine with a pedestal for the statue of Augustus. 

No. 3, adjacent, is the so-called Curia (Reg. VII, Ins. 9). 
where it is generally believed the town-council held their delibera- 
tions , though more probably it was used in connection with the 
worship of the emperor. It is a square, uncovered hall, Of) ft. long. 
f>S ft. broad, with an altar in the middle, a hemicyclical termina- 
tion, and several niches. The walls and pavement were formerly 
covered with marble. 

Opposite, on the N. side of the Forum and in the most con- 
spicuous part of it, rises the *Temple of Jupiter (Reg. VII, Ins. 8), 
on a basement 9'/ 2 ft- in height. At the time of the eruption it 
was already in ruins. The Pronaos is approached by fifteen steps. 
and has a facade of six columns with three on each side. Aper- 
tures in the ground admit light to the underground chambers, 
which were latterly used as a magazine for building materials, 
having probably been originally a treasury. The whole length 
of the temple is 1 IS ft. Behind the Pronaos is the shrine, with 
two series of Ionic columns, eight in each, arranged close to the 
painted walls. At the back are three chambers. At the farther 
end, to the left, a flight of steps ascends to the basement which 
bore the statue of the god, which the visitor should not omit to 
visit as it affords a fine *Panorama of Pompeii, Monte Sant' Angelo 
with the chapel of S. Michele, Ouisisana. and the Apennines. 

140 Route 8. POMPEII. Maeellum. 

Passing along the W. side of the Forum, we observe, at the end 
of the Temple of Apollo , No. 31, a niche, in which the standard 
weights and measures were kept on a stone table with an inscrip- 
tion (see p, 65; its place now occupied by a poor reproduction). 
Then follows a flight of steps, which led to the portico, and formed 
an approach to the Temple of Venus. Adjoining the latter is No. 29, 
the so-called Lesche, a hall apparently for commercial purposes. 
Beyond this is No. 28, a public Latrina, and then No. 27, a build- 
ing which from its narrow, gloomy cells appears to have been a 
prison. Farther on, the Forum is bounded by a wall. In front of 
it, adjoining the Temple of Jupiter, is a Triumphal Arch. 

At the E. end of the Forum, adjoining the Curia, stands the 
so-called *Temple of Augustus, sometimes named the Pantheon, but 
in reality a Maeellum (Reg. VII, Ins. 9), or hall for the sale of 
provisions, with a chapel in honour of the Emperor Augustus. In 
front of it are pedestals for statues ; on the exterior, shops pos- 
sibly occupied by money-changers. The building is entered by 
two doors (Nos. 7 and 8). The interior consists of a rectangular 
court, 122 ft. in length and 80 ft. in width. The walls are de- 
corated with *Frescoes, of which those to the left of the entrance, 
representing Argus and Io, Ulysses and Penelope , are the best 
preserved. Above , on the walls , are representations of various 
kinds of edibles, indicating the purpose of the building. The court 
was still unfinished when the catastrophe took place ; it was des- 
tined to be enclosed by a colonnade, but the limestone masonry 
has been laid on the N. and W. sides only, while on the other 
sides the enclosure is formed by blocks of tufa. A dodecagon 
is formed in the centre by twelve pedestals (or altars ?), on which 
stood columns bearing a domed roof (or perhaps statues). To 
the right are eleven chambers simply painted red, probably tra- 
ding stalls ; at the extremity is an exit into a back street, with 
a niche indicated as the shrine of the Lares by painted serpents 
(comp. p. 133). To the left is an outlet to the Street of the Augus- 
tales (named after this edifice). On the E. side, opposite us as we 
enter the building, rises the shrine. On the principal pedestal stood 
the statue of the emperor , in the side-niches Livia (evidently a 
misnomer) and the younger Drusus (here replaced by copies). To 
the left of this shrine was another with an altar, which perhaps 
was employed in the celebration of the sacrificial banquets ; the 
gallery by the lateral wall is believed to have been an orchestra. 
A larger apartment to the right, containing stands of masonry with 
a slight inclination , and furnished with gutters below to carry off 
blood or water, is supposed to have been a butoher's or fishmonger's. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Augustus rises a Triumphal Arch 
of brick, now divested of its marble, which here forms the bound- 
ary of the Forum. The niches on the N. side served as fountain- 
basins. Under it begins the Street of the Forum, which we 

Thermae. POMPEII. 8. Route. 141 

now follow (called in its prolongation the Street of Mercury, p. 146). 
The first transverse street immediately beyond the Triumphal Arch 
is that of the Augustales. At the corner is a relief with figures of 
two men carrying a wine-jar, being the sign of a wine-merchant. 

No. 1, at the corner of the next cross-street, is the Temple of 
Fortuna (Reg. VII, Ins. 4), erected according to the inscription by 
M. Tullius during the reign of Augustus. (The inscription is upon 
the architrave of the aedicula in the rear, now lying in the temple.) 
It is approached by thirteen steps ; length 79 ft., breadth 29 ft. The 
entrance was at the top of the first flight of steps, and was separated 
from the altar which stood there by a railing. 

At the entrance to the Street of Mercury rises a Brick Arch, 
on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. It was once 
surmounted by the bronze statue of Caligula mentioned at p. 74. 

We now turn to the left into the Strada belle Terme. 
No. 2, on the left, is the entrance to the * Thermae (Reg. VII, 
Ins. 5), which occupy a whole insula, i.e. the space enclosed 
by four streets; breadth 161 ft. , depth 172ft. The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. 
Kntrances six in number. Part of the establishment is now em- 
ployed as magazines, to which the public are not admitted. A pas- 
sage leads first to the chamber for undressing (apodyterium), 37 ft. 
long, 21 ft. wide, and surrounded by benches. Beyond this is the 
cold bath (frigidarium) , a rotunda with four niches. The vault 
above was provided with a glass window. In the centre is the basin, 
14 ft. in diameter, with a marble flight of steps. The water gushed 
forth from a copper mouth-piece opposite the entrance and was let 
off below the entrance. To the right of the undressing room is the 
warm bath (tepidarium) , an apartment 32 ft. in length, 17!/ 2 ft. 
in breadth. A frieze running round it is furnished with niches for 
depositing clothes and articles of the toilet, and is supported by 
figures of Atlas in terracotta. The vaulting was richly decorated 
with stucco figures in relief. This chamber was heated by means 
of the large brazier of bronze (to the left), which, with three bronze 
benches, was presented, according to the inscription, by M. Nigidius 
Vacca, to whose name (vacca = cow) the cow on the brazier and the 
cows' heads on the benches are references. Adjacent is the hot-air 
bath (calidarium or sudatorium), 52 ft. long and 17 ft. broad. A 
niche at the end contains a marble basin for washing the hands and 
face with cold water ; it bears an inscription recording that it was 
erected at a cost of 5250 sesterces (392. sterling). At the other end 
is the basin for warm baths. The apartment has double walls and 
floor, between which the steam diffused itself; the furnace was 
reached from the undressing-room. — The baths possess another 
portico, besides several other chambers and baths for women (none 
open at present). 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae, Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5, is the 

142 Route 8. POMPEII. 

House of Sallust. 

House of the Tragic Poet, one of the most elegant in Pompeii, 
so called from two representations found in the tablinum — a poet 
reading (more prohably Admetus and Alcestis), and a mosaic of a 
theatrical rehearsal (which, together with beautiful paintings of sub- 
jects from the Iliad , are now in the museum at Naples). This is 
represented by Bulwer Lytton in his 'Last Days of Pompeii' as the 
dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog in mosaic, with the 
inscription 'Cave Canem' (p. 64), now in the Museum at Naples. 
The peristyle of seven columns is closed at the back by a wall, on 
which is a small shrine of the Lares. In the triclinium on the 
right, Youth and maiden looking at a nest containing Cupids 
(above, Marsyas playing the flute and Olympus), Theseus aban- 
doning Ariadne, and Diana with Orion (?). On the side-panels are 
personifications of the seasons. 

We continue to follow the Strada delle Terme. Reg. VI, Ins. 6, 
No. 1, beyond the cross-street, on the right, is the House of Pansa 
(Domus Cn. Allei Nigidi Mai), one of the largest in Pompeii, 
occupying a whole insula, 319 ft. long and 124 ft. broad. It com- 
prises sixteen shops and dwellings, facing two of the streets. 
On the threshold was found a mosaic with the greeting 'Salve'. 
This house affords a normal specimen of a palatial residence of 
the imperial epoch , complete in all its appointments : atrium, 
tablinum, peristyle, oecus (to the left, adjacent, the kitchen 
with the snakes), and lastly the garden or xystus. Comp. Ground- 
plan, p. 134. 

We next turn to the right towards the Porta di Ercolano. At 
the picturesque corner opposite, Reg. VI, Ins. 3, No. 20, is a 
tavern, the street to the left of which leads to the gate. This was 
a business street, and contained few handsome dwelling-houses. 

On the left is a house fitted up as a Library, containing an 
extensive collection of archaeological works, and for the reception 
of students supported by government (Seuola Archeologica). 

Opposite, on the right, is a Bakehouse, with ovens and mills. 
The latter were probably turned by asses or slaves. 

Farther on, to the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 2, No. 4, is the House 
of Sallust (Domus A. Coss. Libani), with the atrium and adjacent 
rooms lined with stucco painted to imitate marble. Behind the tab- 
linum is a small irregularly-shaped garden, with a triclinium in an 
arbour in the corner. Instead of a peristyle, this house contains 
a small court enclosed by pillars, to the right of the atrium, and 
styled, though without authority, the Venereum. On the wall oppo- 
site, *Actseon converted into a stag, and torn to pieces by his own 
dogs ; to the left, Europa and the bull ; to the right, Phrixus and 
Helle. In the small room to the right, Venus and Mars. 

At the corner of the street is a fountain, and behind it a build- 
ing erroneously described as a reservoir of the aqueduct. 

Some of the houses on the left, on the slope of the hill occu- 

Street of Tombs. POMPEII. 8. Route. 143 

pied by the town, had several stories, and large vaults, used as 

A large, open hall to the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 1, No. 13, was a 
kind of Custom House, where a number of weights and measures 
were found. — No. 10, a little farther on, to the right, is the 
House of the Surgeon, so called from a considerable number of 
surgical instruments found here. It is remarkable for its massive 
construction of limestone blocks from the river Sarno , and it is 
probably the most ancient house in the town. "We next reach 
No. 7, on the right, the extensive House of the Vestals. 

No. 3, on the left, opposite, is a large Tavern, with a phallus 
towards the street, intended to avert the evil eye. It contains two 
wine-tables, and has an entrance for waggons. From the cham- 
bers at the back, as well as from the preceding and following 
houses on this side, a charming glimpse is obtained of the bay 
with the island of Capri ; near the land is the picturesque little 
rocky island of Revigliano ; to the right is Torre Annunziata. 

No. 2, on the right, is another tavern, and beyond it is the 
Porta di Ercolano (135 ft. above the sea-level). To the right of 
the gate is the approach to the Town Wall, which may be visited 
for the sake of the view. The wall is 2843 yds. in circumference, 
and consists of an outer and inner wall, the intervening space 
being filled with earth. The height of the external wall varies ac- 
cording to the ground from 25 to 33 ft., the internal being uni- 
formly 8 ft. higher. Originally built of large blocks of tufa and 
limestone, it appears to have been partly destroyed in the peaceful 
period of the second century B. C, and to have been afterwards 
repaired chiefly with concrete (small pieces of lava consolidated 
with cement). At the same time it was strengthened with towers. 
The difference between these kinds of building will be observed 
near this gate. During the undisturbed peace of the imperial pe- 
riod, perhaps even earlier , the walls on the side towards the sea 
were probably removed, and their site built over. The Gate of 
Herculaneum is believed to date from the time of Augustus. It 
consists of three series of arches , of which the central and largest 
has fallen in. The depth of the passage is 59 ft. ■ — (From this 
point onwards, comp. the supplementary part of the Plan at p. 130.) 

The suburb named Pagus Augustus Felix in honour of Au- 
gustus perhaps lay outside this gate. It consisted chiefly of one 
main street, which has been partly excavated. This is the so-called 
*Street of the Tombs (Strada dei Sepolcri), the great military road 
from Capua to Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The an- 
cient Roman custom of burying the dead by the side of a high-road 
is well known. It has been ascertained that rows of graves, similar 
to those discovered here , exist beyond other gates also. The 
Street of Tombs is in point of situation the most beautiful part 
of the town . 

144 Route 8. POMPEII. Street of Tombs. 

On the right, No. 1, is a large tomb, apparently in the form of 
an altar, the upper part of which is destroyed ; in the tomb-cavity 
beneath several cinerary urns were found. 

On the left, No. 1, is the Tomb of Cerrinius, a recess with seats. 
It has been said that this was a sentry-box, and that the skeleton 
found in it was that of the sentinel who died at his post ; but this 
is a mere fiction, like many other Pompeian anecdotes. 

L. No. 2, a semicircular seat with the pedestal of a statue of 
the duumvir A. Veius. 

L. No. 3, Tomb of M. Porcius, probably the builder of the 
amphitheatre and the small theatre; according to the inscription 
the town-council granted him a piece of ground 25 ft. square for a 

L. No. 4, *Tomb of Mamia; in front a seat like the above, with 
the inscription : 'Mamiae Publii filiae saeerdoti publicae locus se- 
pulturae datus decurionum decreto'. At the back, enclosed by a low 
wall, is the tomb, with niches for cinerary urns. The view hence of 
the bay and the mountains of Castellammare is singularly beautiful. 
— On a street diverging to the right, No. 2, is the ruinous Tomb of 

Farther on, on the right, No. 6, is the Tomb of the Garlands, 
so called from its decorations; name unknown. R. No. 9, an open 
recess and seat. 

On the left is the so-called Villa of Cicero, again covered up. 
The buttresses still visible belong to a colonnade which Tan parallel 
to the street. 

R. Nos. 10 and 11, two shops. No. 12, House of the Mosaic 
Columns, very dilapidated, probably an inn. The entrance leads 
first into a garden, in which stood a pavilion supported by four mo- 
saic columns (now at Naples, p. 64). Behind is a fountain-recess 
inlaid with mosaic ; to the left is a court with a private chapel and 
altar. Two staircases ascend to the upper floor. 

On the left, beyond the villa of Cicero, several handsome mon- 
uments will be observed : No. 16, that of Servilia. No. 17, that of 
Scaurus, with reliefs in stucco, representing gladiatorial combats, 
but in a very ruinous condition. The columbarium contains niches 
for the urns. 

On the right is a long arcade, at the back of which there were 
shops. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. — 
To the right, in the streets which are not yet excavated, are several 
ancient tombs of limestone and unfinished tombs, belonging to the 
remote Oscan period, when the dead were buried instead of being 
burned , and when painted vessels of terracotta were interred with 

On the right are several ruined tombs, the first of which is 
supposed to have been an ustrinum, or place of cremation. 

Villa of Diomedes. POMPEII. 8. Route. 145 

L. No. 18, a circular monument, name unknown. 

L. No. 20, *Tomb of the Augustalis Calventius Quintus; below 
the inscription is represented the bisellium (seat of honour) ac- 
corded him in recognition of his liberality. 

R. No. 36, *Tomb of M. Alleius Luccius Libella and his son, 
of travertine, and well-preserved , with inscriptions. Beyond , to 
the right, are several ruined tombs, with inscriptions partly pre- 

L. No. 22, *Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche, with chamber for ciner- 
ary urns. The deceased was a freedwoman , who , according to 
the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and C. Munatius 
Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, and for their 
freedmen. A relief below refers to the consecration of the tomb ; 
on the left side is the bisellium, or magisterial seat of Munatius, 
on the right a vessel entering the harbour, a symbol of human life. 
The female figure sitting at the helm (a symbol of fortune) is a re- 
ference to the name of Tyche (fortune). No. 23 was a Triclinium for 
banquets in honour of the dead. 

On the hill to the right are several tombs, some of them in a 
very ruinous condition. Among these are: No. 41, the tomb of 
N. Velasius Gratus, a boy of twelve years, a small niche with one 
of the head-shaped tombstones peculiar to Pompeii ; No. 40, to the 
right, a similar tomb with no name ; farther on, tombs erected by 
the freedman M. Arrius Diomedes to himself (No. 42), his family, 
and his former mistress Arria (No. 43). The fasces or bundles of 
rods in stucco- relief, on the tomb of Diomedes (No. 42), indicate 
his dignity as a magistrate of the Pagus Augustus Felix (p. 143). 

No. 24, * Villa of Diomedes, arbitrarily so called from the 
above-mentioned tomb. The arrangement of this , like that of 
other villas, differs considerably from that of the urban dwellings. 
A flight of steps with two columns leads at once to the peristyle 
of fourteen Doric columns, whence the bath is entered to the left. 
Opposite are terraces, which rise above the lower portion of the 
house. The garden, 107 ft. square, with a basin for a fountain 
and a pavilion supported by six columns in the centre , is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade. From the terrace a staircase descends to 
the left (another, from the entrance from the street, to the right). 
Below this colonnade , on three sides, lies a vaulted cellar which 
merits a visit , lighted by small apertures above , and approached 
by staircases descending at each end. Eighteen bodies of women 
and children, who had provided themselves with food, and sought 
protection in this vault against the eruption, were found here. But 
impalpable ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, 
and too late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were 
found with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 

Baedkker. Italy III. 10th Edition. 10 

146 Route 8. POMPETT. House of Meleager. 

found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
his hand ; beside him was a slave with money and valuables. 

We now retrace our steps by the same route to the Gate of 
Herculaneum and the Scuola Archeologica (p. 142), whence we 
enter the Vicolo di Mercurio (Via Prima, Keg. VI, between Ins. 2 
and Ins. 3), the transverse street to the left. 

The third street intersecting the latter at right angles is the 
important Strada di Mercurio (Via Sexta), leading from the town- 
wall to the Forum, and deriving its name from a Fountain with a 
Mercury's head immediately on the right. We now turn to the 
left towards the town-wall. 

Nos. 6 and 7 (Reg. VI, Ins. 9) on the opposite (E. ) side are 
the House of Castor and Pollux (Domus Cn. Caetroni Eutychi), 
consisting of two distinct houses, but connected. No. 7 is simple 
and homely. It is connected with the neighbouring house by a 
large peristyle, adorned with paintings all round ; at the end is a 
basin for a fountain ; beyond it is a hall. From the peristyle the 
atrium of the other house is entered to the left, beyond which 
are the tablinum and a garden with lararium. Fine frescoes in the 
room to the right of the tablinum ; to the left, Birth of Adonis ; 
on the entrance- wall , Hippolytus and Phsedra; in an apartment 
to the left of the garden, Apollo and Daphne. 

Farther on, Nos. 5-3, House of the Centaur (Reg. VI, Ins. 9), 
two different houses, connected by a door. No. 5 has an under- 
ground dwelling, the vaulting of which has fallen in, but has been 
partly restored. 

Adjacent, No. 2, *House of Meleager (Reg. VI, Ins. 9). Within 
the doorway , to the right , Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. 
The atrium contains a marble table, borne by griffins. Contrary 
to the usual arrangement, the peristyle does not lie behind, but 
to the left of the atrium. This is the finest peristyle which has 
been discovered at Pompeii , being 73 ft. in length, and 60 ft. in 
breadth. The porticus is borne by twenty -four columns (lower 
part red, upper white), and adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an oecus, enclosed on 
three sides by twelve yellow painted columns. The fresooes are 
also yellow ; among them, to the right, a young Satyr startling a Bac- 
chante with a snake. To the left of the oecus is a hall with frescoes : 
on the transverse wall to the left, the Judgment of Paris. 

We return aloug the opposite side of the street. Reg. VI, Ins. 7, 
No. 23, House of Apollo (Domus A. Herenulei Communis), named 
from the numerous representations of that god which were found 
here (not accessible). Behind the gaily-painted tablinum, a foun- 
tain of a grotesque style. To the right is an adjoining court, at the 
end of which is a handsome sleeping-chamber (for two beds) ; on 
the external wall is a landscape with a Bacchanalian, and a mosaic 

Fulloniea. P.OMPETT. ,S. Route. 147 

of Achilles in Scyros; among the weapons which Ulysses offers Mm 
is a shield, on which Achilles and Chiron are represented. In the 
interior are representations of Apollo and Marsyas and other mytho- 
logical subjects. 

No. 18, House of the Wounded Adonis (Domus M. Asellini). 
In the xystus , to the right, a fresco , above life-size , of *Adonis 
wounded, tended and bewailed lTy Venus and Cupids ; at the sides, 
Achilles and Chiron. In a room to the left, 'Toilet of the Herma- 

Continuing to follow the Strada di Mercurio, we next observe 
on the left, opposite the fountain mentioned at p. 146, Reg. VI, 
Ins. 10, No. 1, a *Tavern; towards the street is a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the left 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-skin, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the left a soldier is being served ; above him is 
scribbled : 'da fridam pusillum' (a glass of cold). To the right 
two other chambers, out of the first of which a door leads to the 
neighbouring house No. 2, the Casa del Cinque Scheletri (so called 
from the five skeletons found here), perhaps a lodging-house. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may be 
made in the adjacent street to the left to the House of the Labyrinth 
(opposite side of first side-street, immediately to the left), a roomy 
dwelling with two atria; principal entrance, Reg. VI, Ins. 11, 
No. 9, second door No. 10. In the passage leading to the peri- 
style, immediately to the left and opening on the latter, is a 
window of terracotta with six small apertures, resembling pigeon- 
holes. In the room beyond the peristyle, to the left, a mosaic 
pavement : Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The left 
half of the house was destined for the manage ; it contains a bake- 
house and adjoining it a finely decorated bath with three rooms. 

We now return to the Strada di Mercurio. 

R., Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 23, *House of the Small Fountain 
(delta piccola fontana) ; to the right of the entrance a staircase 
ascends to the 2nd floor. At the end of the house is a 'Fountain 
of gaily coloured mosaic, adorned with a small and graceful bronze : 
Boy with a goose (a copy, original at Naples). The walls are deco- 
rated with landscapes, among which is a *Harbour on the left. 

R. No. 22, House of the Large Fountain, at the end of which 
is a mosaic *Fountain similar to the above. 

R. No. 20, the Fulloniea, or fuller's establishment. The square 
pillars (on one of which were frescoes alluding to the fuller's art, 
now in Naples) supported a gallery (Solarium) for drying the 
cloth. Around are dwelling-rooms and bed-chambers, as well as 
rooms for the workmen. To the right is the kitchen , with an 
oven; and behind are four basins on different levels, destined for 
washing the cloths, which were afterwards stamped with the feet 


148 Route 8. ROME. House of the Faun. 

in the small stands to the right. One egress leads to the Strada 
delta Fullonica. Adjacent to these premises, and connected with 
them by a door, was the hexastyle atrium, No. 21. 

L., Reg. VI, Ins. 10, No. 6, House of Pomponius, with an oil- 
mill to the right of the entrance. 

L. No. 7, House of the Anchor, named after an anchor in 
mosaic on the threshold. By the'tablinum we descend to a peri- 
style, the pavement of which was higher than the garden. The 
latter, to which a staircase descends, was on the level of the 
Strada della Fortuna, and was surrounded by a cryptoporticus and 
numerous niches containing altars. 

R., Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 14, Barbers Shop, very small. In the 
centre a seat for customers ; to the right a bench and two recesses. 

Having reached the brick archway of the Strada di Mer- 
curio (p. 140), we now turn to the left into the Straw a della 
Fortuna (Decumanus Major), a prolongation of the Strada delle 
Terme , leading to the Gate of Nola. 

L., beyond the first cross-street, Reg. VI, Ins. 12, Nos. 2-5, 
the *House of the Faun, so named from the bronze statuette of a 
dancing Faun found here (p. 73). The house occupies a whole insula, 
and is the handsomest in Pompeii, 262 ft. long and 125 ft. broad. 
The style of its decoration proves it to date from the republican era 
(2nd cent. B.C.). It contained beautiful mosaics , but hardly any 
mural paintings. The stucco on the walls is an imitation of in- 
crustation in coloured marble (comp. p. xlii). On the pavement in 
front of the house is the greeting 'Have'. It possesses two entrances 
and two atria. The left atrium (35 ft. by 38 ft.) is in the Tuscan 
style, i. e. the roof was borne by cross-beams without vertical 
support. On each side of it there are four rooms. The 4th on the 
left contains a mosaic representing doves by a casket (covered 
with glass). In the centre of the impluvium stood the bronze 
statuette already mentioned. The simpler atrium on the right is 
an atrium tetrastylum , *'. e. the roof-beams were borne by four 
columns near the impluvium. The peristyle contained twenty-eight 
Ionic columns of tufa coated with stucco. At the back of the 
exedra, beside the red columns, was found the celebrated mosaic 
of the Battle of Alexander (p. 71). At the back is a garden 105 ft. 
long, 115 ft. broad, enclosed by forty-four columns of the Doric 
order. Numerous amphorae were found here. 

R., Reg. VII, Ins. 4, No. 59, Casa della Pareta Nera, so called 
from the remarkably beautiful black *Wall in the exedra, covered 
with representations of Cupids. 

R. No. 57, Casa dei Capitelli Figurati, named after the capitals 
of the entrance-pillars , adorned with figures of Bacchantes and 
Fauns. From the peristyle we enter a sugar-bakehouse , the use 
of which has been conjectured from the nature of the objects found 
in it. The oven is still in existence. 

House of the Chase. POMPEII. 8. Route. 149 

K. No. 56, House of the Orand-Duke of Tuscany (PI. 2), small, 
with mosaic fountain. 

R. No. 51, House of Ariadne, extending to the Street of the 
Augustales, towards which it has its atrium. From the Strada della 
Fortuna (capital with figures at the entrance) we first enter the 
garden , which is surrounded with 24 columns ; in the centre is 
the peristyle with sixteen columns, the lower parts being yellow, 
and the capitals variegated. In the centre is a fountain. Various 

R. No. 48, House of the Chase. Beyond the finely-painted tab- 
linum we enter the peristyle, which has columns on two sides only 
and a basin in the centre ; opposite, wild beast fights, whence the 
name of the house ; on the right, landscapes , with Polyphemus 
and Galatea. 

If we follow the Strada della Fortuna for a short distance, 
we reach the broad Strada Stabiana (p. 151 ; Cardo], diverging to 
the right, the N. extension of which, with Insula VI. 14 and V. 1, 
was excavated quite recently. At the corner to the left are a 
Fountain and an Altar of the Lares; adjacent is a pillar of the 
Aqueduct. Of the houses in the N. Prolongation of the Strada 
Stabiana the following are noticeable: — L., Reg. VI, Ins. 14, 
No. 20, with a mutilated herma erected by the arcarius (cashier) 
Anteros to M. Vesonius Primus , the master of the house , with 
projecting props for the support of wreaths. The peristyle is adorned 
with a fresco of Orpheus, over life-size. — No. 22, a Fullonica, or 
fuller's workshop. The atrium contains a handsome impluvium and 
several handsome table-supports. In the room at the back are three 
basins (comp. p. 147), and on the wall are paintings of a banquet 
of fullers (fullones) and a scene in a court of law. — Opposite, 
to the right, Reg. V, Ins. 1, No. 26, the house of L. Caecilius Ju- 
cundus, the banker, where the receipts now preserved in the Mu- 
seo Nazionale (p. 76) were discovered. In the atrium stood a 
herma erected to the banker by his freedman Felix ; the pedestal, 
with the inscription 'Qenio L(uci) nostri Felix l(ibertw)' is still 
here, but the bronze bust has been removed to the Museo (p. 73). 
The beautiful *Paintings in the tablinum are unfortunately some- 
what faded. — Farther on , No. 18 ; the last room to the left of 
the peristyle is adorned with paintings and Greek epigrams (to 
the left, Pan and Cupid wrestling). 

The prolongation of the Strada della Fortuna , beyond the 
Strada Stabiana, is called the Strada di Nola, and leads in 5 min. 
to the gate of that name, which is one of the most ancient in the 
town. Here the insulse 4 and 5, and part of 6 and 7 in Reg. IX, 
have been excavated to the S., and the insula 1 and part of 2, 
Reg. V, to the N. 

The whole of the first insula to the right (IX. 4) is occupied by 
extensive Thermae , which were in course of construction at the 

150 Routes. POMPEII. Strada di Nola. 

time the city was overwhelmed. In the large court, which is acces- 
sible on three sides, the labourers were in the very act of making 
the gutter and laying the bases for the columns of the portico. 
The large swimming-basin, to the left, below the windows of the 
inner rooms, was also unfinished. Instead of the two swimming- 
baths, for men and women, usually found in the Thermae, there is 
here only this one, which is, however, of unwonted size, and quite 
destitute of ornamentation. Passing through an antechamber on 
the left, off which open several rooms of unknown purpose, we 
reach the dressing-room (apodyterium), containing a large bath of 
cold water (frigidarium). Next to this is the warm bath (tepida- 
rium), beyond which is the hot chamber (calidarium), with three 
basins for hot baths. To the left of the tepidarium is the laconi- 
cum, or sudatory, covered with a vaulted roof, and also connected 
with the calidarium. The three rooms last mentioned appear to 
have been heated by means of double floors and walls, traces of 
which are still visible in the laconicum. The heating-furnaces had 
not yet been built. The three largest rooms are provided with 
large windows, another divergence from the ordinary plan of the 

The houses in the next insula (IX, 5) contain numerous paint- 
ings, most of which, however, are of little artistic merit. The first 
house, No. 2, contains, in the room to the left of the tablinum, 
two scenes from the story of Achilles : Hephaestus showing Thetis 
the armour he had made for Achilles , and Thetis on a Triton 
taking the armour to her son. — The house No. 6, farther on, 
which contains an unusual number of pictures, is also remark- 
able for its peculiar oblong ground -plan. In the roofed room 
to the right, in front of the peristyle of No. 9, are Egyptian land- 
scapes with pygmies. The house No. 11 has representations of 
the Muses (to the right, next the tablinum). — The house in the 
S.E. angle of this insula, No. 16, seems to have been a tavern, 
and contains a room with paintings of the grossest description ; in 
the room to the right of the atrium, the Muses. 

Of the next insula (IX, 6) to the E. of the last, only one 
large house (Casa del Centenario), has been excavated. It contains 
a spacious peristyle , two covered rooms (one with decorations on a 
white ground) , and a small bath , the marble flooring of which 
seems to have been removed in some ancient excavation. Adjacent 
is a room tastefully decorated with black paintings, inserted in the 
walls at a later period : right , Orestes , Pylades , and Iphigenia ; 
left, Theseus and the Minotaur; centre, Hermaphrodite and Sil- 
enus. — Excavations are now being carried on in Keg. IX, Ins. 7. 

On the other side of the Strada di Nola is a house (Reg. V 
Ins. 2, No. 4) in which the room behind the peristyle has three 
interesting paintings of banqueting-scenes, with inscriptions. At 
Reg. V, Ins. 7, No. 7, is a tasteful capital with figures. 

StradadeW Abbondanza. POMPEII. 8. Route. 151 

We now turn to the W., and pass through the lane between Keg. 
IX, Ins. 3, and Reg. IX, Ins. 4, to the Strada Stabiana. Im- 
mediately to the left (Reg. IX, Ins. 3, No. 5), the '"House of Marcus 
Lucretius, once richly fitted up, though with questionable taste 
(shown at the request of the visitor). Behind the atrium is a small 
*Garden, laid out in terraces, with a fountain and a number of 
marble figures. The best of the paintings are preserved at Naples. 
This is one of the few houses in Pompeii of which the proprietor's 
name is known. The information was afforded by a letter painted 
on the wall with the address 'M. Lucretio Flam. Martis deourioni 

Continuing to descend the Stabian Street towards the gate, we 
reach the Thermae (see below) at the corner of the Strada dell' 
Abbondanza (from which they are entered). This broad street as- 
cends from the Stabian Street (80 ft. above the sea-level) to the 
Forum. On the other side, towards the Porta del Sarno , it is only 
excavated as far as the next street ( Vico di Tesmo, see below). At 
the corner here is the buttress of an aqueduct, leaden pipes from 
which are observed on the pavement farther on. The excavations 
have been carried as far as the old Porta Stabiana to the S., lower 

On the left, in the direction of the Sarno Gate, Reg. IX, 
Ins. 1, No. 20, is the Casa dei Diadumeni, or of Epidius Rufus, 
with a small platform in front of the facade, and a handsome atrium 
with fourteen columns. Within it is a lararium on the right, with 
the inscription 'Genio Marci nostri et Laribus duo Diadumeni 
liberti'. At the back is a garden, to the left of which is the 
vaulted kitchen. — The atrium of the House of Epidius Sabinus, 
No. 22 (left), contains a well-preserved lararium, with paintings at 
the back, nearly obliterated. — Ascending the platform in a straight 
direction, we reach a cart-road leading to the Amphitheatre (see 
p. 156). 

The Vico di Tesmo (left) affords a good example of the monotonous 
character of the more remote streets. At the corner we observe 
the Tannery (Reg. I, Ins. 5, No. 2), and also an atrium (Reg. I, 
Ins. 2, No. 28), the compluvium of which was covered with an iron 
grating (restored) as a protection against thieves. 

We now return and continue to ascend the Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza towards the Forum , near which this handsome street, 
with its numerous shops, was closed by means of stone pillars, 
in order to exclude carriages. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 15, "House of Cornelius Rufus. The 
atrium contains two handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust with 
the inscription, '0. Cornelio Rufo'. The peristyle has eighteen 

In the Strada dell' Abbondanza, on the right (Reg. VII, Ins. 1, 
No. 8), is the principal entrance to the *Stabian Thermae. They 

152 Route 8. POMPEII. Stabian Thermae. 

are larger and older than the Thermae at the back of the Forum, 
and date from the Oscan period, but were afterwards extended and 
re-decorated. We enter a spacious court , flanked by pillars on two 
sides, which was used for palsestric exercises. Opposite the en- 
trance is a herma of Mercury resembling that in the Temple of 
Apollo. On the wall on the left are stucco ornaments in relief. 
The first room to the left served for undressing; the walls still 
bear traces of the presses for hanging up the clothes. Next to this 
is a shallow basin used for washing after gymnastic exercises. 
Then a swimming-bath, 16 paces long, 9 paces broad, 5 ft. 
deep. The following room was also originally a bath, but was after- 
wards filled up and used for other purposes. In the wing opposite, 
which has a side-entrance from the street, are four baths for single 
bathers on the left. — In the upper part of the wing to the right 
is the Women's Bath. The door above leads into a vestibule , into 
which the dressing-room opens on the left; from the street are two 
separate entrances. Round the vaulted hall are niches for clothes ; 
in the corner is a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent is the warm 
bath, a vaulted saloon with double walls. Then the sudatory, the 
vaulting of which has fallen in ; at one end is a marble basin, at 
the other a fountain for warm water , with a pipe connecting it 
with the stoves (visible on the outside); the walls are double. 
Behind these chambers were the stoves. — The Men's Bath, to the 
right near the entrance, is similar. The first door on the left leads 
from the large dressing-room to the cold, the second to the warm 
bath; beyond is the sudatory. The two latter are much dilapidated. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 4, House of Holconius, with hand- 
some peristyle, rich in paintings, but faded. In the ceeus (r.) 
Ariadne and Bacchus; (1.) Hermaphrodite; in the room to the 
right, Rape of Europa ; in the room to the left, Achilles in Scyros, 
and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Theatre Street (see p. 153) diverges to 
the left, while we follow the Strada del Lupanare to the right. 

R., Reg. VII, Ins. 1, No. 47, *House of Siricus. On the thresh- 
old the inscription '■Salve lucru(mf ; to the same proprietor be- 
longed the large adjacent bakehouse, No. 46. To the left of the 
atrium is a room with good paintings: (1.) Neptune and Apollo 
helping to build the walls of Troy ; opposite, *Drunken Hercules ; 
(r.) *Vulcan presenting Thetis with weapons for Achilles. In the 
centre of the peristyle is a pavilion borne by four green columns. 
A staircase leads to the left to the other part of the house, with the 
principal entrance (now closed) in the Strada Stabiana, another 
peristyle, and an atrium containing a handsome marble table. 

To the left on the opposite wall are large snakes, with the in- 
scription: 'Otiosis locus hie non est, discede morator'. 

To the left at the corner of the second lane, the Vicolo del 
Balcone Pensile, is Reg. VII, Ins. 12, No. 18, the Lupanare 

House with the Balcony. POMPEII. 8. Route. 153 

(closed) ; at the sides five sleeping-places ; in front, the seat of the 
hostess. The bad character of the house is sufficiently indicated by 
the paintings and inscriptions. A separate entrance from the street 
ascended direct to the upper floor, with a gallery facing two streets. 

We now follow the "Vicolo del Balcone Pensile, which leads 
to the left between Reg. VII, Ins. 12, and Reg. VII, Ins. 11 and 10. 

R. No. 28, *House with the Balcony (Casa del Balcone Pensile ; 
opened on request). The atrium contains a fountain with a marble 
figure on the right. Three rooms of the upper floor have been pre- 
served by carefully replacing the charred woodwork by new beams 
— a laborious and costly undertaking. The projecting wooden 
structure is similar to that frequently seen in old continental towns. 

The Vicolo del Balcone Pensile terminates in the Vicolo di Eu- 
machia, which extends behind the buildings of the Forum. This 
street leads us to the left towards the Strada dell' Ahbondanza. 
At the corner is a fountain with a head and cornucopia of Abundan- 
tia (or rather Concordia), whence the name of the street. On the 
wall of the Eumachia building public announcements used to be 
painted (album), but little of them now remains. 

On the opposite side, nearer the Forum, Reg. VIII, Ins. 3, 
No. 8, House of the Boar Hunt, named from the mosaic in the 
passage. The peristyle has fourteen Ionic columns. The border of 
the large mosaic in the atrium represents an ancient town-wall. 
On the wall next the Vicolo are represented the twelve gods with 
their attributes, almost effaced. 

We continue to descend the Str. dell' Abbondanza, and enter 
the Theatre Street to the right [Via Sexta, between Reg. VIII, 
Ins. 4, and Reg. VIII, Ins. 6), leading to the Forum Triangulare. 
Near the latter is a porticus with six Ionic columns , which has 
been partly restored. The street to the left, which leads to the 
Stabian Street , is the Street of Isis (p. 155) , which should now 
be visited before the theatres by those who purpose omitting the 

This S. quarter has preserved many of its pre-Roman character- 

The so-called Forum Triangulare was bounded on three sides 
by a porticus of a hundred columns of the Doric order, destined 
chiefly for the use of the frequenters of the theatre. On the 
N. side is a pedestal for a statue of Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, 
with an inscription. The side next the sea was open. On a base- 
ment here, approached by five steps, stood a *Temple in the ancient 
Greek style (styled, without the slightest foundation, a Temple of 
Hercules), 101 ft. in length and 67 ft. in breadth. It was sur- 
rounded by columns, eight being in front and eleven at each side, 
and in the centre was the shrine. The whole building was in the 
ancient Doric order of about the 6th cent. B.C. A few capitals, two 
broken columns , and some fragments of the wall of the cella are 

154 Route 8. POMPEII. Theatres. 

now the sole remains of this once imposing structure. It was doubt- 
less overthrown by the earthquake of 63 ; and, if so, the inhabitants 
of the stuccoed buildings of the imperial age would never dream of 
restoring it in its massive and simple dignity. — The enclosed 
space in front of the temple was perhaps used for the slaughter of 
the victims. To the left of it are three altars. 

Beyond the temple, No. 32, is the so-called *Bidental, consist- 
ing of the large embouchure of a fountain (Puteal) within a small 
circular temple, 12 ft. in diameter, with eight Doric columns. 

On the other side of the temple is a semicircular seat, with 
a sun-dial. — A number of houses with several stories (the most 
interesting of which is the first, the Casa di Giuseppe //.) have 
been exhumed to the W. of the Forum Triangulare, on the slope of 
the hill occupied by the town, and beyond the ruined walls. 

Below the Theatre is a large Portico (Reg. VIII, Ins. 8; to 
which a flight of steps descends from the Forum Triangulare), 
originally belonging to the theatre and afterwards fitted up as 
Barracks for Gladiators. It possesses seventy-four columns, and is 
151 ft. in length and 125 ft. in breadth. Around it are a number 
of detached cells. The edifice had a second floor, as the imitation 
on the S. side shows, which contains the rooms of some of the 
custodians. In a chamber used as a prison were found three skeletons 
and iron stocks for the feet, in another some gladiatorial weapons. 
Sixty-three bodies in all were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare on the E. is the *Great Theatre 
(Teatro Scoperto). It is situated on rising ground, and is a building 
of very early origin. About the beginning of the Christian era it was 
restored by the architect M. Artorius, at the expense of M. Hol- 
conius Rufus and M. Holconius Celer. The space for the spectators 
consists of three ranks (ima, media, and summa cavea) ; the first 
contains four tiers for the chairs of persons of rank, the second 
twenty, and the third four. Corridors and staircases led to the 
different parts of the building. It is estimated that 5000 spectators 
could be accommodated. Behind the orchestra is the long and 
narrow stage, in front of which is an opening in the ground for the 
rising and falling of the curtain. The posterior wall of the stage, 
once adorned with statues, is provided with three doors, according 
to the rules of the ancient drama. Behind these was the dressing- 
room. On the summit of the outer wall are seen the stone rings 
for the poles which supported an awning in sunny weather. Behind 
the theatre is a square reservoir, the water of which was used 
in hot weather for refreshing the spectators by means of a slight 

The adjacent * Small Theatre (Teatro Coperto) is better pre- 
served than the great. An inscription records that it was roofed 
in (theatrum tectum). Number of spectators 1500. The seats are 
cut out in such a way that the feet of the spectator did not incon- 

Temple of Ish. POMPEII. 8. Route. 155 

venience the person sitting on the tier below him. The building 
dates from about B.C. 75. The marble pavement of the orchestra 
was, according to an inscription, presented by M. Oculatius , a 

From this point we re-ascend the Stabian Street. On the left, 
at the corner of the Street of Isis, Reg. VIII, Ins. 8, No. 25, the 
so-called *Temple of JEsculapius, the smallest in Pompeii , (38 ft. 
long, 22 1 / 2 ft- broad. The anterior court contains an archaic altar 
of tufa, recalling the sarcophagus of Scipio in the Vatican. The 
cella is approached by nine steps. The name of the temple is de- 
rived from a terracotta statue of Jupiter found here , which was at 
first taken for a statue of jEsculapius. As a statue of Juno and a 
bust of Minerva were also found , it is probable that these three 
deities were all worshipped here (as in the Temple of Jupiter on 
the Capitol at Rome). 

Nearly opposite the temple (Reg. I, Ins. 4, No. 5) is the Casa 
del Citarista , named after the Apollo in the style of Pasiteles 
found here (p. 73). This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii, 
comprising two atria and three peristyles. 

We now enter the Street op Isis to the left. 

Here, on the left, Reg. VIII, Ins. 8, No. 28, rises the *Temple 
of Isis, which, as the copy of the inscription over the entrance 
informs us, was restored after the earthquake of 63 by N. Po- 
pidius Celsinus, a boy six years of age, at his own expense, who 
in recognition of this service was received into the rank of the 
decuriones. Length 98 ft., width 60 ft. The court is surrounded 
by a porticus ; between tbe columns are several altars , and an 
ancient aperture for the reception of the remains of sacrifices, 
now used as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. On the left is a 
small shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were 
performed ; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are 
tastefully adorned with reliefs in stucco. The statuette of Isis, now 
in the museum (p. 66), was found in the portico of this temple. 
The chambers adjoining the wall on the left were occupied by the 
priests. Several bodies were found here; and on the altar were 
remains of sacrifices. 

The next door on the left, No. 29, leads into the so-called Curia 
Isiaca, a court surrounded by columns. Opposite the door is the 
pedestal of a statue, on which the Doryphorus, now in the Naples 
Museum (p. 67), was found. Behind it is a small flight of steps, 
which was perhaps used for placing garlands on the statue ; in 
front is a low stone plinth or table. The place was a palaestra of 
the Oscan period, and was afterwards shortened. 

We return through the Stabian Street to the Strada (lei Dia- 
dumeni, and proceed past the Casa dei Diadumeni to the platform 
mentioned at p. 151 , from the upper end of which a cart-road 

156 Routes. POMPEII. Amphitheatre. 

leads over the unexcavated part of the town in 8 min. to the last 
important relic of ancient Pompeii, the — 

* Amphitheatre , situated at the S.E. end of the town, and 
detached from the other ruins. Outwardly the building looks 
somewhat insignificant, as a great part of it, as high as the second 
story, was excavated in the earth for the purpose of simplifying 
the construction. Round the exterior runs an uncovered gallery, 
to which stairs ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper 
places. The principal entrance descends considerably. Whole length 
148, width 114 yds. ; number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with five, the second 
with twelve, and the third with eighteen tiers ; above these also 
ran a gallery. The seats are cut out in the same manner as in 
the small theatre. The building was begun in B.C. 70 , and after- 
wards continued at intervals. For several decades before the year 79 
the amphitheatre had not been used, so that the story of the people 
having been surprised by the eruption while witnessing a gladiator 
combat here is a pure myth. 

The excavations of last century led to the discovery of other buildings 
near the amphitheatre, but these, owing to the absence of any system at 
that period, were afterwards covered up again. 

On leaving the Amphitheatre we may return to the railway-station 
in 6 min. by the high-road. Those who have driven from Naples should 
order the carriage to wait for them at the Amphitheatre. — If we follow 
the road in the opposite direction (to the E.) from the Amphitheatre, 
we may visit several recently opened tombs (in the field beyond the second 
house), which lay on the ancient road from Pompeii to Nuceria. The land- 
lord of the Hotel du Soleil will procure permission to inspect these. 

The neighbouring domed church of S. Maria del Rosario, erected 
within the last decade, contains a miraculous image of the Virgin and 
has recently become a frequented resort of pilgrims (SO, 000 in 1887). The 
surrounding hamlet, with a post and telegraph office, printing works, etc., 
is called Pompeii Nuova. An ancient fulling -work has recently been dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood. The railway -station, a little farther off 
than Pompeii, is named Valle di Pompei (Lamberti's Trattoria). 

9. Castellammare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comp. the Map. 

Railway from Naples to Castellammare. 17 W., in 3 /Vl hr. ; fares 2 fr. 25, 
1 fr. 45 c. ; ten (Sun. sixteen) trains in summer, fewer in winter. From Caserln 
to Castellammare, see p. 10. — Carriage from Castellammare to Sorrento, 
10 M., in lVa hr. ; tariff, see p. 157. A seat ('un posto 1 , l-l'/a fr.) may 
easily be obtained by a single traveller in one of the numerous carriages 
frequenting this road. 

Mail Steamboat from Naples across the bay to Vico Equense, Mela, 
and Sorrento in l 3 / 4 hr. (6 fr., 5 fr.) and thence via Massa to Capri ; comp. 
p. 165. 

Those whose time is limited should make little stay at Castellammare, 
in order to arrive at Sorrento early enough for an excursion to the Deserto 
(p. 163), or other interesting point in the environs. The night should be spent 
at Sorrento, and Capri visited next day; Naples may then be regained on the 
third , or , if necessary , on the evening of the second day. — This route 
may also be combined with the following, in which case it is better to 
begin with the latter (p. 172). The steamboat trip across the Bay of 
Naples is so beautiful in fine weather that, it should be made once at least. 

6eograjli.An*tall vcm. TTagner * Debe«,Xetprig-. 


The Castellammare train follows the main line to Salerno and 
Metaponto as far as Torre Annunziata , Stazione Centrale (see 
R. 6), where our line diverges to the right. Skirting the coast, it 
crosses the Sarno (on the right is the rocky islet of Revigliano, with 
an old castle) ; and. in 12 min. it reaches the Castellammare station 
at the N. end of the town. — The line then agains runs inland, 
reaching its terminus at(3M.j Qragnano, a little community, well 
known for its excellent red wine, and containing numerous manu- 
factories of maccaroni. An attractive new road leads hence to 
Agerola, above Prajano (see p. 185). 

Castellammare. — Hotels. Hotel Rotal, in the main street, near 
the station, R. 3, L. & A. I-I1/2, B. l>/ 2 , D. 5, pens. 11 fr. ; Grand Hotel 
dk Stabie, nearest the station and also on the quay, in the Italian style, 
well spoken of. Beautifully situated above the town, on the road to Quisi- 
sana , commanding a charming view of Vesuvius and the bay : "Hotel 
Qoisisana, on the left (steep ascent), in a shady situation; Gran Bret- 
tagna, on the right; Grand Hotel Margiierita, in the Villa Quisisana 
(p. 158), open in summer only. Tension at all three. — "Pension Anglaise 
(lime. Baker), Villa Belvedere, 7-8 fr. per day, for a longer period 6 fr. per 
day; "Pension Weiss, Villa Cotticelli, 5-7 fr.; both with fine views. 

Caffe deW Europa and Trattoria Villa di Napoli, both in the Largo 
Principe Umberto, which opens towards the sea, and where a band plays 
in the evening 1-3 times a week according to the season. — "Rail. Re- 

Carriages (comp. p. xviii). Drive in the town with one horse '/a fr., 
with two or three horses 1 fr. — Outside the town, not exceeding 2 kilo- 
metres (iy« 31.): first hour with one horse f/2 fr., with two or three 
horses 2'/2 fr. ; each additional half-hour 60 c. or 1 fr. — To Quisisana or 
Pozzano l'/» or 3 fr. ; there and back with halt of 2 hrs. 2|A> or 5 fr. ; to 
Vico Equense l'/4 or 2 l /2 fr. ; to Meta 2>/2 or 4y.| fr. ; to Sorrento 3 or 
6 fr. (after 3 p.m. 4 or 8 fr.); to Torre Annunziata 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Pom- 
peii 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Naples (before 3 p.m.) 8 or 15 fr. — In all these last 
cases the traveller may keep the carriage about 3 hrs., after which the 
return-fare is the same as for the hither journey. Bargaining, however, is 

Donkeys, very good, generally 1 fr. per hour, or 4-5 fr. per day. — 
Donkey Carriage to the Grand Hotel Margherita, moderate. 

Boat to Capri in about 5 hrs., 30 fr. 

British Yice-Cotisul, J. Ashworth, Esq. — U. S. Consular Agent, A. M. 
Wood, Esq. — English Church Service in winter. 

Castellammare, a busy trading and fishing town with 33,000 
inhab., lies in the E. angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning 
of the peninsula of Sorrento, at the base and on the slope of a spur 
of Monte S. Angelo. It occupies the site of the ancient Stabiae, 
which was destroyed in A.D. 79, at the same time as Pompeii, and 
thence derivesits official name of Castellammare di Stabia. It was 
here that the elder Pliny perished while observing the eruption 
(p. 123). Excavations of the ruins of Stabise, which lay to the 
left, by the entrance to the town, towards the heights, have not 
been undertaken since 1782, and several villas then laid bare have 
been again covered with rubbish. 

The town extends along the coast for upwards of 1 M., consist- 
ing of one main street and a second running parallel with it. About 
Y3 M. from the station we reach the Largo Principe Vmberlo , a 

158 Route. 9. CASTELLAMMARE. From Naples 

small piazza embellished with flower-beds and trees , where the 
Caffe Europa is situated. Farther on we come to the animated 
Harbour, which is protected by a molo. Adjoining it is an Arsenal 
with a dockyard. — On the hill to the S. of the town are the ruins 
of the Castle to which the town owes its name. It was built in the 
13th cent, by Emp. Frederick II. and strengthened with towers 
and walls by diaries I. of Anjou. 

Castellammare is a favourite summer-resort of the Neapolitans. 
The attractions are sea-baths, mineral waters (impregnated with 
sulphur and carbonic acid gas) , beautiful shady walks, and a cool 
northern aspect. 

Turning to the S. by the Largo Principe Umberto, and ascend- 
ing the Salita Caporiva (inclining to the right after 5 min.), we 
pass the Hotel Quisisana and reach a winding road, shaded by fine 
chestnut-trees higher up, which leads to the ■ — 

Villa Quisisana (1 M.). This chateau (Casino), formerly royal 
property, but now fitted up as the Grand Hotel Margherita (p. 157), 
occupies the site of a house erected here by Charles II. of Anjou 
about 1300, which was occupied by King Ladislaus and his sister 
Johanna II. while the plague raged at Naples. In 1820 Ferdinand I. 
of Bourbon restored the building and gave it its present name 
('one recovers health here'). Charming view from the terrace. 

The *Bosco di Quisisana, or park belonging to the villa, which 
is open to the public, affords delightful walks. Ascending from the 
town, we pass through a gate to the right, opposite the entrance to 
the Villa Quisisana, turn to the left at the first bifurcation (while 
the road in a straight direction goes to Pozzano, see below), and then 
pass behind the former garden of the villa , from which there is 
another entrance to the park. — Above , to the left , rises the 
Monte Coppola , which may be ascended by beautiful wood-walks, 
winding upwards and crossing several ravines , and commanding 
admirable views of the bay and Vesuvius (there and back 2- 
2'/2 hrs.; donkeys admitted to the park). — The traveller may 
return from Quisisana to Castellammare by the shady and pictur- 
esque route via Pozzano ('^hr. longer; beginning indicated above), 
which passes the ruined castle of Frederick II. and the Anjou sov- 
ereigns. The monastery of S. Maria a Pozzano, founded by Gon- 
salvo da Cordova, is now unoccupied. Fine views. 

Excursions may also be made to (3/ 4 hr.) Gragnano (railway-station, 
p. 107) to the E. ; to Lettere (3/ 4 hr. farther) , beautifully situated on the 
slope of the mountains which were once named Monies Lactarii, with a 
ruined castle and magnificent prospect; to the mountain- village of Pi- 
monte, either in 1 hr. from Gragnano by the new Agcrola road (p. 157), 
or direct from Castellammare in l>/2 hr. through the Bosco di Quisisana; 
to the (20 min. from Pimonte) suppressed Dominican monastery of Bel- 
vedere; or to the (*/2 hr. from Pimonte) top of Monte Pendolo (fine views). 
Lastly to the summit of the — 

* Monte Sant' Angelo, 4735 ft. above the sea-level, the highest point 
near the bay, which commands a noble prospect, embracing the bays 
of Gaela, Naples, and Salerno, and stretching from Monte Civcello to the 

to Sorrento. VICO EQUENSE. 9. Route. 159 

Punta Lieosa and to the Abruzzi. The mountain is clothed to the summit 
with wood, chiefly chestnut-trees , and offers various points of interest to 
botanists. Fragments of pumice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of Vesuvius 
are observed almost all the way to the top. 

The ascent, which should not be attempted without a guide, requires 
4-5 hrs. (on donkey-back 3 hrs. ; donkey and guide 5 fr. ; provisions advis- 
able). The guides should be expressly directed to conduct the traveller 
to the highest peak crowned by the ruined chapel of St. Michael , which 
commands an uninterrupted panorama. Otherwise they ascend another 
peak, with extensive deposits of snow, the view from which is partly in- 
tercepted by the higher summit. A very steep path, destitute of shade, as- 
cends directly fram the park of Quisisana in 3 hrs. The more usual route 
leads by Pimonte (see p. 158), where the ascent proper begins. The last 
'/2 hr. must be accomplished on foot. Descent to Castellammare or Vico 
Equense (see below), in 2 hrs. The traveller should start early, so as 
to return to Castellammare before dusk. The excursion may also be made 
from Amalfl, from Vico Equense, or from Sorrento. From Amalfi it is 
more toilsome than from Castellammare. 

The **Road from Castellammare to Sorrento (10 M. ; on 
foot in ^fe-A hrs. ; by carriage in l 1 ^-^ hrs., tariff, p. 157) is one 
of the most beautiful excursions in this delightful district. "We pass 
below the monastery of S. Maria a Pozzano (see p. 158) to the Capo 
d' Orlando. The three rocks on the coast are called / Tre Fratelli. 
"We next reach (3 M.) Vico Equense [Pension Savarese, S 1 ^-? fr- ; 
Hotel <ff Pension Vico, new), a town with 12,000 inhab., situated 
on a rocky eminence, the ancient Vicus JEquensis. Vico was erected 
by Charles II. on the ruins of the ancient village , and was fre- 
quently visited by him. The Cathedral contains the tomb of the 
celebrated jurist Gaetano Filangieri (d. 1788). In the Villa Qiusso 
are several modern works of art. [A new road leads to the S. from 
Vico Equense over the mountains to S. Maria a Castello (p. 165), 
above Positano.] 

Beyond Vico the deep cutting of the river Arco is crossed by a 
bridge. On the right we next observe Marina di Equa, a village 
with a handsome campanile, beyond which the road ascends between 
vineyards and olive plantations on the slope of the Punta di Scutolo 
or Punta Gradelle. After having rounded this promontory, the road 
descends towards Meta, and the view changes. Before us stretches 
the famous Piano di Sorrento, a plain sheltered by the surround- 
ing mountains, and intersected by numerous ravines, remarkable 
for its salubrity and its luxuriant vegetation. Orange and olive 
groves, mulberry-trees, pomegranates, figs, and aloes are beauti- 
fully intermingled. This has been a favourite retreat of the noble 
and the wealthy from a very early period. Augustus, M. Agrippa, 
Antoninus Pius, and others frequently resided here, and at the 
present day visitors of all nationalities are met with. The space is 
limited, and the villages are neither large nor handsome, but the 
district generally is pervaded with an air of peaceful enjoyment. 

Meta (Hotel de Meta, with garden, new, first-class ; Trattoria 
della Villa di Sorrento, fair) is a town of .8000 inhab., with two 
small harbours. The modern church of the Madonna del Lauro, on 

160 Route 9. SORRENTO. From Naples 


the high-road, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva. (Route 
to Camaldoli di Meta, see p. 165 ; a new road from Meta over the 
mountains to Positano and Amain is almost completed; comp. 
p. 184.) 

The Ponte Maggiore leads across the deep ravine of Meta. We 
next reach Carotto, a large village, extending in nearly a straight 
line from the hills on the left to the Marina di Cazzano on the 
right. Then Pozzopiano, surrounded by beautiful orange-gardens, 
and lastly San? Agnello. Here, a little to the right of the road, 
V4M. from Sorrento, is situated the *Albergo delta Cocumella , on 
the quay, with a beautiful view (quiet; pension 5-7 fr.); the cellar 
and cistern hewn in the rock are interesting. The road then passes 
the (1.) Villa Ouarracino and (r.) the Villa Rubinacci or Rotonda, 
traverses the long suburb, and soon reaches the Piazza of Sorrento- 
Sorrento. ■ — ■ Hotels. "La Sirena (Engl. Ch. Service), "Hotel Tra- 
montano, "Albergo del Tasso, all three belonging to Signor Tramontano, 
situated between the small and the large Marina, on an abrupt rock rising 
from the sea, and much frequented by English travellers ; "Vittoria, 
charmingly situated above the small Marina, entered from the market-place ; 
high charges at all these during the season : R. from 3, A. & L. l'/2, D. 5, 
pens. 12, for longer periods 10 fr. per day. A little more to the E. of the 
small Marina, "Hotel Bristol (formerly S. Severina), R. from 2'/z, pension 
7-9 fr., belonging to the brothers Fiorentino, proprietors of the Hotel Vit- 
toria, with several dependencies. — In the same situation, "Hotel & Pen- 
sion Lorelei (Villa Piccola Sirena), pens. 7, for stay of more than two 
days 6 fr. ; "Hotel d'Angleterre & Villa Nardi, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; "Ho- 
tel Grande Bretagne (Mrs. Lawrence), in the Ville Mayo, pens. 6 fr. All 
these hotels, situated in gardens, have private stairs descending to the sea 
and small bathing-establishments (also warm baths), and command magni- 
ficent views of the bay. Previous enquiry as to charges had better be made. 
In summer a room towards the N. with a balcony and unimpeded view 
should be obtained if possible. — To the E. of the town, "Alb. della Cocu- 
mella, see above. — The locandas of the E. suburb are unpretending: 
"Villa Rubinaoci, moderate; adjacent, Rosa Magra, R. l'/a fr. (rooms only 
at these). — Whole villas and furnished apartments may also be procured 
for a prolonged stay. (Information at the larger hotels.) 

Trattoria della Villa di Sorrento, in the E. suburb, on the road to Meta, 
unpretending. — Gaffe Europa, in the Piazza. — In the Piazza is also the 
Circolo di Sorrento, a club with reading-room, etc., to which strangers are 
admitted gratis for a week (tickets at the hotels), per month 5 fr. 

Sea-Baths on the Piccola Marina, 3 /t M. distaut, '/a fr- — Physician, 
Dr. L. Galano (enquire at the Farmacia Oriffa, Corso Duomo). Farmacia 

Boats, Carriages, and Donkeys may be hired at the hotels at fixed 
charges, but these rates may generally be reduced by treating directly 
with the boatmen and drivers. Fees extra. Boats (mostly at the Piccola 
Marina) l-l'/2 fr. per hour; to Capri with 2 rowers 6-8, 3-4 rowers 12, 5-8 
rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellammare about the same. Donkeys and carriages in 
the piazza : donkey generally 1 fr. per hour ; for excursions of 2-3 hrs. 
2-2'/2 fr., and trifling fee to attendant; to Scaricatojo (p. 185) 2-3 fr. and 
fee. Carriage to Massalubrense and back, with one horse 2-3, with two 
horses 3-4 fr. ; to S. Agata via, Massalnbrense and back 5-6 or 7-8 fr. ; to 
S. Maria del Castello (p. 165), 10 fr. ; to Castellammare, with one horse 
3-5 fr. and fee, with two horses 6 fr. and fee of 1 fr. 

Banker. A. Falangola (wine and fruit dealer, branch in Naples). 

Silk Wares (in imitation of the Roman), Inlaid Wood ('tarsia') and 
Wood Carving , are good and cheap atj Sorrento. The tarsia work has 
lately become one of the staple products of the place, employing no fewer 

to Sorrento. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 161 

than 500 workmen. The quantity exported is valued at 150,000 fr. per 
annum. The chief depots of these articles , which are well adapted for 
souvenirs and presents , are kept by Luigi Gargiulo <k Figlio (also silk 
wares), in the Corso Principe Umberto; Michel Grandville, Strada del 
Tasso; Gins. Gargiulo & Co., in the same street. The oldest firm of silk- 
mercers is Casola , in the Piazza; other good houses are the Fratelli 
Miccio, Strada del Tasso, liaresca ('Aux deux Passages'), on the road to 
Massa, etc. 

Sorrento, surnamed 'La Gentile', the ancient Surrentum and 
still called by the peasants Surient, a small town with 7500 inhab. , 
and the residence of a bishop , lies amid luxuriant lemon and 
orange-gardens on rocks rising precipitously from the sea, and is 
enclosed on the other sides by deep ravines which popular super- 
stition has peopled with dwarfs (monacelli). The E. ravine, by 
which the traveller arriving from Meta crosses from the suburb to 
the Piazza, terminates in the Piccola Marina, or small harbour. 
The W. ravine opens into the Marina Grande, or large harbour, 
where there are numerous fishing-boats and a ship-building yard. 
During the middle ages Sorrento carried on a considerable trade, 
but its walls and towers have long since fallen to decay. Nothing 
remains of the Roman Surrentum, once rich in temples and villas, 
except some subterranean cisterns , with excellent spring-water, 
which have defied the lapse of time, and a few fragments and sub- 
structures , which have been dignified with such names as the 
'Temple of Neptune', 'Amphitheatre', and 'Villa of Poliius Felix'. 
At the entrance to the cathedral (about 5 min. walk from the 
market-place, by a chapel on the left) are several ancient bas- 
reliefs and inscriptions. 

Torquato Tasso, the poet (b. 1544, d. at Rome 1595), was a 
native of Sorrento. A marble statue of the poet has been erected 
in the Piazza. The house in which he was born, together with 
the rock on which it stood, has been swallowed up by the encroach- 
ing sea ; its ruins are still visible beneath the clear azure flood 
below the Albergo del Tasso. The residence of his attached sister 
Cornelia, however, is still pointed out (Pal. Sersale , Strada S. 
Nicola) , where , after a glorious but chequered career, he was 
received by her, disguised as a shepherd, in 1592. 

The small Giardino Pubblico, opposite the Hotel Tramontano, 
commands an unimpeded view of the sea. 

Sorrento is admirably adapted for a summer residence on 
account of its cool northern aspect. It is chiefly frequented during 
the bathing -season. Visitors generally bathe in the morning, 
devote the hot part of the day to the 'dolce-far-niente', make 
short excursions in the beautiful environs late in the afternoon, and 
after sunset lounge in the Piazza. 

As most of the neighbouring roads run between high garden 
walls, and are very dusty in summer, there is a great lack of walks. 
The most popular is the *Massalubrense Road (seep. 162), which is 
frequented in the evening by numerous carriages, riders, and walkers. 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. \ 1 

162 Route 9. SORRENTO. Capo di Sorrento. 

The finest view, famous even in antiquity, is here obtained from 
the Capodimonte. About 3 / 4 M. from the Piazza we ascend to the 
left; turn to the right where the (5 min.) road divides, and follow 
the slope to (5 min.) the rocky eminence, which commands a beau- 
tiful *View of Sorrento, Monte S. Angelo, and Vesuvius. — A visit 
to the *Fondo Parisi is also highly attractive. At the above-men- 
tioned division of the roads we follow the Strada di Capodimonte 
to the right to (7 min.) another parting of the ways. The road 
straight on leads to the Deserto (p. 164); we, however, take that 
to the left, and in 5 min. reach a gateway marked 'Bella Veduta 
di Parisi'. We traverse the garden to the left of the deserted house 
to the belvedere, which affords a *View of Sorrento and of the Gulf 
of Naples as far as Ischia. — A walk in the fine avenue beside the 
old city-wall is also recommended. We reach the avenue by turn- 
ing to the left at the end of the straight street leading from the 
piazza past the cathedral. 

Excursions by Boat are very pleasant. Thus (there and back in 
1V2-2 hrs., with one rower 3 fr.) to the Punta di Sorrento, at the 
W. end of the bay, opposite the Punta di Scutolo (p. 159) to the 
S.W., passing between cliffs where remains of Roman masonry, 
baths, and a so-called temple of Hercules are visible. The traveller 
should not omit to row into the large ancient piscina , now called 
Bagno della Begina Oiovanna. The name of the adjacent hamlet of 
Marina di Puolo recalls the magnificent Villa of Pollius Felix, 
described by Statius, the poet. A trip by boat to Meta (p. 159), 
where there are several fine grottoes in the lofty cliffs of the coast 
(il Pecoriello, la Piccola Azzurra, etc.), may be made in the same 
time and at the same cost. 

The **Road to Massalubrense (3!/ 4 M.), like that from 
Castellammare , of which it is a continuation , commands a series 
of beautiful views. A few hundred yards beyond the last houses 
of Sorrento it crosses the ravine of La Conca by a bridge. To the 
left, V4M. farther, the 'Strada Capodimonte' ascends to the left (to 
the Deserto, see p. 164). The road skirts the base of the Capo- 
dimonte (see above) , and commands retrospectively nearly the 
same prospect. It then ascends to Lo Capo, whence we may de- 
scend in 10-12 min. to the Punta di Sorrento, or in about the same 
time to the Bagno della Regina Giovanna (see above) About 2i/ 4 M. 
from Sorrento we reach, a group of houses at the foot of 
the telegraph hill (p. 164; to the top 20-25 min. ; child to show 
the way through the wood, !/ 2 fr.), which the road makes a bend 
to avoid. A magnificent view towards Capri is now suddenly dis- 
closed. On the right is the rocky islet of Vervece. About 1 M. 
farther we reach Massalubrense (Restaurant Minerva, at the en- 
trance, well spoken of), a small town of 8500inhab., overshadowed 
by the castle of S. Maria, to which the Via Pozzillo ascends (a boy 
had better he hired as guide). The key of the tower, the view from 

Massa Lubrense. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 163 

which resembles that from the Telegrafo (p. 164), is obtained at one 
of the houses (small fee). On the coast are the remains of a Roman 
aqueduct and other antiquities ; but no traces now remain of the 
temple of the Sirens , which enjoyed a wide reputation in anti- 
quity. The church of S. Francesco is said to occupy the site of a 
temple of Juno. On 15th Aug. a festival which attracts the in- 
habitants of the whole neighbourhood is celebrated here annually. 
— Boats and carriages for the return to Sorrento are generally to 
be found here. — The road, turning inland, ascends to S. Agata 
(p. 164). 

From Massalubrense we may proceed in 3/4 hr. by S. Maria to the village 
of Termini, to which a very beautiful route (admirable views) also leads 
from Sorrento past the suppressed monastery of S. Francesco di Paola. Ter- 
mini lies at the foot of the Monte S. Coslanzo (1470 ft.), the highest point of the 
outer part of the peninsula (a fine point of view ; ascent somewhat fatiguing ; 
a hermit at the top). Beyond Termini the road gradually descends to the 
Punta Campanella (140 ft.), the extremity of the peninsula , l 3 /4 hr. from 
Massalubrense. This was the ancient Cape of 'Minerva , so named after a temple 
said to have been erected here by Ulysses in honour of that goddess. 
The promontory owes its modern name to the bells of one of the watch- 
towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a protection against 
pirates. So lately as the beginning of the 19th cent, numerous inhabitants 
of the Italian coast were carried off as slaves by the Barbary pirates. 
From this bare and lonely rock, which is crowned with a Lighthouse and 
overgrown with olives and myrtles, we enjoy a magnificent distant view 
of the sea, the coast, and the island of Capri, 3 M. distant. Beyond 
the lighthouse are considerable remains of a Roman villa. (Donkey 
from Massa to the Punta Campanella, the summit of the Mte. S. Costanzo, 
and back by Termini about 5 fr. — Those who make the excursion from 
Sorrento to the Punta Campanella should allow for it 7-8 hrs. in all.) 

From Termini the traveller may descend to the S. to Nerano and the 
Marina del Cantone, whence the ruins of Crapolla , 2 M. to the E., may 
be visited by boat. On this trip we obtain a beautiful view of the three 
Islands of the Sirens, also called / Galli, fortified in the middle ages, 
but now deserted. At the landing-place of Crapolla we observe remains 
of a wall with a fountain in the centre, and traces of an aqueduct; higher 
up the hill are the ruins of the monastery and early-Romanesque basilica 
of /S. Metro, the eight marble and granite columns of which are probably 
derived from some ancient temple. The interior of the church shows 
traces of frescoes. Good walkers may ascend from this point to S. Agata 
(p. 164) and return thence to Sorrento. 

In fine weather a boat may be taken from Massa to Capri (4 fr. ; two 

The Heights above Sorrento afford many fine points of view, 
the paths to which are generally steep, narrow, and viewless, and 
most conveniently reached on donkey-back. Walking is, however, 
not unpleasant in the cool season. 

A very favourite point is the Deserto , l'/^l'/^hr. from the 
Piazza of Sorrento (best time about sunset). The carriage - road 
leads by Massalubrense and S. Agata (p. 164; carriages, p. 160). 
Walkers and riders leave the Massa road, and ascend to the left by 
the Strada di Capodimonte (p. 162). Beyond (3 min.) the second 
bend we take the Strada Priora to the left. Farther on (10 min.) 
we avoid the Crocevia road to the left and go straight on between 
garden-walls. In y 4 hr. we turn to the left to Priora , which we 

■H * 

164 Route 9. SORRENTO. Telegrafo. 

reach after an ascent of 5-10 min. ; we now pass through a vaulted 
passage, go straight on across the Largo Priora, the small piazza in 
front of the church, turn to the right opposite the Campanile 
(and again to the right), and follow the paved path. The red build- 
ing on the hill before us is the Deserto, ^ ^x. from Priora. — The 
*Deserto is a suppressed monastery , in which an establishment 
for destitute children has recently been fitted up by monks. In return 
for the refreshments offered to visitors, a contribution to the funds 
of the institution is expected. The roof of the building commands 
a charming prospect of both bays , and the island of Capri ; in 
front of the latter rises the hill of S. Costanzo (p. 163), to the left 
of which is the solitary little church of <S. Maria della Neve. — 
From the Deserto we proceed to the E. to the neighbouring vil- 
lage of S. Agata (pension in summer, opened by Mme. Bourbon of 
Naples; comp. p. 21), the cathedral of which contains a high-altar 
of inlaid marble. An important festival is celebrated here on Au- 
gust 15th. A new carriage-road, commanding fine views, leads 
from S. Agata to Massalubrense (p. 162). The descent to Sorrento 
through the beautiful chestnut wood of La Tigliana is very steep. 

Another interesting excursion is to the Telegrafo (785 ft.), a 
somewhat steep hill, on which there used to be an optic telegraph 
communicating with Capri, 2y 2 M. to the W., and which com- 
mands an admirable view. The route to it is the same as to the 
Deserto as far as the point where the road to Priora diverges to the 
left C/2 hr.). From that point we proceed in a straight direction 
to (10 min.) a guard-house of the Uffizio Daziario of Massalu- 
brense, about 30 paces beyond which we enter the second gate on 
the right leading through the yard of a cottage (2-3 soldi). In 6 min. 
more the path leads in a straight direction to the telegraph. — At 
the foot of the hill lies the *Valle delle Figne, which derives its 
name from a number of handsome pines. The view of Capri hence 
is justly celebrated. Quails are captured here and in other parts 
of the peninsula of Sorrento, and in the island of Capri , in large 
numbers in May, June, September, and October, affording con- 
siderable profit to the inhabitants. 

An admirable survey of the Piano di Sorrento is afforded by the 
*Piccolo S. Angelo (1460 ft.), I1/2 hr. to the S.E. of Sorrento. 
The route ascends from the Piazza of Sorrento along the E. margin 
of the E. ravine, passing Cesarano and Baranica. At the top is a 
deserted cottage. From this point we ascend slightly to the S., then 
follow the footpath leading through woods to the right, along the 
slope of Monte Tore (p. 165), to (I-I1/2 hr.) S. Agata (see above). 
Picturesque views below us all the way. 

The Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills adjoining the Piccolo 
S. Angelo to the S.E. and commanding a survey of the bays of Naples and 
Salerno, may he reached either from Meta by the new road to Positano 
(p. 185), or from Sorrento in V/i hr. by a path which diverges to the right 
from the Meta road at the white summer-house of the Villa Cacace between 

Steamboats. CAPRT. 9. Route. 165 

the villages of Pozzopiano and Carotto. From the top of the hill, im- 
mediately to the left, a footpath descends in i/< hr. to the Arco Naturale, a 
natural rocky archway on the S. coast, which was partly destroyed in 
1841. Returning to the top of the hill, we may now ascend to the W. to 
the Telegrafo di Marecoccola, and to the summit of Monle Tore (1950 ft.), 
both of which are admirable points of view. 

Above Meta (p. 159) lies the suppressed monastery of "Camaldoli di 
Meta , now a country-seat of the Conte Giusso, commanding an excellent 
view. It is reached in 2'A hrs. from Sorrento : dusty road to Meta 3y 4 SI. 
(carriage in 20-25 min., 3 / 4 fr.). At a large red house we turn to the left 
into the Vico Alberi and ascend to an olive-grove and (1 M.) the church 
of Alberi. Then we turn to the right and reach 0/2 M.) the Villa Givsso- 
Astapiana, where the best point of view is the rondel in the E. part of the 
park, about '/« M. from the entrance. As the view is finest towards sunset, 
the excursion should not be made at too early an hour (gardener '/j-1 fr.). 

A fatiguing but interesting excursion is the ascent of the Vico Alvano 
(2105 ft.), the path to which also diverges from the Meta road by the 
Villa Cacace (p. 164). It then crosses the heights of the Conti di 
menna. (From Sorrento, there and back, 6-7 hrs., with guide.) 

We may also walk in 2 hrs. via Meta, Arbore (see p. 185), Fornacelle, 
and Preazzano to the village of S. Maria a Castello, where from a pro- 
jecting rock a view is obtained of Positano , 2000 ft. below, to which a 
path descends in steps. On 15th Aug., the occasion of a great festival at 
Positano (comp. p. 185), many visitors ascend from Sorrento to S. Maria 
for the sake of seeing the illumination below ; after which, however, 
they have to return in the dark by a bad road 

New road from Meta to Positano and Amalfi, see pp. 184, 185. 


Comp. Map, p. 156. 

From Naples to Capri. Mail Steamer (via Vico Equense, Meta. 
Sorrento, and Massalubrense) of the Societa Napoletana di Navigazione (office. 
Marina Nuova 14) ply to Capri daily, weather permitting, leaving the 
Immacolatella (PI. 24; F, 5; p. 40) at 3.30 p.m. (in winter 2 p.m.), and 
returning from Capri at 7.30 a.m. On Sun., Mon., Wed., & Frid, another 
Steamboat of the same company leaves the steps of S. Lucia (p. 36; 
PI. E, 6) at 9 a.m., touches at Sorrento (l 3 / 4 hr.), and proceeds direct to 
the Blue Grotto. After visiting the latter, the passengers are then con- 
veyed to the Marina of Capri, arriving about 12 or 12.30. The vessel starts 
again about 3 p.m. and reaches Naples about 6 p.m. Fare to Capri 6 fr. 
(from Sorrento 5 fr.) ; return- ticket , available for three months, 10 fr. 
Embarcation and landing at Naples and at Capri 30 c. each person; boat 
into the Blue Grotto I1/4 fr., paid on board the steamer on returning (see 
p. 171). — Unless the traveller is much pressed for time, this is a most 
unsatisfactory mode of visiting beautiful Capri, as, in addition to the Blue 
Grotto, he will barely have time to visit the Villa of Tiberius. The view 
from the latter, moreover, is far less attractive in the middle of the day than 
by evening light. One whole day at least should be devoted to the island, 
as there are many other beautiful points besides the two just mentioned. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual 
(the weather, number of passengers, etc., often deciding the question), 
enquiry on this subject should be made at the hotels, or, better still, at 
the offices mentioned above. It should also be observed that when 
the wind is in the E. or N. the Blue Grotto is not accessible — a fact, 
however, which the captain of the steamer is careful not to mention. On 
such days, moreover, the roughness of the water is apt to occasion sea- 

A small Local Steamer (Corriere di Capri) also plies on Mon. &. Frid. 
between Naples and Capri when the weather allows , leaving Capri at 
10 a.m. and Naples (Immacolatella; PI. 24 ; F, 5) at 2 p.m. (single fares 3, 
2, or JU/j fr. 5 first-class return, available for a week, 5 fr.). 

1 66 Route 9. CAPRI. Hotels. 

From Sorrento to Capri. Mail Steamer, see p. 165. Another Steamer 
of the same company , starting from the Marina Piccola every Sun. in 
summer at 9.30 a.m., plies to Capri and Casainioeiola, returning at 3 p.m. 
(return-fare 3 fr.). — By Small Boat the passage takes 2-2'/« hrs. (fares, 
see p. 160). A four-oared boat for the excursion to Capri and Amalfl costs 
30-40 fr., the night being spent at Capri. Boat from Capri to Amalfl 
(4-5 hrs.), with 4-6 rowers, 15-25 fr. (bargaining necessary). Fine weather 
is indispensable, but a perfect calm is neither necessary nor desirable. 

Order is now tolerably well maintained at the landing-place at Capri, 
and the begging nuisance is not worse than elsewhere. One soldo is 
sufficient payment for assistance rendered to passengers on landing. A 
few coppers may also be thrown into the water fer the boys to dive for. 
Disposition of Time. For steamboat-passengers, see p. 165. Travellers 
who make the excursion from Sorrento by small boat and desire to return on 
the same day (which, however, is not advisable) had better first visit the 
Blue Grotto, then order dinner at one of the inns on the Marina, ascend 
to Capri and go direct to the Punta Tragara, or the Villa di Tiberio if 
time and energy permit, and finally return direct to the beach. — Those 
who spend the night on the island can of course accomplish all this with 
greater leisure. On the following morning they should then descend (20 
min.) to the Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, and take a boat 
to the Green Grotto (iy 2 fr. ; V-jz hr. there and back) ; or, still better, 
perform the Giro of the whole island by boat (3-4 hrs.). — If a longer 
stay be made, Castiglione , S. Michele , and Anacapri may also be visited, 
and Monte Solaro ascended. The advice in the visitors' book at Pagano's 
Hotel should in any case be taken to heart: 'A'e auittez pas la Grotte 
d'Azur sans voir Capri! \ The island, however, is not seen in its full 
beauty except in summer. 

Hotels in Capri. On the Marina: "Hotel and Restaur. Succursale 
Pagano; Gran Brettagna, D. 3V2-4, lunch 3, R. 2 l fc, B. 3/4, L. l fc, A. i/a, 
pension 6-7 fr., well spoken of; Bellevue, adjoining the last, these three 
close to the landing-place. Hotel du Louvke , admirably situated on a 
height a little to the W. of the landing-place, with baths; Hotel de la 
Grotte Bleue, adjacent, with a terrace commanding a beautiful view, 
pens. 6 fr., less for a prolonged stay; Sciiweizekhof, pens. 6 fr., well 
spoken of. — In the Town of Capri: "Albergo Qcisisana (omnibus at the 
quay) , on the way to the Certosa (see p. 168), an excellent house (Engl, 
landlady), with reading-room, pension 7-9 fr. (provided with Serino water 
from Naples, comp. p. 35); "Hotel d'Angleterre, on the road from the 
.Marina, just outside the town of Capri, pens. 6-8 fr. ; : Albergo Pagano 
( Villoria), on the road to Quisisana , pension 6-7 fr. (the garden contains 
a handsome palm-tree). — Hotel de France , to the left of the Piazza, 
higher up, at the foot of the castle to the E., with small garden and de- 
pendency, fine view, unpretending, pension 7 fr. and less ; 'Hotel-Pension 
Faiiaglioni, in the same road, nearer the Piaz/.a, pens. 6-7 fr., wine includ- 
ed. — Hotel & Restaurant Tibekio , next to the church, inexpensive 
(also furnished rooms); Villa di Capri, in the Piazza; Locanda della 
Pace, Corso Tiberio, these two quite unpretending. — Wine, Beer, etc.: 
"Caff Bidigeigei, good and moderate (Serino water, groceries, paper, etc.; 
agency for furnished rooms; propr. Morgana); Cafe al Vermouth di Torino, 
in the Piazza, a favourite resort; Cafe Roma, also in the Piazza. — Fur- 
nished Apartments numerous and cheap (from 30 fr. per month, including 
breakfast) both in Capri and Anacapri. — Physicians : Dr. Giov. Masonico, 
[peaks English and French; Dr. Goetze, Villa Serena; Dr. Green, at Ana- 
capri (p. 170). 

Carriages. From the Marina: to the town of Capri with one horse 
l'/z fr., there and back, with stay of 1 hr., 2'/2 fr.; with two horses, 3 and 
4 fr. ; to Anacapri, with one horse, 3 fr., there and back , 4 fr., with two 
horses, 5 and 6 fr. From the town of Capri to Anacapri, with one horse, 
Vj-t fr., there and back, 2'/-i fr., with two horses, 3 and 4 fr. 

Donkey from the Marina to the town of Capri 1, Horse l'/ 4 fr., in 
the reverse direction 3 /4 or 1 fr. ; to the Villa di Tiberio and back 2>/2 
or 3 fr. ; to Anacapri and back 2'/2 and 3 fr. ; to the top of the Solaro 

History. CAPRI. 9. Route. 167 

4>/s fr. ; from the town to Anacapri and back 11/2 and 2 fr. — Guides are 
quite unnecessary unless time is very limited. A boy to show the way 
may be engaged for several hours for 1/2-I fr. 

Boats (bargaining necessary) about I1/2 fr. per hour ; trip to the Blue 
Grotto, see p. 171 ; 'giro', or tour of the island (p. 172), 6-8 fr. To Sorrento, 
see p. IbO; the hotels Quisisana and Pagano possess in common a very 
comfortable boat for 8 pers., which is hired for the trip to Sorrento with 
six rowers for 14 fr. ; boats with four rowers for smaller parties are also 
provided (8fr.). — Boat from the Marina Piccola, on the S. side of the 
island (see p. 170), to the Grotta del Arsenale or the Green Grotto and 
round the K end of the island to the Marina, 4-5 fr. 

English Church Service in winter, Palazzo Ferraro. 

Capri, the ancient Capreae ('island of goats'), is a small, moun- 
tainous island of oblong form. Its picturesque outline forms one 
of the most charming points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The 
highest point is the Monte Solaro on the W. side, 1920ft. above 
the sea-level; towards the E. huge cliffs, about 900 ft. in height, 
rise abruptly from the sea. Boats can land safely at two places only! 
The island, which contains about 4900 inhab. and the two small 
towns of Capri and Anacapri, yields fruit, oil, and excellent 
red and white wines in abundance. The indigenous flora comprises 
800 species. The inhabitants support themselves partly by the pro- 
duction of oil and wine and by fishing, but by far the largest source 
of income is afforded by the strangers who visit the island yearly 
to the number of 30,000. The men frequently emigrate to South 
America, but generally return to Capri again. The women, who 
wear a tasteful veil of black lace, employ themselves mainly with 
weaving. Interesting popular festivals are held on the feast of S. 
Costanzo , the patron-saint of the island (May 14th), on the day 
of S. Antonio (June 14th ; at Anacapri), and on the 7th and 8th 
Sept. (in honour of the Virgin; on the Tiberio and Solaro). 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who showed a great 
partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. Tiberius 
erected twelve villas, in honour of the twelve gods, in the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann. iv. 
lt ! a l-» ff surrendered the reins of government to Sejanus and 
retired hither (A.D. 27). He remained here almost uninterruptedly till 
Ins death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
aie given of the eruelty and profligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 

Tir-i? S - P s0 many years in iL Considerable remains of the buildings 
of Tiberius are still extant. 

In 1803, during the Napoleonic wars, Capri was captured by the 
English under Sir Sidney Smith, fortified, and converted into a miniature 
<<L« iT r " Hudson Lowe was afterwards the commandant. In Oct. 

1HU8, however, the island was recaptured by the French under Lamarque 
by a brilliant coup-de-main. 

The Marina Grande, or principal landing-place, where the 
steamers and most of the small boats land their passengers, is on 
the N. side of the island, where there are several hotels (p. 166), 
and a number of fishermen's cottages. Two routes ascend hence to 
the small town of Capri. The new carriage-road leads to the right 
(W.) and ascends past the hotels and the ancient church of 8. Cos- 

168 Route 9. CAPRI. Punta Tragara. 

tanzo in windings ( 1 /i hr.). The shorter , but steeper path to the 
left (E.) ascends in steps. Both are destitute of shade and are far 
from pleasant in the middle of the day. 

Capri (460 ft.), the capital of the island, with 2800 inhah., 
lies on the saddle which connects the E. heights of the island (Lo 
Capo) with the western (Mte. Solaro), and is commanded by two 
lower hills (S. Michele and Castiglione), the first crowned with an- 
cient ruins, the second with a dilapidated castle (see below). Nearly 
in the centre of the town is the small Piazza, with the Municipio, 
the post and telegraph office , and the chemist's. To the S. of it 
(5 min.) is the Certosa , founded in 1371, now a barrack. — The 
present town was founded in the 15th cent., when the inhabitans 
were compelled to desert the older Capri , situated below on the 
Marina, in consequence of the repeated inroads of pirates. The 
church of S. Costanzo (see above), one of the earliest in S. Italy, 
with antique columns, belonged to the old town. Other ruins of 
the latter are seen near the church and on the shore , below the 
Hotel du Louvre. The mouth of the old Cloaca, now through 
upheaval of the soil higher than the drain itself, is also visible in 
the sea-wall. 

To reach the Castiglione (boy as guide and to obtain the consent of 
the owner), we ascend from the Piazza by the steps leading to the church 
(see below) and proceed in a straight direction to the Hotel Tiberio. Here 
we pass through the hotel and enter a vaulted passage to the right, lead- 
ing to the wall of the fortress. Beyond the church of S. Teresa we pass 
through another vaulted passage and then follow the path to (20 min.) a 
precipitous rocky slope below the castle. Splendid view of Capri and 
the Piccola Marina (still more extensive from the tower of the castle). 
The Orotla del Castiglione , at the foot of the hill , is reached by a fati- 
guing series of stone steps. — For the ascent of the S. Michele a per- 
messo must be obtained from its owner, Principe Caracciolo , who lives 
in the Villa Catarina, adjoining the Hotel Quisisana (easily obtained 
through the landlord). The entrance is beside the little church of S. Mi- 
chele (p. 169), on the way to the Tiberio. We here turn to the right and 
follow an ancient road , which formerly led to a Villa of Tiberius , on 
the top of the hill. Extensive substructures and vaults still exist below 
the vineyards. Magnificent view of the Marina Grande, the Solaro, the 
Gulf of Capri, and the Peninsula of Sorrento. At the foot of the S. Michele 
is another stalactite cavern ; the keeper demands 1-2 fr. for torches, but 
a bargain should be made. 

Leaving the Piazza by a vaulted passage beyond the flight of 
steps ascending to the church of S. Stefano , then turning to the 
right, passing the Hotel Pagano , turning to the left again just be- 
fore reaching the Hotel Quisisana (the path straight on leads to the 
Certosa), and skirting the substantial Roman masonry of Le Cama- 
relle (probably connected with the construction of a road through 
the valley), we are led by a path which ascends slightly the greater 
part of the way to the (20 min.) *Punta Tragara (Restaurant), the 
S. K. promontory. This point commands a picturesque view of Capri 
and the S. coast, with three precipitous cliffs called the Faraglioni. 
On the summit of II Monacone ('Great Monk'), the one next the 
land, are remains of a Roman tomb, and near the Punta are the re- 

Villa di Tiberio. CAPRI. 9. Route. 169 

mains of a Roman house exhumed in 1885. — A narrow path, pass- 
ing the Polyphemus rock, leads to the Arco Naturale (see below). 

The E. promontory, called Lo Capo, is supposed to have 
been the site of the Villa Jovis , to which Tiberius retired for 
nine months after the fall of Sejanus. This is a beautiful point 
of view ( 3 / 4 hr. from the town of Capri). The path cannot be 
mistaken. From the Piazza we pass to the left through the 
archway bearing the sign of the Hotel de France and follow first 
the Corso di Tiberio , the narrow main street of Capri , and then a 
paved track , which soon ascends a little. Farther on the track be- 
comes level, passing between a large ruined house and the pictur- 
esque little church of S. Michele (to the right the path to the 'Tele- 
grafo', see below), and at length skirts the slope to the right. On 
the right, a few minutes before reaching the last hill , we pass a 
clean tavern (good red Capri l'/4 fr. per bottle) called 'Salto di 
Tiberio', after the rock (745 ft. above the sea) from which, according 
to a purely mythical story, the tyrant precipitated his victims. A 
projecting platform with a railing affords a view of the sea below. 
A good idea of the height of these rocks may be gained by dropping 
a stone over the railing and noting the time it takes to fall into the 
sea. — To the right are the remains of an ancient Lighthouse 
(*View). The Tarantella dancers who usually present themselves 
here expect 1-2 fr. for their exhibition. 

After a slight ascent we reach the *Villa di Tiberio (pronounc- 
ed Timberio by the natives), part of the extensive ruins of which 
are now used as a cow-house. They consist of a number of vault- 
ed chambers and corridors , the uses of which cannot now be as- 
certained. On the highest point is the small chapel of S. Maria 
del Soccorso (1050 ft.), with the cell of a hermit, who offers 
wine and for a trifling donation allows the visitor to inscribe his 
'testimonium praesentiae'. This point commands a noble prospect 
of the island and the blue sea, of the barren Punta di Campanella 
opposite, and the two bays; even Passtum and the Ponza Islands 
(to the N.W.) are visible in clear weather. 

In returning we take the path which diverges to the right by the un- 
occupied house opposite S. Jlichele (see above; '/* hr. from the Salto di 
Tiberio) ; we then cross gardens and fields in the same direction. In '/ 4 hr. 
we reach the so-called Val di Micromania, sometimes called Matrimonii) by 
the islanders, a valley descending eastwards to the sea at the base of the 
Tuoro Orande or Telegra/o. To the left in this valley, 8 min. farther, and 
reached by a path which is rather rough towards the end, rises the Arco 
Naturale, a magnificent natural archway in the rock , where we obtain a 
striking view of the imposing and rugged cliffs. A visit to the Orotta di 
Mitromania, to which 130 steps descend, may he combined with this ex- 
cursion (we retrace our steps for 4 min., then descend to the left to the 
Steps, passing through some small gardens). This grotto contained a shrine 
of Mithras, the 'unconquered god of the sun', whose cult was introduced to 
Rome from the East, and in the time of the later emperors spread through 
all the provinces of the empire. Roman remains may be seen in the cave. 

The ruins on the Tuoro Grande are supposed to belong to the second 
villa of Tiberius. On the coast are numerous ruins under water. 

170 Route 9. CAPRI. Anacapri. 

To reach the Marina Piccola we follow the Anacapri road, passing 
tlie Hotel d'Angleterre. At the Villa Cotuogno, the last house to the right, 
we descend a few steps, pass through an archway, and follow the steep 
stony path leading to the picturesque little beach (bread , cheese , and 
wine in the fishermen's cottages). To the right are the rocks of the Solaro, 
opposite those of the Castiglione. Fine view of the sea, the breakers being 
very imposing in stormy weather. The night-fishing for polyps by torch- 
light is interesting. 

From Capri to Anacapri (2'/4M.). A road in long windings 
hewn in the rock, constructed in 1874, now supersedes the steep 
and fatiguing flight of 535 steps (to the foot of which 249 more 
ascended from the Marina) which used to form the chief approach 
to the higher parts of the island. This road commands beautiful 
views. Above it rise the ruins of the mediaeval Castello di Bar- 
barossa, named after the pirate who destroyed it in the 16th cen- 
tury. At the entrance to Anacapri is the Albergo di Barbarossa 
(see below). The road to the right leads into the village ; that to 
the left to the Monte Solaro. 

Anacapri (880 ft.; Albergo di Barbarossa , pension 5 fr., 
moderate and quiet , hut small and not over comfortable ; Hotel 
Bella Vista, on the road, to the right, the residence of Dr. Cuomo : 
Alb. del Paradiso, near the parish-church; furnished rooms in the 
Villa Massimino and others; rooms and wine at the wine-dealer 
Moll's) , the second little town in the island, with 2000 inhab. , is 
scattered over the lofty plain which slopes towards the W. On the 
left side of the street, before the church of S. Antonio is reached, 
is the small Cafe Barbarossa. The tower of the church commands 
a line view. The small church of 8. Michele, adjoining Moll's wine- 
room , has an interesting mosaic flooring of the 17th century. To 
the right is an old convent, with a handsome court; the chapel is 
now used by the Chiesa Libera. There are Roman ruins in this 
neighbourhood also, particularly at the village of Damecuta, on 
the N.W. side, where a villa of Tiberius once stood. — Adjoining 
Anacapri is the pleasant village of Caprile. 

The *Asohnt of Monte Solaro (1 hr.) is recommended to toler- 
able walkers, as the mountain commands two beautiful and entirely 
different views, viz. that from the hermitage, and the panorama 
from the summit. The route, recently much improved and now 
practicable for riders, is easily found. From the Hotel Bella Vista 
(see above) we follow the road to the open space in front of the 
Villa Monte Solaro, where carriages may wait and to which donkeys 
may bo sent in advance from Capri. We here take the stony 
path opposite the villa, leading for about 60 paces in the direction 
of the mountain, then turning to the left to the (2 min.) Villa 
Uiulia. Ascending to the right here, we soon reach the path along 
the crest, which we follow towards the S.E. Farther on we pass 
through a hollow and ascend by steps supported by masonry to 
('/•> hr.) a saddle with a shrine of the Madonna (left). From this 
point we may proceed to the right direct to (i/ 4 hr. ) the summit. Or 

Monte Solaro. CAPRI. 9. Route. 171 

we may go on in a straight direction for 5 min. and then turn to 
the left to (2 min.) the white wall of the *Hermitage (1625 ft; wine, 
for which Pater Anselmo, the hermit, expects a trifling fee), where 
a projecting platform commands a most picturesque view of the 
town of Capri and the whole of the beautiful island. After a fati- 
guing ascent of 15-20 min. more over de'bris we reach the summit 
of the *Monte Solaro (1920 ft.), which rises abruptly from the sea, 
on the S. side of the island, and is crowned by a ruined fort. The 
path to the right at the above-mentioned wayside shrine leads direct 
to the top. The view is superb, embracing Naples with the whole 
of its bay, as well as that of Salerno as far as the ruins of Paestum. 
Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta is visible, and towards the W. 
the group of the Ponza Islands. The spectator also obtains a survey 
of the chain of the Apennines, bounding the Campanian plain in 
a wide curve from Terracina, the Abruzzi, the Matese Mts. (p. 10), 
and a long vista of sea and land extending to the S. to the hills 
of Calabria. Capri itself and the peninsula of Sorrento lie in 
prominent relief at the spectator's feet. The charm of this view is 
at its highest by moonlight or at sunrise. 

Blub GROTTO. — A visit to the Blue Grotto from the Marina at 
Capri, where suitable light boats will be found, occupies l 3 /4-2 hrs. The 
best light is between 11 and 1 o'clock. The authorised fare for the trip 
(there and back) is 2 l /i fr. for one and O/2 fr. for each person additional, 
including the entrance fee to the grotto; fee to the boatman 1 fr. or more. 
The skiffs are not allowed to take more than three passengers. The stay 
in the grotto is limited to l (\ hr., and an extra charge of 30 c. is made for 
every l ]t hr. additional. If the wind blows strongly from the E. or N., 
access to the grotto is impossible. 

The Blue Grotto is situated on the N. side of the island, about 
l'/4 M. from the landing-place of Capri. The row along the base 
of the precipitous rocky shore is exceedingly beautiful. The sea 
is rich in red coral, and the surface of the water swarms with gaily- 
coloured sea-stars and jelly-fish. In ] / 4 hr. we reach the ruins of 
the Baths of Tiberius, where a fragment of an ancient wall and 
part of a column in the water are to be seen, and in t/ 2 hr. more 
we arrive at the entrance of the **Blue Grotto (Qrotta Azzurra), 
which is scarcely 3 ft. in height. Visitors must lie down in the 
boat on entering. In the interior the roof rises to a height of 41 ft.; 
the water is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the grotto 175 ft., great- 
est width 100 ft. The effect of the blue refraction of the light on 
every object is indescribable, and at first completely dazzles the 
eye. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery appearance. 
One of the boatmen usually offers to bathe in order to show this 
effect, and is sufficiently rewarded with 1 fr., although he generally 
makes the exorbitant demand of 2-3 fr. Near the middle of the 
grotto, to the right, is a kind of landing-place, leading to a passage 
with broken steps, but closed at the upper end, once probably an 

172 Route 9. CAPRI. Grotta Verde. 

approach from the land to the grotto, which was perhaps connected 
with the villa of Tiberius at Damecuta. The grotto, which was 
known to the ancients, fell into oblivion in the middle ages, but 
since 1826, when it was re-discovered, it has justly been a favourite 

Anacapri is reached by a tolerable path, beginning near the Blue 
Grotto, which before the construction of the new road formed one of 
the chief routes between that village and the Marina of Capri. 

The Blue Grotto is the most celebrated of the caverns with 
which the rocky shores of Capri abound, but some of the others 
are also well worth visiting. The *Giro , or Voyage round the 
Island, occupies 3-4 hrs. (boats, see p. 167). Steering from the 
Marina towards the E., we first reach the Orotta del Bove Marino, 
on a shady beach. We then round the promontory of Lo Capo, and 
visit the Orotta delle Stalattite, with its stalactite formations, some- 
times called Grotta Bianca , from its predominating colour. The 
most striking part of the trip is at the Faraglioni (p. 168), which 
rise majestically from the water. The central cliff is undermined 
by an imposing archway , through which the boat passes , but not 
visible from the land. Rounding the Punta Tragara (p. 168), we 
next pass the Piccola Marina (p. 167) and in 25 min. more reach the 
Grotta Verde, at the base of the Monte Solaro, a cavern of a beauti- 
ful emerald-green colour, and the most interesting after the Blue 
Grotto (best light about noon). The voyage hence round the W. 
side of the island, past the lighthouse on the S.W. promontory, to 
the Blue Grotto is less attractive , but this cavern may now be 
visited as an appropriate termination to the excursion (in which 
case a skiff for the grotto should be previously ordered to meet the 

10. The Gulf of Salerno. 

Comp. Map, p. 176. 

The Bay of Salekno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Naples ; 
towards the S. its shores are flat and monotonous; but the N. side, where 
the mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 
of feet from the sea , is full of beauty and grandeur. Here are situated 
the towns nf Salerno and Amalfl , conspicuous in the pages of mediaeval 
history, and still containing a few monuments of their former greatness. 
Farther S., in a barren, desolate situation, are the temples of Paestum, 
usually the extreme point of the Italian peninsula visited by northern 
travellers. All these recall the golden period of Greek history and art 
more forcibly than any other localities in Italy. 

This route may conveniently be combined with the preceding (p. 156) 
as follows: First Day: La Cava and Salerno. Second Day: Paestum. 
Third Day: Ainalfi. Fourth Day: By boat to Positano or Scaricatojo, 
and across the hills to Sorrento (or, better, by boat direct to Capri, and 
next day to Sorrento). Fifth Day : By the Barca Postale at noon to Capri. 
Sixth Day : Back to Naples by steamer. The passage across the moun- 
tains to Sorrento, as well as the excursion to Paestum, were formerly 
nut unattended with danger from brigands, but these routes are now con- 
sidered safe. 

Railway from Naples to Salerno, 34 JI., in 1 3 /4-2'/b hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 15, 

NOOERA. 10. Route. 173 

4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 c. (Vietri is the station for Amalfi) ; to Paestum via Bat- 
tipaglia, 53 M., in 41/2 hrs.; fares 10 fr. 65, 7 fr. 50, 4 fr. 85 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, 15 M., see R. 6. The train, after 
quitting the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the 
Sarno. Maize and tobacco are extensively cultivated here , and 
cotton is also grown. 17 M. Scafati, with manufactories. The festi- 
val of the Madonna del Bagno takes place here on Ascension Day 
(see p. 291. 

19'/ 2 M. Angri, with large factories and the chateau and park of 
Principe dAngri. Teias, the last king of the Goths, was defeated by 
Narses near Angri in 523, after having descended from Lettere on 
Monte Sant' Angelo to the plain. A new mountain-road is being 
made from Angri to Amalfi. — The district gradually becomes more 
mountainous, and the scenery is picturesque the whole way. 

21 M. Pagani, with 13,000 inhabitants. In the church of 
S. Michele, below the altar of a chapel to the left of the choir, 
are preserved (under glass) the relics of Alphonso de' Liguori, born 
at Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder of the 
order of the Redemptorists, who died at Pagani in 1787 and was 
canonised by Gregory XVI. in 1839. The place contains nothing 
else to detain us. From Pagani to Amalfi, see p. 180. 

22'/2 M. Nocera de' Pagani, a town of some importance with 
large new manufactories, near the ancient Nuceria Alfaterna, where 
Hugo de' Pagani , founder of the order of the Templars, and the 
painter Francesco Solimena were born, and where Paulus Jovius, 
the historian, was bishop. To the left of the line, above the exten- 
sive Capuchin monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in 
Parco, the scene of the death of Helena , widow of King Manfred, 
after the battle of Benevento (1266). At the close of the 14th cent, 
the castle was one of the principal strongholds of the house of 
Anjou. Fine view from the summit. Mater Domini, a pilgrimage- 
resort near Nocera, is the scene of an important festival on 15th 
August. — Nocera is connected with Codola (p. 186) by a branch 
railway (3 M., in about l / t hr.; fares 60, 40, 30 c). 

On the right, shortly before the train reaches the small village 
of (25 M.) $. Clemente, we observe the ancient baptismal church of 
*S. Maria Maggiore, similar to S. Stefano in Rome. The basin in 
the centre is surrounded by eight granite columns, enclosed by 
a circular passage with sixteen pairs of handsome columns of pavo- 
nazzetto with rich capitals, all antique. The walls are decorated 
with frescoes of the 14th century. 

Beyond S. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a cutting the train reaches — 

28 M. La Cava (*Albergo di Londra , well-managed and often 
crowded in summer, though rather inconveniently situated, R. 3, 
B. l'/2) D- 5 , pens. 6-8 fr. ; *H6t. Vittoria, prettily situated; 
Pension Suisse , 5 fr. per day ; Hot. Royal des Elrangers , depen- 

174 Route 10. LA CAVA. Gulf of 

dance of the Hot. Vittoria in Salerno, pens. 5 fr. ; good furnished 
lodgings), officially called Cava dei Tirreni, situated in a charming 
valley, a favourite summer and autumn resort of the Neapolitans, 
and a good centre for excursions to Amalfi, Paestum, Pompeii, etc. 
(carr. according to tariff). It is, however, very hot and dusty in 
summer. The town consists of a long street with arcades, leading 
from the station to the Piazza, where a church and a large fountain 
are situated. Pop. of the 'commune' 21,000. 

"Excursion to Cokpo di Cava, 11/4 hr. to the S.W., situated on a 
wooded height, very pleasant, especially on a summer afternoon (donkey 
l'Ai-2 fr., there and back 2-3 fr.; carr. with two horses, there and back, 
about 4 fr., bargaining necessary). Leaving the Piazza we ascend the road 
to the left by the church. After 5 min., when the road turns to the right 
round the public garden , we ascend by the shorter path to the left by a 
church, and farther on between walls, past the red-painted tobacco manu- 
factory, to S. Giuseppe, a church with a few houses. Here we again quit 
the road , which goes to the right , and follow the path to the left. It 
descends, crosses a ravine (beyond the bridge a small church to the left), 
and again gradually ascends to the right, commanding a view of the village 
tn the right. For a time the path is enclosed by walls, but a view is soon 
obtained of the valley of La Cava to the left, and, higher up, of the Bay of 
Salerno. In V2 hr. (from S. Giuseppe) we arrive at the church of Pietra 
Santa , so called from a rock in front of the high-altar , on which Pope 
Urban II. dismounted in 1095, when he consecrated the convent of La 
Cava; the church itself dates from the 17th century. Fine view of the 
mountain slopes of Cava, studded with numerous white houses, and the 
Bay of Salerno to the rght. In the narrow valley about twenty mills are 
propelled by the brook. The slender round towers on the hills about Cava 
are erected for the capture of wild pigeons , which fly over the valley in 
huge flocks in October and are caught in a singular fashion which has 
prevailed for centuries. As the flocks pass the towers, small white stones 
are thrown out, which the pigeons mistake for food ; as they stoop to follow 
the supposed grains, they are caught by nets. Beyond Pietra Santa we 
skirt the wood for 8 min. and reach the high-road, which soon afterwards 
crosses the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. Here the road divides, leading to the 
right to the village, and to the left (5 min.) to the monastery. 

The village of Corpo di Cava ("Albergo Scapolatiello, with garden, pens. 
5 fr.; Albergo Adinolfi, both rustic) stands on the rock against which the 
monastery is built, above a beautiful narrow valley with several mills. 
The air is pure and the situation beautiful, so that visitors often make a 
prolonged stay here. 

The famous Benedictine abbey of : La Trinita della Cava was founded 
in 1025, in the time of Guaimar III. of Salerno, by St. Alferius, a member 
of a noble Lombard family, and stands above the cavern which the saint 
had previously occupied. It is now national property and is maintained 
like Monte Cassiano, the abbot being keeper of the Archives. The con- 
vent now contains a lyceum and boarding-school, patronised by the upper 
classes. The present buildings, dating from the 18th cent., stand partly 
on the old foundations. Visitors are admitted in the forenoon and receive 
a guide, who first shows the rooms of the old convent, containing ancient 
mural paintings, the tomb of the anti-pope Gregory VIII. (1118-21), the 
skulls of numerous Lombard and Norman princes who were buried in the 
abbey, and the cave of S. Alferius. The Church (with two ancient sar- 
cophagi at the entrance) contains three large sarcophagi of coloured marble 
with the remains of the first three abbots (chapel to the right of the high- 
altar) and a reliquary with the pectoral cross of Urban II. (see above). The 
pulpit with its mosaics (12th cent.) belonged to the old church. The organ 
is one of the best in Italy. — The Archives of the monastery (shown in the 
forenoon only) are of great value, and contain a number of important 
document? on parchment in uninterrupted succession; the catalogue com- 

Salerno. SALERNO. 10. Route. 175 

prises 8 vols. Among the valuable MSS. are the Codex Legum Longo- 
bardorum of 1004 , a prayer-book with miniatures of the school of Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin Biblia Vulgata of the 7th cent., etc. The 
small Pinacoteca, or picture-gallery, contains two fine altar-pieces of the 
early Umbrian school (Resurrection and Adoration of the Magi), revealing 
the influence of Raphael. — We may return by the Bonea, a grotto with 
a small waterfall. 

A pleasant afternoon exctirsion may be made to the top of Monte 
S. Liberatore (1515 ft.), to the S.E. of La Cava, which commands a 
magnificent -View. A new road leads to a group of houses (Cafe) near 
the foot of the hill (carr. to this point and back 5 fr.; bargaining necessary), 
whence we ascend, passing a venerable evergreen oak, to the summit, the 
last part of the way in zigzag. 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affords a 
view of the Bay of Salerno ; in 10 min. it reaches — 

30^2 M. Vietri {hoc. Rosa , plain) , charmingly situated , with 
several villas. Pop. 9000. Above the town a promenade, com- 
manding beautiful views, has lately been constructed. 

Passengers may alight here and take a carriage (drive of V-j hr.) down 
to Salerno (2 fr. , single seat >/2 fr.). The road descends, commanding a 
view of the sea, and affords a pleasant walk. High above, along the rocks 
of Monte S. Liberatore to the left, runs the railway. Carriage to Amalfi 
(p. 181) less expensive here than at Salerno (a drive of 2-2 ! /2 hrs. ; with 
one horse 3-4, with two 5-6, with three 9-10 fr., and fee of 1 fr.; one-horse 
carr. to Amalfi and thence to Salerno 6 fr. and fee of 1 fr.); diligence front 
Vietri to Amalfi twice daily (forenoon and evening, returning early in the 
morning and at noon). 

The railway, supported by galleries, and passing through four 
tunnels, the last of which penetrates the castle-hill, descends ra- 
pidly hence to Salerno. 

34 M. Salerno. — The Railway Station lies at the E. end of the 
town, a considerable way from the principal hotels. 

Hotels. Hotel Vittoria, R. 3, B. 2, D. 5, A. 1, L. 1 fr. ; Hotel 
d'Inghilteeka, R., L., & A. 5'/-J, D. 5, B. 1 fr.; both on the Marina, or 
Corso Garibaldi. 

Trattorie. "Centrale, Corso Garibaldi 96, frequented by officers; 
"Roma, Corso Garibaldi 8, unpretending and moderate, good red wine. — 
Cafes. Several on the Marina (Corso Garibaldi). 

Sea-Baths near the Marina, similar to those at Naples (p. 25). 

Carriages. From the railway to the town with one horse 50 c, with 
two horses 1 fr. ; at night 70 c. or H/2 fr. ; one hour 1 or 2 fr., at night 
IV2 or 2 l /2 fr. — ■ For drives in the neighbourhood a previous agreement 
should always be made, gratuity included , although even in this case 
1-2 fr. above the fare is always expected. To Amalfi with one horse 6-8, 
with two horses 8-10 fr. — Single travellers may avail themselves of one 
of the swift but uncomfortable corricoli (two-wheeled, rustic vehicles ; the 
driver stands behind the passenger), but a stipulation should be made that 
no second passenger be taken up by the way ; to Amalfi (tutto compreso), 
according to circumstances 2 l /2-4 fr. 

Rowing or Sailing Boat (according to bargain) l-l 1 /^ fr. per hour. Boat 
to Psestum 20-25, to Amalfi 8-10 fr. , according to the number of rowers. 

English Vice-Consul, Signor Pio Consiglio. 

Popular Festival on the eve and day of St. Matthew, 20th-21st Sept., 
with fireworks and illumination, which are best seen from a boat (4-5 fr.). 

Salerno , the ancient Salernum , delightfully situated at the 
N. extremity of the bay, and bounded on the E. by fertile 
plains, is the seat of the local government and of an archbishop, 
and the chief residence of the numerous local aristocracy. Pop. 

176 Route 10. SALERNO. Gulf of 

20,000, of the commune 31,200. The old town, rising on the 
slope of the so-called Apennine, with narrow and irregular streets, 
recalls the 9th and 10th centuries, when the Lombards occupied 
it, the 11th cent, when it belonged to the Normans, and lastly 
the period when the houses of Hohenstaufen and Anjou were 
masters of the place , and when Salerno enjoyed the reputation 
of being the greatest medical school in Europe. 

The Marina, or quay, 1 i / 2 M. in length, called the *Corso Gari- 
baldi, affords a beautiful walk, especially on summer evenings The 
once excellent harbour is now choked with sand. At the W. end 
of the town is a large new Theatre, with some flower-beds adjacent. 
Nearer the E. end of the Marina are the post-office and the monu- 
ment of Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di Gari- 
baldi', a Genoese, who participated in the attempts to revolutionise 
Italy in 1857, landed in Calabria, and perished while attempting 
to escape. The large building between the two sentry-boxes, about 
100 paces farther, is the Prefettura, past which a narrow street to 
the left leads to the — 

*Cattedkale S. Matteo, erected in 1084 by Robert Guiscard. 
The restoration of 1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its 
simple grandeur, but it still merits a visit. The steps ascend to 
an atrium , surrounded by twenty - eight antique columns from 
Piestum. In the centre formerly stood a granite basin which is 
now in the Villa Nazionale at Naples (p. 86). Along the walls 
are ranged fourteen ancient Sarcophagi, which were used by the 
Normans and their successors as Christian burying -places. The 
bronze doors , executed at Constantinople, were given by Landolfo 
Butromile in 1099. 

The Nave contains two ambones or reading-desks, and an archiepiscopal 
throne, richly decorated with mosaic by Giovanni of Procida, the foe of 
Charles of Anjou. Above the door is a large mosaic of St. Matthew, of the 
Norman period. In the N. aisle is the "Tomb of Margaret of Anjou, wife 
of Charles of Durazzo and mother ofLadislaus and Johanna II., by Baboccio 
da Pipcrino, with the painting almost intact. Opposite is the tomb of 
Bishop Nic. Piseicelli (d. 1471). The Cappella del Sacramento, at the end 
of this aisle, contains a Pieta by Andrea da Salerno, the composition of 
which is open to criticism. On a large table in the Sacristy (in the 
N. transept) : "Scenes from the Old and New Testament, on numerous carv- 
ed ivory tablets, perhaps of early-Christian workmanship. The Choir con- 
tains a pavement and balustrade of Norman mosaic and two columns of 
verde antico. In the South Aisle, at the end, is the tomb of Hildebrand, 
afterwards Pope Gregory VII., who died here on 25th May, 1085, after he had 
been banished from Rome by Henry IV. The monument was restored in 1578 
by Archbishop Colonna ; the statue and the frescoes are modern, and the 
mosaic in the dome has been restored. To the left is the monument of Arch- 
bishop Caraft'a, adorned with a relief from Psestum : Rape of Proserpine. 
Farther on in the same aisle are tombs of a bishop and a knight, antique 
sarcophagi with Bacchanalian representations. Here, beside an ancient 
relief representing a ship discharging its cargo , steps descend to the 
richly decorated Crypt, which is said to contain the remains of the 
l-'vangelist St. Matthew, brought from the East in 930. In front of a 
side-altar is the stump of a column, on which three saints are said to 
have been beheaded. 

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Salerno. PAESTUM. 10. Route. 177 

In S. Lorenzo some frescoes recently discovered under the 
whitewash are also ascribed to Andrea (Sabbatini) of Salerno, 
the most eminent Renaissance painter in S. Italy. Authentic 
works by this master, whose style reflects the influence of Raphael, 
may be seen in the churches of S. Giorgio (Madonna with saints 
and donors, dated 1523 ; 2nd altar on the right) and S. Agostino 
(Madonna with two saints, 2nd altar to the left; the SS. Augustine 
and Paul at the sides of the high-altar are school-pieces) . Both 
these churches- are situated between the Prefettura and the 

On the hill (900 ft.) lie the ruins of the ancient Castle of the 
Lombard princes, which was taken by Robert Guiscard after a siege 
of eight months. The view repays the ascent. (A little beyond the 
cathedral we turn to the right ; farther up, the path becomes steep; 
at the top, 3 / 4 hr., is a cottage; fee of a few soldi.) 

A pleasant drive (2 hrs., carr. 4-5 fr.-, railway in progress) may be 
taken from Salerno through the "Irno Valley to S. Severino (p. 186), with 
which a visit to Monte Vergine (p. 187) may be combined. On the way 
we pass Fratte, the largest Swiss colony in Italy, with extensive manu- 
factories, and Baronisi, the scene of Fra Diavolo's capture. 

The train as it proceeds affords a charming view of the bay and 
Capri to the right, and of the mountains to the left. 39 M. Ponte- 
cagnano; 44 M. Montecorvino ; 45Y2 M. Battipaglia (Osteria of 
Concilio Antonio), junction of the railway to Paestum (carriages 
changed). — Continuation of the main line (to Brindisi), see R. 18. 

The Railway to P-estum at first traverses marshy plains , en- 
livened only by a few herds of buffaloes and other cattle. Agricul- 
ture, however, has been making some progress here of late years, 
and the malaria is diminishing in consequence. To the left we 
soon obtain a retrospect of the small town of Eboli (p. 218) , the 
next station of the main line, situated on the hillside. — 3'/2 M. 
S. Niccola Varco. The railway crosses the impetuous river Sele, 
the ancient Silarus. Before the railway was built, this used to be 
considered the most dangerous part of the road, especially in 1860- 
70 , when the neighbourhood was haunted by the daring brigand 
Manzi. — 8 1 / 2 M. Albanella ; 11 M. Capaccio. — Shortly before 
reaching (13 M.) Paestum (Ital. Pestd) , we catch sight of the cor- 
ner of the old town-wall and of the temples behind. — The railway 
goes on to (16 M.) Ogliastro, the village of which name lies at a 
considerable distance to the left on the hill , (I872 M.) Agropoli, 
and (42 M.) Pisciotta, the present terminus (comp. p. 233). 

Paestum. — Since the opening of the railway, an excursion to Pses- 
um may be accomplished from Naples in one day. If time is limited, 
the temples may be visited in the interval (about 2 hrs.) between the arri- 
val of the train from Naples (12. 45 p.m.) and the departure of the next 
train in the reverse direction ; or the traveller may wait for the evening 
train, starting from Psestum about 6 and arriving at Naples about 10 p.m. 
In this case, however, the long railway-journey in the dark is far from 
pleasant. Those who have it to spare should certainly devote more time 
to Psestum, passing either the previous or the following night at Salerno 

Baedekek. Italy III. 10th Edition. 12 

178 Route 10. PAESTUM. Town Walls. 

(in the latter case rooms should be ordered beforehand). Admission to the 
temples on week-days 1 fr., Sun. free (ticket-office near the temple of 
Neptune). Refreshments should be provided, as nothing but eggs, sausages, 
and wine can be procured in the poor osterie at Psestum. 

Paestum, according to Strabo, was founded by Greeks from Sybaris 
about the year B.C. 600, and its ancient name of Poseidonia (city of 
Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. In the 4th cent, the 
town was in possession of the Lucanians, who oppressed the inhabit- 
ants ; and at that period the citizens used to celebrate a festival an- 
nually in memory of their Greek origin and their former prosperity. 
After the defeat of Pyrrhus , Poseidonia fell into the hands of the 
Romans, who in B.C. 273 founded the colony of Paestum here. In 
the war against Hannibal the town remained faithful to Rome. At 
a later period it gradually fell to decay, and as early as the reign of 
Augustus was notorious for its malarious air. Christianity took root 
here at an early period. When the Saracens devastated Psestum in 
the 9th cent., the inhabitants fled with their bishop to the neigh- 
bouring heights, and there founded Capaccio Vecchio. In the 11th 
cent, the deserted town was despoiled by Robert Guiscard of its 
monuments and sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition 
for many centuries , till in modern times attention was again 
directed to the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate 
the simple majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour, if 
possible, before quitting Naples, to pay a visit to Paestum. 

The railway - station is situated immediately to theE. of the 
ancient town. In the neighbourhood are the remains of an aqueduct 
and fragments of ancient paving. We enter the town, which was 
surrounded by massive walls, through the Porta della Sirena, so 
called from the small relief of a siren on the outer keystone of the 
archway. On the inner keystone is a scarcely recognizable relief of 
a dolphin. The ancient *Town Walls, forming an irregular hexagon, 
about 3 M. in circumference, constructed of blocks of travertine, 
are preserved almost entire. 

Proceeding straight on from the Porta della Sirena we reach the 
high road in 8 min., which traverses the ancient town from N. to 
S. Here to the left are the temple of Neptune and the so-called 
Basilica, and to the right the temple of Ceres. 

The Temples at Psestum, built in the ancient Greek style, are, 
with the single exception of those at Athens, the finest existing 
monuments of the kind. They are three in number. The largest 
and most beautiful is that in the centre, the so-called ** Temple 
of Neptune, 63 yds. in length, and 28 yds. in width. At each end 
are six massive, fluted Doric columns, 28 ft. in height ; on each 
side twelve, in all thirty-six columns of 7^2 ft. in diameter, all 
well-preserved. In the interior of the Cella are two series of seven 
columns each (about 6 ft. in diameter), with a second row of 
smaller columns above, which supported the roof. On the S. side 
5, and on the N. side 3 columns are still standing. The stone is a 

Temple of Ctres. P.ESTUM. 10. Route. 179 

kind of travertine, to which age has imparted a mellow tone. It con- 
tains fossil reeds and aquatic plants. The whole was once covered 
with stucco, in order to conceal the imperfections of the stone. The 
temple was a hypsethron , i. e., the cella, where the image stood, 
was uncovered. The proportions of the symmetrically tapering col- 
umns, whether viewed from the vicinity or from a distance, are 
perfect. This temple, as its whole character betokens, is one of the 
most ancient specimens of Greek art. Photographs and models of it 
are frequently seen (comp. Introd., p. xxviii). A stone basis in 
front of the E. facade probably belonged to a large sacrificial altar. 

A little to the S. rises the second temple, the so-called *Basi- 
lica (a misnomer), of more recent origin, but also of great an- 
tiquity. It is 60 yds. in length, and 26Y2 yds. in width, and its 
fifty columns are each 6Y2 ft. in diameter , but its proportions and 
colouring are less imposing than those of the temple of Neptune. 
At each end are nine columns , and on each side sixteen, all of 
travertine stone. The shafts of the columns taper upwards in a 
curve ; the capitals are of a peculiar form not elsewhere met with. 
A series of columns in the centre, by a singular arrangement, di- 
vided the temple into two halves, so that it contained two 'cells'. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town , basements for altars or statues being still 
distinguishable here. 

Farther N. stands the small * Temple of Ceres, or of Vesta 
according to others, with a peristyle of thirty-four columns, six 
at each end, and eleven on each side. Length 35 yds., width 
15 yds. ; columns 5 ft. in diameter, tapering upwards in straight 
lines. The columns of the vestibule are distinguished from those 
of the principal part of the structure by the difference of the fluting. 
This temple is another fine example of the simple and majestic 
Greek style. 

^The temples are adorned with a luxuriant growth of ferns and 
acanthus, enlivened solely by the chirping grasshopper, the rustling 
lizard, and the gliding snake. 

Between the Temple of Ceres and that of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the road. 
A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. Concealed 
among the underwood near it are two metopse, adorned with high 
reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant compared with the 
ruins above mentioned. — Of the 'rose-gardens' of Paestum , so 
much extolled by Roman poets, no traces now exist. 

Without the N. gate, the so-called Porta Aurea, was a Street 
of Tombs. Several of those which have been opened contained 
Greek weapons ; and in one of them, examined in 1854, were found 
fine mural paintings, representing warriors taking leave of their 
friends. Most of the objects discovered in the course of the ex- 

180 Route 10. MAJORI. From Naples 

cavations, which are still continued, are preserved in the Museum 
at Naples (p. 64). 

A walk on the town -wall, say from the N. gate round the 
E. side to the S. gate, towards Salerno, will enable the traveller, 
better than a close inspection , to form an idea of the imposing 
grandeur of these venerable ruins. The finest general * View of 
the temples is obtained from the terrace of the first tower to the 
E. of the road, on the S. side of the town-wall. 


Comp. Map, p. 176. 

Between Naples and Amalfi service is maintained by the steamer of 
the Florio-Rubattino Company plying once a week from Naples to Messina 
(leaving the Immacolatella at Naples on Wed. at 5 p.m., reaching Amalfi 
at 9 p.m. ; leaving Amalfi on the return voyage on Tues. at 10 p.m., and 
reaching Naples on Wed. at 2.30 a.m.). A small local steamer plies twice 
or thrice weekly in summer (in good weather) between Amalfi, Sorrento, 
Capri, and Naples. — From Sorrento to Amalfi, see p. 184. From Castel- 
lammare to Amalfi by the Little S. Angelo, see p. 185. 

Fkom Pagani (p. 173) a new road ascends via, S. Egidio in Albano to 
the Torre di Chiunzo (2250 ft.), an ancient fortress erected by Eaimondo 
Orsini on the summit of the pass between the Monte di Chiunzo and the 
Calavricito chain, and then descends to the left through the Vol Tramonli 
via Campinola, S. Angelo, Vecite, and S. Maria delle Grazie to Majori 
(about 5-6 hrs. from Pagani). 

The ""HighEoad fkom Salekno to Amalfi, 127sM., is the finest route 
of all (by carriage in 2-3 hrs. ; see p. 175). This magnificent road, com- 
pleted in 1852, is still more attractive than that from Castellammare to 
Sorrento (p. 159). It is nearly the whole way hewn in the cliffs of the 
coast, and frequently supported by galleries and vast viaducts 100-500 ft. 
above the sea-level, and skirts the coast, passing through thriving villages, 
and affording a succession of charming landscapes. The slopes are gen- 
erally somewhat bare, but are in many places laid out in terraces, and plant- 
ed with vines, olives, lemons, and fruit-trees. The promontories of the 
coast are occupied by massive square watch-towers, erected under Charles V. 
as a protection against pirates, now partly converted into dwellings. Di- 
ligence to Vietri, see p. 175. — A prolongation of the road along the coast 
to Positano (p. 185), and thence across the hills to Meta 'is nearly finished 
(comp. p. 160). 

From Salerno the road ascends, and near Vietri (p. 175) crosses 
the valley by a stone bridge. To the left in the sea rise two 
conical rocks, I Due Fratelli. On the hill to the right is Ratio. 
The next place (i 1 /^ M.) is the picturesquely situated fishing-village 
of Cetara, extending along the bottom of a narrow ravine ; it is 
frequently mentioned in the history of the invasions of the Sara- 
cens, and was the 'first place where they settled. The road now 
asoends to the Capo Tumolo, whence a beautiful prospect of the 
coast on both sides is enjoyed, and descends thence by the Capo 
d'Orso, where the fleet of Charles V. was defeated by Filippino 
Doria, to (8 M.) the small town of — 

Majori {^Hotel Torre, exactly halfway between Majori and 
Minori; pens, from 9 fr.), at the mouth of the Val Tramonti (see 
above), with terraced lemon-plantations, at the base of the ruined 
monastery of Camaldoli dell' Avvocata ffounded in 1485\ Still 

to Amalfi. AMALFI. 10. Route. 181 

higher lies the ancient ruined castle of S. Nicola, of which the Pic- 
colomini were the last proprietors. 

About Y2 M. from Majori is the interesting grotto of Pandone, 
resembling the Blue Grotto. 

Minori, a clean little village, with lemon-gardens, most beau- 
tifully situated, once the arsenal of Amalfi, lies at the mouth of 
the sometimes turbulent Reginolo. 

From Minori to Ravello (p. 183) a steep path ascends in the direction 
of a conspicuous group of red buildings. After about 1 hr., it passes a 
chapel and, turning to the right, reaches 0/4 hr.) the cathedral. 

Atrani lies at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of which 
the houses rise picturesquely. The church of 8. Salvatore di 
Biretto, on the Marina, contains handsome bronze doors, of Byzan- 
tine workmanship of the 11th cent., monuments of the Doges of 
Amalfi, and others of the Saracenic period. Midnight mass is per- 
formed here on Christmas Eve, when the town and hills are illumin- 
ated. Above Atrani is the village of Pontone; farther on, to the 
left, lies Ravello (p. 183). 

Near Pontone is the house where Masaniello (i. e. Tommaso Aniello, 
son of Cecco d' Amalfi and Antonia Gargano) is said to have been born in 
1620. On 7th July, 1647, he headed a formidable insurrection at Naples 
against the Spaniards, but } after a short period of success, fell into a 
kind of insanity, and on i7th July was shot in the pulpit of a church 
by one of his former adherents. These events have been utilised by Scribe 
in his text for Auber's opera, 'La Muette de Portici'. The best account 
of Masaniello, who probably was really born at Naples (Vico Botto, by the 
Mercato), is given in A. von Reumonfs 'Carafa von Maddaloni' (Berlin, 1851). 

A lofty rocky eminence , bearing the extensive ruins of the 
castle of Pontone, separates Atrani from (2'/4 M.) Amalfi. 

Amalfi. — Hotels. "Albekgo dei Cappuccini, on the Marina, with a 
dependance in the old Capuchin monastery, R. 3, L. Si A. l'/2, B. l'/u, 
lunch 3'/2, D. 5, pens. 10 fr. A quieter house is the "Albergo della 
Ldna , formerly a monastery, with picturesque cloisters, charmingly situ- 
ated between Atrani and Amalfi, about '/4 M. from the Marina, R. 272-3, 
B. 1, lunch 3, D. 4, A. 1, L. 3/ 4 , pens. 8, for a prolonged stay 7-7 1 /* fr -> 
bargaining desirable. — "Alb. d'Italia, Piazza del Duomo, unpretending 
and rather cold in winter, but clean and highly spoken of, R., L., & A. 
l'/s fr-i B. 60 c, lunch, incl. wine, 2, D. 2>/2, pens. 6 fr., wine included. 

Boats l'/a-l'A fr. per hour; to Positano, with 4 rowers, 5 fr. ; to 
Capri in about 6 hrs. with 4-6 rowers 20-25 fr. (preferable in fine wea- 
ther to the land-route over the hills and via Sorrento, comp. p. 184); 
to Sorrento with 4-6 rowers 30-35 fr. ; to Salerno with 2 rowers 6-8 fr. 
— A market-boat also starts for Salerno every afternoon. 

Donkey per hour 1-1 1/4 fr. ; to Castellammare by the Little S. Angelo 5-6 fr. 

Guide, unnecessary since the construction of the new road; for a visit 
to the cathedral, mill-valley, and Capuchin monastery 172-2, whole day 5 fr. 

Amalfi, a small but lively town with 7000 inhab., whose chief 
occupations are the manufacture of paper, soap, and maccaroni, is 
situated at the entrance of a deep ravine, surrounded by imposing 
mountains and rocks of the most picturesque forms. In the early 
part of the middle ages , it was a prosperous seaport , rivalling 
Pisa and Genoa, and numbered 50,000 inhabitants. 

Amalfi is mentioned for the first time in the6thcent., wbenitenjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors ; it afterwards became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge 1 . The town was continually at 

182 Route. 10. AMALFI. Gulf of 

variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno, and even defied the 
Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131. 
United with the royal forces, Amalfi carried on a war with the Pisans ; 
and it was during this struggle that the celebrated MS. of the Pandects of 
Justinian, now one of the principal treasures of the Laurentian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. The place then became subject 
to the kings of the houses of Anjou and Arragon. In the 12th cent, the 
sea began gradually to undermine the lower part of the town, and a ter- 
rible inundation in 1343 proved still more disastrous. After that period 
Amalfi steadily declined. The town boasts of having given birth to 
Flavio Oioja, who is said to have invented the compass here in 1302. 
The Tavole Amalfilane were recognised for centuries as the maritime law 
of the Mediterranean. — The Cavaliere Camera possesses rich collections 
illustrating the history of Amalfi, and also an admirable cabinet of coins, 
which he very obligingly shows to interested visitors. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappuccini to the small Piazza, on the right side of which rises 
the *Cattedrale S. Andrea, approached from the Piazza by a 
broad flight of steps, and still, in spite of modern alterations, 
an interesting structure of the 11th cent., in the Lombard Nor- 
man style. The portal , built of alternate courses of black and 
white stone, and resting on seven antique columns from Paestum 
and several buttresses , having become insecure , was removed 
in 1865, but has been re-erected. The ancient columns are now in 
the cloisters. The campanile, also adorned with columns from Pses- 
tum, dates from 1276. 

The Bronze Doors, executed by Byzantine masters in the 11th cent., 
bear two inscriptions in silver letters, one of which runs thus : 'Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione animse suae Pantaleo Alius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de Mauro de Maurone Comite'. 

The "Interior consists of a nave and two aisles, with a series of 
chapels on each side. Behind the chapels on the N. side is a third aisle, 
really a small independent church, connected with the N. aisle by several 
entrances. In the first chapel to the left is an ancient vase of porphyry, 
formerly used as a font. Near this, to the left, in the first passage to the 
outer aisle , are two ancient sarcophagi with sculptures , unfortunately 
damaged, supposed to represent the Rape of Proserpine, and the Nuptials 
of Peleus and Thetis (according to others , the marriage of Theseus and 
Ariadne) ; a third bears the inscription : 'Hie intus homo verus certus op- 
tumus recumbo Publius Octavius Rufus decurio 1 . — The choir contains 
ancient columns decorated with mosaic from Paestum. — From the S. 
aisle a flight of steps descends to the Crypt (generally open ; when closed, 
verger 20 c), where the body of the apostle St. Andrew is said to have 
reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither from Constan- 
tinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di S. Andrea) of 
miraculous power is said to exude , attract numerous devotees. The 
colossal "Statue of the saint by Michael Angela Maccarino was presented by 
Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design by Domenico 
Fontana. — The Cloisters contain a relief of the Twelve Apostles of the 
14th cent., and a Madonna of more recent date. — Solemn processions on 
St. Andrew's Day (Nov. 30th). 

The church of S. Maria Dolorala, 300 yds. to the N. of the cathedral, 
contains four ancient columns from Paestum. 

From the new road beyond the town a flight of steps ascends in 
10 min. to the *Capuchin Monastery, which was founded in 1212 
by Cardinal Pietro Capuano for the Cistercians, but came into pos- 
session of the Capuchins in 1583, and is now fitted up as a dtfpen- 

Salerno. RAVELLO. 10. Route. 183 

dance of the Alb. dei Cappuccini. The building, which may also 
be reached from the piazza opposite the cathedral through the Sup- 
portico Ferrari, and then by steps, stands in the hollow of a rock 
which rises abruptly from the sea to a height of 230 ft. It contains 
fine cloisters, a charming verandah, and magnificent points of view. 
A large grotto to the left , formerly used as a Calvary , or series 
of devotional stations , commands a prospect towards the E. (fee 
25 c). 

A cool and pleasant "Walk may be taken in the narrow Valle 
de' Molini, or mill-valley, at the back of Amain, which contains 16 
paper-mills driven by the brook. (From the Piazza we follow the 
main street, which ends in 4 min.; we then go straight on through 
the Porta dell' Ospedale, a covered passage opposite the fountain.) 
On the right rise lofty cliffs, crowned by the ruins of the Castello 
Pontone. The solitary round tower dates from the time of Queen 
Johanna. Perhaps the most picturesque point is at the (1 hr.) Mo- 
lino Rovinato. — To Amain belong the villages of Pogerola, Pastina, 
Lone, Vettica Minore, and Tovere, all situated to the W. of the 
town in a district yielding wine, oil, and fruit in abundance. The 
coast is overgrown with the aloe and cactus opuntia. — A pleasant 
excursion may also be made via Pastina and Vettica Minore to the 
old fort of S. Lazzaro, with a splendid view of the entire coast. 

From Amalfi to Ravello, an ascent of I-IV2 nr - (donkey 2 fr.), 
a most attractive excursion, affording beautiful views, and interest- 
ing also to the student of art, particularly if as yet unacquainted 
with Moorish architecture. The new road begins at the Villa Proto, 
l /4 M. to the E. of Atrani, ascends to the left in long windings, 
and then enters the beautiful Valley of Atrani, the bottom of which 
forms a continuous orange-grove. It follows the valley until three 
mills are reached, and then again ascends to the right in windings 
(road to Seala to the left, at the third bend ; see p. 184) to Ravello. 
— Walkers pass through Atrani by flights of steps (boy to show the 
way 15-20 c.) and then ascend in a straight direction by footpaths 
(easily followed), which cut off the windings of the new road. 

Ravello {^Hotel-Pension Palumbo , fine view, Swiss landlady 
pens, about 8 fr.), a celebrated old town in a lofty situation, when 
in the zenith of its prosperity possessed thirteen churches, four mon- 
asteries, numerous palaces, and 36,000 inhabitants (now 2000 only). 

The * Cathedral, founded in the 11th cent., is almost entirely 
modernised. The bronze doors (opened by the verger), with numer- 
ous figures of saints, date from 1179. The magnificent *Ambo, in 
marble, embellished with mosaics, was presented in 1272; it rests 
on six columns supported by lions ; inscription, 'Nicolaus de Fogia 
maTmorarius hoc opus fecit'. Opposite to it is the pulpit, in a simpler 
style, with a representation of Jonah being swallowed by the whale. 
In the choir is the episcopal throne, adorned with mosaics. The 
Cappella di S. Pantaleone (left) contains the blood of the saint. 

184 Route 10. RAVELLO. 

In the Sacristy are a beautiful but sadly damaged Madonna, a St. 
Sebastian, and an Assumption, said to be by Andrea da Salerno. 

Turning to the left on leaving the cathedral , passing the foun- 
tain , and walking for 100 paces between garden-walls , we reach 
the entrance to the *Palazzo Rufalo (visitors ring at the second 
gateway on the right), now the property of a Mr. Reid. This edi- 
fice, built in the Saracenic style and dating from the 12th cent., 
was once occupied by Pope Adrian IV., King Charles II., and Robert 
the Wise. In the centre is a small, fantastic court with a colon- 
nade. One of the gateways has a Saracenic dome. A verandah in 
the garden (1115 ft. above the sea-level) commands a delightful 
*View (gardener i jifT.~). 

Returning to the piazza and ascending a lane to the left of the 
cathedral, we come in 5 min. to the church of S. Giovanni, a mod- 
ernised basilica borne by columns , and containing a fine old 
pulpit. The adjacent garden (1220 ft. above the sea), formerly 
the property of the d'Afflitto family, affords a fine *View of the 
valley of Minori , of the small town of that name at its mouth, 
and of the more distant Maiori and the Capo d'Orso beyond it 
(fee of a few soldi; refreshments to he had). — 8. Maria Imma- 
colata is a picturesque little church. 

Another point commanding a very extensive view is the Bel- 
vedere Cembrone. Passing in front of the cathedral, towards the S., 
we go straight through a gateway, pass (8 min.) the portal of the 
church of S. Chiara to the right , reach a door on the left (visitors 
knock), and traverse the garden to the belvedere. 

The excursion to Amalfi may be pleasantly extended by 1-2 hrs. 
by visiting Scala (p. 183 ; Cafe della Rosa), a village with a large 
episcopal church containing the tombs of the Coppola family; the 
church of SS. Annunziata, an old basilica with ten large ancient 
columns (to the right the ruined castle of Scaletta) ; and Pontone. 
From the last we descend (steep) to the mill-valley. This is an 
interesting , but fatiguing walk. A donkey should not be taken 
farther than the church of SS. Annunziata , as riding is scarcely 
practicable beyond it. 

Excursions by sea, when the weather is fine, are no less plea- 
sant from Amalfi than from Sorrento or Capri. An interesting 
grotto beneath Majori (p. 180), resembling the Blue Grotto of 
Capri, may be reached by boat in 1 hi. from Amalfi. There is 
another grotto, only 10 min. from the Marina. 

A new ""Road from Amalfi to Meta (and Sorrento) via Positano 
and across the hills is now nearly ready, and will afford an even finer 
drive than that from Salerno to Amalfi. The excursion to Positano or Lo 
Scaricatojo may also he performed by water (boats, see p. 181). 

The first part of the road along the picturesque coast (costiera occi- 
dental) , passing the Capo di Conca, the precipitous cliffs of Furore, the 
village of Praiano with its luxuriant vines and olives , the Capo Sottile, 
Vettica Maggiore, and the Pimlri S. Pielro, is very beautiful, tint not yet 
practicable for carriages. In about 2 hrs. we reach — 

NOLA. 10. Route. 185 

Positano (Don Biagio''s Inn, dependanee of the Italia at Amalfi, closed 
in summer), picturesquely situated on the mountain-slopes , with 3000 
inhab. , an important harbour under the Anjou dynasty. Many of the 
natives of this place (like those of Secondigliano and Montemurro) leave 
their homes and travel through the ex-kingdom of Naples as hawkers. 
They assemble at their native place annually to celebrate their principal 
church-festival (15th Aug. ; excursion-steamer from Naples), and finally 
return thither in later life to spend their declining years. With the ex- 
ception of a few boatmen, the population therefore consists chiefly of old 
men, women, and children. 

Beyond Positano the road skirts the rocky coast, affording a succes- 
sion of fine views of the Gulf of Salerno, with the Isles of the Sirens to 
the left. After about 372 M. the landing-place of Lo Scaricatojo lies 
below us, to the left (see below). The road now ascends in windings along 
the slopes of the Conti delle Fontanelle (p. 165) and reaches its highest 
point (1180 ft.) near the hamlet of Geremenna (see below). It then descends 
to Petralo by a wide bend towards the W., at the apex of which the 
footpath to Sorrento diverges to the left (see below), and in about 3 hrs. 
from Positano reaches Meta (p. 159). 

The route to Sorrento via Lo Scaricatojo is somewhat shorter than 
that just described, but on the whole is less recommended. The landing at 
Scaricatojo is not very easy , and travellers must generally be carried 
ashore; the boatmen therefore frequently make objections to landing here 
and try to induce their passengers to be put ashore elsewhere. From 
Scaricatojo to Sorrento 2 hrs. (guide desirable). We ascend by steps and 
a good path to the (20 min.) new road, the winding of which is avoided 
by a path joining it at its highest point, 5 min. farther on, near the hamlet 
of Geremenna. We follow the road for 1/2 M. and then descend by a paved 
track to 0/4 hr.) S. Liguori (GOO ft. ; Inn, rustic). Thence we proceed, at 
first by a paved track and then to the left between orange-gardens , to 
Majano and ('/a hr.) S. Agnello , where we reach the Sorrento road. 

From Amalfi to Castellammake a road is being constructed, which 
is now open from Agerola, on the plateau above Amalfi, and will afford 
a most interesting journey after its completion. The new road pierces 
the Monte Laltaro by a tunnel about i/ 2 M. in length, and descends via, 
Pimonte and Gragnano (p. 157). 

11. From Naples to Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to Avellino. From Naples to 
Nola in 1-11/2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 95 c, 1 fr.) ; to Avellino in 3V-4 
hrs. (fares 8 fr. 60, 5 fr. 40, 2 fr. 70 c). — Railway from Naples to Baiano 
via Nola, see p. 186. 

From Naples to Cancello, 13 M., see pp. 11, 10. 

2C/2 M. Nola, with 12,000 inhab., an ancient Campanian city, 
was almost the only one which successfully resisted the attacks of 
Hannibal after the battle of Cannse , B.C. 216; and the following 
year its inhabitants under the command of the brave M. Marcellus 
succeeded in repulsing the invader. The Emperor Augustus died 
here on 19th Aug. A.D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house 
and apartment where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In 
ancient times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now 
an insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an accomplished poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bor- 
deaux in 354, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells at this 
Campanian town, whence the word 'campana' is derived. On 
26th June a great festival is celebrated in his honour ; eight lofty 

186 Route 11. NOLA. From Naples 

and gaily adorned towers of light wood-work (so-called 'Lilies') and 
a ship bearing the image of the saint are drawn through the streets 
in procession. The free-thinker Oiordano Bruno, who on 17th Feb. 
1600, terminated his eventful career at the stake in Rome , was 
born at Nola, where a monument, renewed in 1888, has been erected 
to his memory. Giovanni Merliano, the sculptor of Naples, known 
as Giovanni da Nola, was also born here in 1488. 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. The 
magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully drawn 
red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the museums 
of Naples and of other places, were made here. Numerous coins 
of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been found. 

About V2 M. to the N.E. of the town is situated the Seminary, where 
several Latin inscriptions and the so-called Oippus Abellanus, a remarkable 
inscription in the Oscan language found near Abella, are preserved. Above 
the seminary (5 min.) is the Franciscan monastery of 8. Angelo, command- 
ing a view of the fertile and luxuriant plain ; to the left is Monte Somma, 
behind which Vesuvius is concealed ; to the right rise the mountains of 
Maddaloni. A little to the E. is a Capuchin monastery, above which the 
ruined castle of Cicala picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

Nola is connected with Naples by a Local Railway as well as by the 
main line (IC/2 M., in l-H/4 hr.; fares 2 fr. 45, ljfr. 55, 80 c. ; return-tickets 
at a reduction of 25 per cent , available till the first train of the follow- 
ing day or for three days on the eve of a festival). The train starts at 
Naples from the Nola-Baiano Station (PI. I, G, 3 ; p. 54). The line tra- 
verses Campania, offering numerous picturesque views. Stations : l 3 /4 M. 
Poggioreale; 6 31. Casalnuovo; 8 M. Pomigliano d'Arco; 10 M. Castello di 
Cisterna; lOVzH. Brustiano; 11 M. Mariglianella ; 12'/2M. Marigliano (car- 
riages to Somma, see p. 129); 13 M. 8. Vitaliano-Casaferro; 13'/2 M. Scis- 
ciano; 15'/2 M. Saviano; I6V2 31. Nola. — Beyond Nola the railway contin- 
ues to : 17 J /2 M. Cimitile, 18'/2 M. Camposano, 19 M. Cicciano, 20'/2 M. Bocca- 
rainola, 23 M. Avella-Sperone, and 23'/2 M. Baiano. From Baiano carriages 
ply to Avellino and back in connection with the 1st, 2nd, and 5th trains 
from and to Naples (through-fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 10 c; return 1 fr. 
20, 5 fr. 25, 3 fr. 65 c). — Avella is the classic Abella, near which are exten- 
sive plantations of hazel-nut, the 'nuces Avellanae' of antiquity. The 
aqueduct of the new Neapolitan water-works (p. 35) passes in the vicinity. 

2b l / 2 M. Palma, picturesquely situated on the slopes of the 
Apennines opposite Ottaiano , with 7500 inhab. and an ancient 
chateau, is commanded by an extensive ruined castle on a height. 

30^2 M. Sarno, a town with 16,500 inhab., lies on the Sarno, 
which flows hence towards Scafati and Pompeii. Above it towers a 
ruined stronghold of Count Francesco Coppola, who took an im- 
portant part in the conspiracy against Ferdinand of Arragon (1485). 

The view now becomes more limited. Tunnel. 35 M. Codola ; 
37 M. Castel San Giorgio. 40'/ 2 M. San Severino (Inn, poor), on the 
road from Avellino to Salerno. The principal church contains the 
tombs of Tommaso da San Severino, high-constable of the kingdom 
of Naples in 1353, and of several princes of Salerno. A road leads 
from S. Severino to Salerno (about 10 M.) ; railway in progress, 
comp. p. 177. — The line now turns to the N. 43'/ 2 M. Montoro; 
52>/2 M. Solofra; 54l/ 2 M. Serino. 

59 M. Avellino (Albergo Centrale , well spoken of, obliging 

to Avellino. AVELLINO. 11. Route. 187 

landlord, who provides guides for Mte. Vergine ; Albergo delle 
Puglie), ■with 23,000 inhab., the capital of a province, situated on 
the old post-road from Naples to Foggia. The name is derived from 
the ancient Abellinum, the ruins of which are 2!/ 2 M. distant, near 
the village of Atripalda. Another road leads hence to (14 M.) 
Montesarchio and Benevento (p. 215). 

From Avellino we may visit Monte Vergine, a famous resort of pil- 
grims (donkey 4-5 fr. and fee; provisions should be brought from Avel- 
lino). There are two routes to the convent. 1. We follow the Road to 
the W. end of the town and then ascend the bye-road to the right. At 
(7z M.) the cross-roads we proceed to the left to (1 M.) Lvreto, where 
the abbot and older monks live in a large octagonal building designed by 
Vanvitelli. The convent archives and 'spezieria' are also here. — 2. Foot- 
path. We proceed from the Municipio through the Via Mancini to the 
prison and on between the gymnasium (left) and the barracks (right) to 
a villa , the gateway of which we enter. The path to the left, by the 
brook, ascends through gardens and fields to Loreto. Thence to Mer- 
cogliano , where donkeys may be procured (l'/2 fr.), 1 /t hr. more. A track 
leading to the right here at the Piazza Michele Santangelo, and soon cross- 
ing the road, leads to the stony bridle-path (partly provided with steps) 
and through wood to (2 hrs.) the convent of Honte Vergine, founded in 
1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele , some remains of which are 
shown in the convent. The Church contains a miraculous picture of the 
Virgin , and the tombs of Catherine of Valois , who caused the picture 
to be brought hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husband 
of Johanna I. Their effigies repose on a Roman sarcophagus. On the 
left side of the high-altar is the chapel erected for himself by King Man- 
fred, which, when that monarch fell at Benevento, was given by Charles 
of Anjou to one of his French attendants. At Whitsuntide (comp. p. 29) 
and on Sept. 7th about 70-80,000 pilgrims visit the convent, many of the 
penitents ascending barefoot and crawling on their hands and knees from 
the church-door to the altar. 

From the convent we may ascend to the (1/2 hr.) top of the mountain 
(4290 ft.), commanding a magnificent survey of the bays and the exten- 
sive mountainous district. 

A railway from Avellino to Benevento (p. 215) is under construction. 
It is open as far as Prata-Pratola (5'/2 M. in 18 min. ; fares 1 fr. 5 c, 
75 c, 50 c). 


These parts of Italy have, until recently, been beyond the reach of the 
ordinary traveller. The W. coast is, moreover, by far the richer and more 
picturesque, as well as more replete with historical interest. The E. 
districts can boast of no such names as those of Florence , Rome, and 
Naples, but they are not devoid of attraction, and have been endowed by 
nature with a considerable share of the gifts she has so bounteously 
lavished on other parts of Italy. 

The Apennines , rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth 
a series of parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of par- 
allel valleys, whose communication with the external world is maintained 
by means of the coast to which they descend. To the S. of Ancona, from 
about the 43rd to the 42nd degree of N. latitude, stretch the Central 
Apennines, embracing the three provinces of the Abruzzi (Chieti, Teramo, 
and Aquila) , the ancient Samniwm. They culminate in the Montagna 
delta Sibilla (8120 ft.), the Gran Sasso tf Italia (9585 ft.), and the Maiella 
(9170 ft.) , groups which are connected by continuous ranges , and which 
are clad with snow down to the month of July. These mountains abound 
in fine scenery (ER. 12-14) , but until recently they have been well-nigh 
inaccessible owing to the defectiveness of the means of communication 
and the badness of the inns. The mountains to the S. of 42° N. lat., 
receding gradually from the sea, are called the Neapolitan Apennines. The 
last spur which projects into the sea is the Mte. Gargano (34b5 ft.), which, 
however, is separated from the chief range by a considerable plain. Beyond 
this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and arable 
land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st degree of 
N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards the S., 
forms the peninsula of Calabria ; the lower chain, to the E., that of Apulia. 

The Coast (Provinces of Ancona , the Abruzzi, Capitanata, Terra di 
Bari, and Terra d'Otranto) is flat and monotonous, and destitute of good 
harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but scanty protection 
to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona the prominent 
M. Conero (1880 ft.) alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The villages 
and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked degree, 
are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great distance. 
Farther to the S., however, in the ancient Apulia and Calabria (p. 206), 
the coast scenery improves, and there are three important harbours, those 
of Bari, Brindisi, and Otranto. Since the construction of the railway the 
most direct route between Western and Central Europe and the East has 
passed this way, and this district is gradually attracting more attention 
from travellers. As yet, however, it is only the larger towns which boast 
of tolerable inns. 

In the S. and S.W. districts, the former province of Basilicata, the 
ancient Lucania (less interesting than most other parts of Italy), and in 
Calabria, civilisation has made extremely slow progress, and the inns in 
particular are grievously behind the requirements of the age. In these 
respects Calabria, a district replete with striking scenery, is specially 
unfortunate. The shores of the Gulf of Taranto , whose waters bound 
both of these provinces, were once studded with numerous flourishing 
Greek colonies, and the whole district bore the name of Magna Graecia; 
but the traces of that prosperous epoch are now scanty. The period of 

RIETI. 1-2. Route, 189 

decline began with the Roman supremacy. The art and culture of the 
middle ages never penetrated to these remote regions. The fields once 
extolled by Sophocles for their richness and fertility are now sought for 
in vain, and the malaria exercises its dismal sway throughout the whole 
of this neglected district. The soil belongs to the nobility, who let 
it to a miserably poor and ignorant class of farmers. The custom of 
carrying weapons is universally prevalent here (comp., however, p. xiv), and 
brigandage was carried on until the year 1870. The villages are generally 
wretched and filthy beyond description. No one should therefore attempt to 
explore the remoter parts of this country unless provided with letters of 
introduction to some of the principal inhabitants. It is, however, expected 
that the condition of the country will speedily improve when the railway- 
system is more developed, and the dormant capabilities of the soil are thus 
called into action. 

12. From Terni to Castellammare Adriatico through 
the Abruzzi. 

142Vs M. Railway in lO'/v-HVi hrs. (fares 26 fr., 18fr.20, 11 fr.70c). 

Terni, and thence via (5*/2 M.) Stroncone and (10 M.) Marmore, 
the station for the fine waterfall of the Velino, to (11 M.) Piediluco, 
see Baedeker's Central Italy. 

Beyond Piediluco the line follows the course of the Velino, 
crossing the winding stream several times. I6Y2M. Oreccia; 20y 2 M. 

I&li M. Rieti (*Croee Bianca ; Campana), on the right bank 
of the Velino (16,800 inhab.), the ancient Reate, was once the 
capital of the Samnites , but no traces of the ancient city remain 
save a few inscriptions preserved in the town-hall. The Cathedral, 
dating from 1456, contains a S. Barbara by Bernini, and the mon- 
ument of Isabella Alfani by Thorvaldsen ; fine view in front of the 

Excursions may be made from Rieti to the picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, though not unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leonessa, 15*/2 M. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year 1252 ; thence to 
(12'/2 M.) Cascia, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district ; 7'/2 M. farther to Norcia, the ancient Nursia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Vespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, l l J2 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
Scholastica were also natives of Nursia. 

From Rieti the line proceeds through a picturesque district in 
the valley of the Velino. The mountains are clothed with forest, 
and their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. 31 M. Citta- 
ducale, founded in 1308 by Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly 
the frontier - town of the Neapolitan dominions. 36^2 M. Castel 
S. Angela. About 1 M. to the W. are the Sulphur Baths of Pa- 
terno, the ancient Aquae Cutiliae, which were regularly frequented 
by Vespasian, and where he died in A.D. 79. The Pozzo di La- 
tignano , the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded by Varro as the 
central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. 

4OY2M. Antrodoco-Borgo-Velino. Antrodoco, the Lat. Intero- 

190 Route 12. AQUILA. From Terni 

crea, beautifully situated on the Velino, at a little distance from 
the station, is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Calvo ; 
on the hill is the ruined castle of the Vitelli. — 45'/2 M - Rocca 
di Fondi; 49 l / 2 M. Rocca di Como ; 53 M. Sella di Corno. — We 
next reach the watershed between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adri- 
atic. The railway then descends into the valley of the Aterno. — 
55J/2 M. Vigliano; 59 Y2 M. Sassa-Tornimparte, on the site of the 
ancient Foruli. 

62 M. Aquila. — The Station (Rail. Restaurant, unpretending) lies 
f/4 M. from the town; omnibus up to the town 50 c, down to the sta- 
tion 40 c. 

Hotels. * Sole, Piazza del Palazzo ; Italia, Corso Vitt. Enianuele ; 
Aquila Neka, near the Piazza del Duomo, R. at each 1-2 fr. Hotel-omni- 
buses meet the trains. 

Trattorie. Esposizione , Corso Vitt. Emanuele ; Rosetta , Via del Guas- 
tatore; Grand Gaffi Bistorante, Piazza dei Quattro Cantoni. 

Carriages at Berardfs, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, and Morone's, adjoining 
the Alb. del Sole; carr. with two horses to Paganica (p. 191) 6 fr., to 
Assergi 10 fr. 

Aquila, called degli Abruzzi, founded by Emp. Frederick II. 
about 1240 as a check on papal encroachments, destroyed by Man- 
fred in 1259, and rebuilt by Charles I., maintained itself as an 
almost entirely independent republic, supported by the free pea- 
santry of the district, until it was finally subdued by the Spaniards 
in 1521. In point of constitutional history, industry, and art it oc- 
cupied a unique position. It is now the prosperous capital of the 
province of the same name, with 18,500 inhab., spacious streets, 
handsome palaces , and churches with interesting facades. It en- 
joys a pure and healthy atmosphere owing to its lofty situation 
(2360 ft.) , and is consequently a favourite summer-resort of the 
Italians. To the N.E. is the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 192), which 
rises abruptly on this side. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo, on the left side of which is the 
post-office, the Strada del Princ. Umberto to the right leads to the 
Corso, which we follow in a straight direction to the church of S. 
Bernardino di Siena. The *Facade was executed with great artistic 
taste in 1525-42 by Cola dell' Amatrice. In the interior, on the 
right, is the *Monument of the saint, decorated with arabesques 
and sculpture, executed by Silvestro da Arsicola in 1505. A fine 
marble tomb near the high-altar is by the same artist. The inter- 
esting wooden statue of Pompeo dell' Aquila dates from the 16th 
century. The 1st Chapel on the right contains a Coronation of the 
Virgin and a Resurrection by delta Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino we descend to the piazza, cross the latter 
towards the left, pass through the Porta di Collemaggio, and reach 
the monastery of S. Maria di Collemaggio (in the popular dialect 
Collemezzo). The Romanesque *Facade , inlaid with coloured 
marble , consists of three portals and three corresponding rose- 
windows. Contiguous to the church is an ancient and remarkably 

to Castellammare. AQUILA. 12. Route. 191 

small clock-tower. Interior gaudily modernised. To the left is the 
Chapel of Celestine V. (keys at the Municipio), containing his tomb 
(d. 1296), a work in the Renaissance style. His life and acts 
and those of other saints are represented in a series of fantastic 
pictures by the Celestinian monk Enter, a pupil of Rubens. — We 
now return through the new street, 'which leads from the church 
straight to the S.W. end of the Corso. 

The handsome *Town Mall in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
contains, in the passage and on the walls of the staircase , a 
valuable collection of Roman inscriptions ; also portraits of natives 
of the place who acted a prominent part in the history of Italy 
in the 16th and 17th centuries. Several pictures of the old Aquilan 
school, most of them restored, will interest the connoisseur. 

The * Palazzo Torres, below the Piazza Grande, contains a 
picture-gallery with an admirable *Portrait of Cardinal Torres by 
Domeniehino ; Stoning of St. Stephen by the same master, on 
copper; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. The Palazzo Dragonetti 
also contains pictures, the best by Pompeo d' Aquila, of the 16th cent. ; 
and there is a collection of paintings by the old masters and other 
works of art in the Palazzo Persichetti, Piazza S. Maria di Roio. 

Ascending the Corso, a gate on the right leads us to the Citadel, 
a massive square edifice with low round towers, constructed by the 
Spaniards in 1543 under Charles V., surrounded by a moat. This 
point affords the best view of the Gran Sasso, the town, and the 
mountainous environs. (Application for admission must be made 
to an officer.) 

Outside the Porta del Castello is the interesting burial church of 
the Madonna del Soccorso, containing some fine works by Silvestro. 

Near Aquila, Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone, the dreaded rival 
of Sforza, was defeated by the united armies of Queen Johanna II. 
of Naples, Pope Martin V., and the Duke of Milan, commanded by 
Jacopo Caldora, on 2nd June, 1424. 

About 3 M. to the N.W., (excursion of 3-4 hrs., two-horse carr. 5 fr.), 
on the road to Teramo (p. 201), is the village of S. Vittorino on the Aterno 
occupying the site of the celebrated ancient Sabine town of Amilernum, 
where the historian Sallust was born. On an eminence which was once 
crowned by the ancient Arx, or citadel, stands an old tower with inscrip- 
tions and sculptures built into the walls. At the foot of the hill [are 
remains of a theatre, an amphitheatre, and other buildings of the imperial 
epoch, where antiquities are frequently found. 

The Ascent op the Gran Sasso d'Italia, 1-2 days there and back, 
is most conveniently undertaken from Aquila. (Letters of introduction from 
members of the Italian Alpine Club desirable.) Provisions should be 
taken from Assergi. We drive via Paganica (Osteria de Vecchis , with 
rooms) and Camarda (Pompilia Moscardi's Inn), where the sindaco keeps 
the key of the Eifugio on the Campo Pericoli, in 2 hrs. to Assergi (2935 ft. ; 
provisions obtainable from Francesco Sacca). Mule (here known as ven- 
ture) from this point to the station of Paganica (p. 192) 2-3 fr. ; to the 
Bifugio and back 5 fr. per day; two-wheeled car (sciarraba) to Paganica 
2-3 fr., for a party I-IV2 fr. each. Giovanni Acitelli , his brother, and 
Franco Nicola are good guides. The two former, here only from Slay to 
Nov., possess a key to the Rifugio. Tariff: to the Rifugio in summer, one 

192 lhutc V-'. SOLMONA. From Terni 

day 5, Imj days 7 fr., in winter 7 and 10 fr.; to the summit, spending a 
night in the Rifugio, 10 and 16 fr. ; with descent to Pietracamela 15 and 
20 fr.: each addit. day 4 and 6 fr. — From Assergi we walk or ride (mule 
4-5 fr.) in about 4'/2 hrs. by a miserable path to the Passo dellu Portella 
(7400 ft.), whence we survey the X. slopes of the Apennines as far as Ascoli. 
Thence we descend in 1 hr. to the Camjio Pericoli, inhabited by shep- 
herds, where a well-equipped refuge-hut (7220 ft.) was built by the Ital- 
ian Alpine Club in 1886. An ascent of about 3 hrs. more, on font, brings 
us to the summit. The Gran Sasso d'ltalia, or Monto Corno (9585 ft.), is 
the highest peak of the Apennines. In formation it resembles the limestone 
Alps of the Tyrol. The view is strikingly grand, embracing the Tyrr- 
henian Sea, the Adriatic, the rocky Dalmatian coast, and the whole of 
Central Italy. The other chief summits of the Gran Sasso group are the 
Pi-.zo cTIntermesole (8680 ft.), the Corno Piccolo (S650 ft.) , the Pizzo Cefa- 
lone (8305 ft.), and the Monte delta Portella (7835 ft.). 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso from Teramo (p. 201) is not so conven- 
ient. We drive by the Aquila road via Montorio to (frj-z hrs.) a point 
shortly before FanoAdriano (p. 201), where we turn to the left, and ascend 
to (1 hr.) Pietracamela. The sindaco here also has a key of the Rifugio on 
the Campo Pericoli (see above; guides, Domenico Rossi and Pietro Ve- 
nanzo). We ascend to the latter in 5-6 hrs. 

For full instruction and details see the 'Guida al Gran Sasso d'ltalia", 
by Dr. Knrico Abbate (5 fr.; Rome, 1888). 

From Aiji'Ila to Avezzano, ca. 31 M., diligence daily in 7 hrs. (8 hrs. 
in the reverse direction). The road descends into the Aterno Valley, 
crosses the railway, and ascends slowly through vineyards. Beyond Om- 
it passes through an oak-plantation. Fine retrospect of Aquila and the 
Gran Sasso; farther on, view to the 8.E. of the Maiella. Numerous villages 
and hamlets lie on the surrounding slopes. 15 1 /' M- (i'/a hrs'. drive from 
Aquila) Rocca di Mezzo, a wretched village on the plateau, where horses 
are changed. About 1 hr. beyond Rocca, near Ovindoli with its pictur- 
esque ruin, we reach the top of the pass and begin to descend rapidly 
on the other side. "View of the plain of the Lago di Fucine (p. 196). The 
castle of Celano and then the village itself soon come into sight and are 
reached in 3 /t hr. more. Thence to Avezzano, see p. 197. 

As the train proceeds we obtain a pretty retrospective view of 
Aquila. The scenery of the valley is very striking; to trie N. the 
Gran Sasso d'ltalia. 69 >I. Paganica, 1 l -2 M. from the village of 
that name (see p. 191); 74M. 8. Demetrio de'Vestini; 77'/ 2 M. Fay- 
no no- Campana; 8OV2 M. Fontecchio, the village of which is perched 
high up on the rocks. The valley of the Aterno, which the railway de- 
scends, contracts. — 84 M. Beffi, with a large castle to the left. — 
The train now descends a steep gradient. — 871/., M. Acciano ; 
90 M. Molina. Then three long tunnels; part of the line lies high 
above the river. — 95 1 / / 2 M. Raiano. Here the railway leaves the 
Aterno, which flows to the N.E. to Popoli, and begins to ascend 
the luxuriant valley of Solmona, watered by the Ohio, a tributary 
of the Aterno. To the K. is the Maiella chain, and to the W. the 
hills enclosing the Lago di Fucino. 

101 M. Solmona. — The station is about 1/2 M. from the town (omni- 
bus 30c). — Hotels. At.bekoo Toscano; Alb. Jloszii, at the gate, near 
the railwav-station, R. 1 fr., both well spoken of. — Cnffe in the main street. 

Solmona (1570 ft.), with 17,700 inhab., the ancient Sulmo of 
the Pailigni, the birthplace of Ovid, who was much attached to this 
his 'cool home, abounding in water', as he calls it, is picturesquely 
situated, being commanded on two sides by mountains, and con- 

to Castellammare. ISERNIA. VJ. Houte. ivo 

tains several mediaeval buildings of architectural interest. The 
palace of Baron Tabassi , in a side-street, and several others de- 
serve examination. The church of S. Maria Annunziata , and the 
Gothic facades of the churches oiS. Francesco d' Assist and N. Maria 
delta Tomba, though all more or less injured by the earthquake of 
1T06, are also interesting. The church of S. Francesco was built 
on the site of an older church, a Romanesque portal of which, 
opposite the above-mentioned hotel, is still preserved, and serves 
as an entrance to the meat-market. In front of it are an aqueduct 
of 1256 and a tasteful fountain in the Renaissance style (1474). At 
the door of the grammar-school is a statue of Ovid, dating from 
the 15th cent.; the name of the poet still lingers in the songs of 
the district as that of a famous sorcerer. The strong fermented 
wine of Solmona has some reputation. 

About 3 31. to the X. of Solmona, and l'/a 31. from the station, lie* the 
Budia di 8. Hpiritu, the church of which contains some paintings by Ra- 
phael 3Iengs. Adjacent are extensive remains of the foundations of a Ro- 
man building known as the 'Villa di Dvidio". On the rock above the 
ruins, picturesquely situated, is the Ilermitmjf of i'elrstine V. (conip. p. lill I. 
About lti 31. to the S. of Solmona lies 8cunno (3440 ft.), reached on a 
mule in about b hrs. (walking not recommended). The picturesque route 
passes several villages, and then ascends the wild and rocky ravine of the 
Sayitltirin. The latter part of it skirts the lake of Scanno. Scanno (no 
inn, private introductions desirable) is perhaps the finest point in the 
Abruzzi. The women of Scauno wear a peculiar costume. 

The Monte Amaro (M170 ft.), the highest summit of the Mai<dla Mis . 
may be ascended from Solmona. Riding is practicable to the Campo di 
Giove, 3-4 hrs.; thence to the top 5 hrs. 

Fkom Solmona to (Jaiankllo (tuples), ca. 75 31. Diligence to Rocca 
Ravindola daily in 9 hrs., starting in the evening. At Rocca Kavindola 
we reach the railway and at Caianello catch the express to Xaples. Carr. 
and pair from Solmona to (2o 31.) Cestui di Sangro, 12 fr. — The road 
traverses the plain to (6 31.) Petturano and then ascends circuitously to 
Rocca Pia or Rosea Valloscurtt , a village in a rocky ravine. Fine retro- 
spects of the valley of Solmona. Beyond Rocca we ascend to the Piun> di 
Cinqiiemiglia (42Gi) ft.), a mountain-girt upland plain, the extent of which 
is indicated by its name. In winter this plain is olten impassable for 
months on account of the snow, and even in summer the temperature is 
low. After passing the plain we see Ricisujiduli to the left. Kuc>-ai'asa is 
passed on the right. The road then winds down to the valley of the Saiujrv, 
the ancient Stigrus. The village to the left is Rocca I'uiqueiiiiylia, We 
cross the river and reach — 

25 M. Castel di Sangro {JIOIcl du Commerce, in the Piazza), picturesquely 
situated at the foot of lofty mountains, on the right bank of the wide and 
rapid Sangro. Its only objects of interest are a ruined castle and the old 
church of S. Nicola, by the bridge. 

The road to Isernia (22 31.) ascends the hills separating the valley ol' 
the Sangro from that of the Ytnidra, an affluent of the Volturno. Fine view 
at the top; below, to the left, the town of Forli. We descend thiougli 
the villages of Rionera and Vandria, cross the valley, and ascend another 
range of hills, on the crest of which we obtain a view of Isernia and the 
wide valley of the Volturno. 

47 31 Isernia (Loc. di Fettvrossi), the ancient Samnite town of -.iUemki. 
formerly of importance on account of its strong situation on an isolated hill, 
now consists mainly of one long, narrow, and dirty main street. A few- 
Roman remains are visible at the church of S. Pietro and elsewhere, and 
also some relics of the ancient polygonal walls. 

BAtl>£b.KK. Italy III. 10th Edition. [^ 

194 Route 12. CHIETI. 

Archaeologists may make an excursion hence to Pietrabbondante, with 
the ruins (theatre and temple) of the Samnite Bovianum. Road to (9 31.) 
Pescolanciano (diligence at 10.30 a.m. ; corricolo 6 fr.) ; thence bridle-path 5 M. 

From Isernia a diligence runs daily to Campobasso (p. 203), via Boiano. 
the ancient Bovianum L'ndecimcmorum. One-horse carr. from Isernia to 
Venafro 6 fr. 

From Isernia to Caiankllo, ca. 2i 31., railway in progress (open from 
Rocca Ravindola). The road at first traverses a hilly district , passing 
Macehia on the right, and then enters the valley of the Vollurno, which 
it crosses. 10 M. Rocca Ravindola. — From Rocca Ravindola to Caianello, 
18 M., railway in i hr. 5 31. Venafro, the ancient Vtnafrum, a small 
town rising on a hill, famous for its oil in the days of Horace (Od. ii. 6); 
it is commanded by a ruined castle. The railway skirts the mountains. 
8 M. Sesto Campano; 10 M. Sesto Capriati; 13'/2 M. Presemano (see p. 7), 
18 M. Caianello (poor inn, not suitable for spending the night), a small 
village and a station on the railway from Rome to Naples. 

From Caianello to Naples, see R. 1. 

The railway now bends sharply to the N., towards the valley 
of the Aterno. — 104 M. Pratola-Peliyna. 

107 M. Pentima. A short distance hence is the Cathedral of 
*<S. Pelino (keys kept by the canon at the village), an edifice of the 
13th century. The architecture is very interesting, hut the interior 
has unfortunately been modernised. Old pulpit. Chapel of St. 
Alexander of the 16th century. 

On the lofty surrounding plain lie the ruins of the extensive ancient 
city of Corfinium, once the capital of the Pteligni. In B.C. 90 it was consti- 
tuted the federal capital of the Italians during their struggle against the 
Romans for independence, and called Italica, but a few years later it had 
to succumb to the Romans. The discoveries made in the course of the 
recent excavations at the necropolis and other points are exhibited in the 
small Museum here, the key of which may be obtained from the attentive 
Inspettore Cav. de Nino at Solmona (interesting for archaeologists only). 

110 M. Popoli (Locanda dell America, moderate; Posta), a town 
with 7000 inhab., situated at the junction of the roads fromPescara, 
Aquila, Avezzano, and Solmona, and commanded by the ruined 
castle of the Cantelmi, who were once masters of the place. A little 
above the town the Gizio and Aterno unite to form the Pescara, 
along which the railway descends till it approaches the sea. 

112 M. Bussi. The valley is enclosed on both sides by abrupt 
cliffs. Tunnel. — 119 M. Torre de' Passeri, picturesquely situated. 
Connoisseurs of early Christian architecture should visit the ab- 
bey of S. Ckmente di Casauria , 25 min. from Torre de' Passeri, 
a basilica of the 12th cent., with ancient sculptures. This was the 
site of the ancient Interpromium, Telics from which are still pre- 
served in the ihurch. 

1231/2 M. S. Valentino; 1251/2 M. Alanno ; 128 M. Manoppello. 

133V2M. Chieti. — The Station is about 3 31. from the town, which 
lies on the heights to the E. (omnibus 60 c, in the reverse direction 
50 c); about halfway the road passes a ruined baptistery. 

Hotels in the town: "Albergo del Sole, R. f'/ 2 fr., good trattoria; 
Albergo Nuovo ; Palomba d' Oro. 

Chieti (1065 ft.), the ancient Teate Marrucinorum, capital of a 
province, with 22,000 inhab., is a clean and busy town. From the 
Piazza VittorioEmanuele a promenade leads round the town, affording 

CARSOLI. 13. Route. 195 

magnificent *Views of the Maiella group, the course of the Pescara, 
and the hill country extending to the sea (the finest from the 
drilling-ground on the S.). The order of the Theatines , founded 
in 1555 by Paul IV., who had been Archbishop of Chieti, derives 
its name from this town. 

The valley of the Pescara gradually expands. Beyond (141 t/ 2 M.) 
Pescara (p. 202) the line crosses the river. — 142y 2 M. Castellam- 
mare Adriatico, see p. 202. 

13. From Rome to Solmona via Avezzano. 

107 M. Railway in V/r&/* hrs. (fares 19 fr. 45, 13 fr. 65, 8 fr. 25 c). 

From Rome to Mandela via Tivoli, see Baedeker s Central Italy. 

Beyond Mandela the train follows the ancient Via Valeria and 
the Teverone. — 36 M. Cineto - Romano (diligence to Subiaco) ; 
38 M. Roviano. The railway now leaves the valley of the Teverone 
and ascends a steep incline to (41 M.) Arsoli, prettily situated on 
a hill, with a castle of the Massimi. Tunnel. — 42y 2 M. Riofreddo, 
situated on the tributary of the Teverone of that name 

Near (43y 2 M.) Cavaliere lay the iEquian town of Carsoli, the 
ruins of which were used in the middle ages to build Arsoli (see 
above) and Carsoli. High up on a hill (3410 ft.) to the S.E. lie 
the church and convent of S. Maria dei Bisognosi , with paintings 
dating from 1488 and a wonder-working CTuciflx (visited on Sun. 
by many pilgrims from the surrounding district). — 47 M. Carsoli 
(Loc. Stella, fair), commanded by a picturesque ruined castle. 

The railway now ascends the narrow valley to (50'/ 2 M.) Colli, 
beyond which we reach the tunnel of Monte Bove, the longest on 
the railway (more than 3 M.). 54i/ 2 M. S. Marie. We then descend 
to (57 M.) Tagliacozzo, a small town at the mouth of a deep ravine, 
in which rises the Imele, the Himtlla of antiquity. The sources of 
the Liris lie 4i/ 2 M. to the S., near Cappadocia. 

The train now enters the fertile Campi Palentini, the most 
beautiful part of the territory of the Marsi , surrounded by lofty 
mountains, the highest of which, the double-peaked Monte Velino 
(8160 ft.), to the N.E., is visible as far as Rome. Here, on 26th Aug., 
1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen , the last scion of that 
illustrious imperial house , was defeated, notwithstanding the bra- 
very of his knights, by Charles I. of Anjou , who had placed a part 
of his army in ambush. — 62 M. Scurcola , dominated by an old 
castle of the Orsini, with a fine view. In the church of S. Maria 
is an old carved wooden figure of the Virgin, from the adjacent 
convent of S. Maria (see below), executed by order of Charles of 

The train next crosses the Salto, passing on the left the ruins 
of the abbey of -S. Maria della Vittoria, which was built by Charles 
of Anjou in commemoration of his victory over Conradin (see above). 


196 Route 13. AVEZZANO. From Rome 

The building , the architect of which was Niccolo Pisano , was, 
however, soon destroyed. — 63 M. Cappelle. 

67 M. Avezzano [Alb. Vittoria, well spoken of), a town of 7400 
inhab., with a chateau built by the Colonnas and now belonging to 
the Barberini, is a good starting-point for a number of excursions. 
The estate-office of Prince Torlonia, at which a permesso to see the 
reclamation-works at the Lago di Fucino is obtained (gratis), con- 
tains a collection of objects found in the lake (see below). — From 
Avezzano to Aquila, see p. 192. 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Avezzano, at the base of Monte Velino 
(see below), lies the village of Albe , the ancient Alba Fucentia, reached 
from Antrosano (one-horse carr. to this point and back 3-4 fr.) by a walk 
of- 3 /i hr. It lay on the confines of the territories of the Vestini, Marsi, 
and jEqui, and having received a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B.C. 
303, it became the most powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of 
Italy. Three summits (that to the N.E. occupied by the present village) 
were 3trongly fortified and connected by a massive polygonal wall. In 
ascending from Antrosanto we pass extensive remains of this wall, and 
the castle of the Orsini, in Albe, incorporates some of the masonry of 
the ancient fortifications. On the S.W. hill is a Temple, which has been 
converted into a church of £. Pietro , with eight Corinthian columns of 
marble in the interior (key obtained from the Arciprete or from the Conte 
Pace in Albe). On the Colle di Pettorino, or S.E. hill, are large polygonal 
walls. Fine view of the valley. 

The Ascent or Monte Velino (8160 ft.) from Avezzano takes 1-2 days. 
The night is passed at Magliano or Massa d'Albe, whence the top is reached 
in 6 hrs., with guide. 

The now drained Lago di Fucino (2180 ft.), the ancient Lacus 
Fucinus , was once 37 M. in circumference and 65 ft. in depth. 
Owing to the want of an outlet, the level of the lake was subject 
to great variations which were frequently fraught with disastrous 
results to the inhabitants of the banks. Attempts were therefore 
made to drain the lake in ancient times , but it was only very re- 
cently (in 1875) that this object was finally accomplished. 

The earliest sufferers from the inundations were the ancient Marsi, in 
consequence of whose complaints Ccesar formed the project of affording a 
permanent remedy for the evil , but the work was not begun till the 
reign of the Emp. Claudius. The bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. 
above the level of the Liris at Capistrello, and the plan was to con- 
struct a tunnel, or emissarius, through the intervening Monte Salviano. 
No fewer than 30,000 men were employed in the execution of the work 
during eleven years. This was the most gigantic undertaking of the 
kind ever known before the construction of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The 
length of the passage was upwards of 3'/2 M., and for about l 3 /< M. of that 
distance it was hewn in the solid rock. The transverse measurement of 
the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other respects also the 
work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest depth of the 
tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 shafts were 
constructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. With 
a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A.D. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. xii. 57). Ancient writers stigmatise the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the whole lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 

to Solmona. CBLANO. 13. Route. 197 

committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
afterwards became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the reach of mediaeval skill. After 
the year 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly induced to make a grant of the lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege was 
soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome (d. 1S86). 
M. de Montricher, a Swiss, the constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. 
at Naples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently 
M. Brisse conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 
digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, 'o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, o il Fucino secca Torlonia'. In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and a transverse section measures about 21 sq. 
yds. The beginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive 
style. This is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the 
lowest portions of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 M. in length, 
runs round the reclaimed land (36,000 acres in extent) , which is con- 
verted into a vast model farm, colonised by families from the prince's 
different estates. 

An excursion to Luco, about 6 M. from Avezzano, will afford the traveller 
a good opportunity of inspecting the drainage operations (permesso ne- 
cessary, see p. 196). He should drive to the entrance of the new outlet 
(Incite) , and get the custodian to conduct him thence to the ancient 
emissarius. — Luco , now an uninteresting place , was the Lucus Angitiae 
of the ancients, and was called after a temple of the goddess of that name. 
The site of the temple is now occupied by the venerable Benedictine church 
of £. Maria di Luco, situated on the N. side of the village, and dating from 
the 6th or 7th century. Extensive remains of walls in the polygonal style 
mark the boundary of the Temenos , or sacred precincts of the temple. 
Fine view hence, as well as from all the hills around the lake. 

73 M. Celano, a town with 7000inhab., is beautifully situated on 
a hill, and from it the Lago di Fucino is sometimes called Lago di 
Celano. The Castle (*View), erected in 1450, was once occupied by 
the unfortunate Countess Covella, who was taken prisoner by her 
son Rugierotto. She was soon restored to liberty, but in 1463 
her domains were bestowed by Ferdinand of Arragon upon his 
son-inlaw Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of Amain, and nephew of 
Pius II. Celano was the birthplace of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), 
the supposed author of the celebrated Latin requiem, 'Dies ir;e, 
dies ilia'. 

The train skirts the N. side of the lake, and beyond (75 M.) 
Aielli begins to ascend. 77 M. Cerchio. Tunnel. 79 M. Collarmele, 
in the narrow valley of the Oiovenco. — 82 M. Pescina, the seat of 
a bishop and birthplace of Card. Mazarin (1602-1661). The village 
of S. Benedetto, 2'^ M. to the S.W., occupies the site of Marru- 
vium, the capital of the Marsi, remains of which are still visible. — 
85 M. Carrito Ortona, picturesquely perched on an isolated rock. 

On quitting the Giovenco valley the train penetrates the central 

198 Route 14. SORA. From Avezzano 

ridge of the Abruzzi by the tunnel of Monte Curro (2i/ 5 M.), the 
second in length on the line. Beyond (89 M.) Cocullo, in a sequester- 
ed upland valley, we thread the tunnel of Monte Luparo (1 M. long) 
and cross the watershed between the valleys of Fucino and Sol- 
niona. 92 M. Ooriano-Sieoli. ■ — Beyond the following tunnel we 
obtain a splendid **View of the valley of Solmona. Nearly 1000 ft. 
below us lies Rajano Inferiore ; farther off , Pentima with the soli- 
tary cathedral of S. Pelino (p. 194); in the middle distance, the 
isolated hill of S. Cosmo (2210 ft.); in the background the im- 
posing mass of the Maiella. — 93V2 M. Rajano Superiore , nearly 
3 M. from Rajano Inferiore, which is a station on the Solmona and 
Aquila railway. 

The train now descends rapidly along the side of the valley, 
passing through several tunnels , to (95 M.) Prezza. It then runs 
to the S.E. through the picturesque valley of the Sagittario, crossing 
that stream beyond (100 M.") Anversa by a two-storied viaduct of 
16 arches. 103 M. Bugnara. — 107 M. Solmona, see p. 192. 

14. From Avezzano to Roccasecca (Naples). 

Feom Avezzano to Roccasecca, about 50 M. ; diligence daily in 7>/2 hrs. 
to Sora; from Sora twice daily in l'/z hr. to Arce; from Arce to Rocca- 
secca railway. The diligence corresponds with the trains of the Rome and 
Naples railway. 

Avezzano, see p. 196. The drive through the valley of the Liris 
to Roccasecca (railway under construction) is one of the most attract- 
ive in Italy. The road traverses the Monte Salviano, and reaches 
(7'/ 2 M.) Capistrello, where the emissarius of the Lago di Fucino 
(see p. 196) issues from the mountain. It then follows the left bank 
of the Liris. The imposing pyramid of Monte Viglio (7075 ft. ; as- 
cended from Filettino on the W. side), to the W- of Liris, domin- 
ates the view. On a height on the right bank lies (4 M.) Civitella 
Roveto, the capital of the Vol di Roveto , as the upper part of the 
valley of the Liris, as far as Sora, is called. Then, to the left, Civith 
d'Antino, the Antinum of the Marsi, with several relics of antiquity. 
To the right of the river lies Morino, whence the line waterfall of 
Lo Schioppo, 5 M. distant, may be visited. The beautiful oak and 
chestnut woods have of late been freely cut down. 

A charming mountainous district is now traversed. We pass 
(12V2 M) Balsorano, and after 7 hrs'. drive from Avezzano (in all 
31 M.) reach the town of — 

Sora (Hotel di Roma, Alb. di Liri, both with trattorie), with 
13,200 inhab., situated in the plain, on the right bank of the Liris, 
which flows in the form of a semicircle round the crowded houses 
of the town. The Romans wrested the place from the Volsci, and 
founded a powerful colony here, B.C. 303. The cathedral stands 
on ancient substructures. On the precipitous rock above the town, 
which forms, as it were, the key of the Abruzzi, are remains of 

to Roccasecca. ISOLA. H. Route. 199 

polygonal walls, and also traces of mediaeval castles. The town was 
the native place of several celebrated men, and the residence of 
others (the Decii, Attilius Regulus, the orator Q. Valerius, L. Mum- 
mius, etc.). The learned Cardinal Caesar Baronius (1538-1607) was 
born at Sora. 

The road from Sora to Isola, 3'/ 2 M., traverses the well-culti- 
vated valley, following the left bank of the river. The abundance 
of water here imparts a freshness and charm to the scenery which 
are rarely met with in warm climates. To the left the Fibrenus 

falls into the Liris. 

In the former stream, near its mouth, lies the Isola S. Paolo, 011 
which a monastery was founded by the Benedictine S. Domenico Abbate, 
a native ofFoligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arpinas, the 
birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus'. The abbey- 
church , recently restored, is an interesting edifice of the 12th century. 
Cicero's villa was erected by his grandfather, and embellished by his father, 
who devoted his leisure to the study of science here, and it was therefore 
a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is described by him in his 
treatise De Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian the villa belonged to the 
poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an ancient bridge above 
the island, the 'Ponte di Cicerone', one of the three arches of which is 
still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are several manufactories, chiefly of paper 
(cartiera), surrounded by well-kept gardens. The most important 
of these is the Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by M. Lefevre , a 
Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano. The *Gardens connected with 
it contain the picturesque waterfalls (Le Cascatelle) of the Liris 
and the Fibrenus. The cool water of the latter is praised by Ci- 
cero. From this point the road descends to — 

Isola [Alb. d' Italia, at the cross-roads, unpretending), or Isola 
del Liri, a small town with 6000 inhab., which, as its name indi- 
cates, stands on an island in the Liris. The two arms of the river 
here form two magnificent waterfalls, 80 ft. in height. That on the 
E. side, a view of which is obtained from the bridge as the town is 
entered, is a perpendicular fall, while the other and more pictur- 
esque cascade, to see which we oross the second bridge and keep to 
the right, is broken by the rocks into several arms. 

A busy road passing the paper-mills above Isola winds upwards to (4 II.) 
Arpino (Locanda delta Pace, near the Piazza, small, but clean), a finely 
situated town with 12,000 inhab. , the ancient Volscian mountain-town of 
Arpinum, and celebrated as the home of Marius (see below) and Cicero. 
The houses in which they were born are still pointed out to the cre- 
dulous. The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished with busts of Marius, 
Cicero, and Agrippa. Arpino was the native place of the well-known 
painter Giuseppe Cesari (1560-1640), more commonly known as the Cavaliere 
d'Arpino, whose house is still pointed out. 

The present town occupies only a small part of the site of the ancient 
Arpinum. The citadel of the latter lay on an abrupt eminence, connected 
with the town by a narrow isthmus and now occupied by the small octa- 
gonal church of S. Maria della Civita (view). The town itself rose on 
the slope of a still higher hill. The greater part of the ancient wall, 
consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, broken at intervals by mediae- 
val round towers, is still preserved, and may be traced throughout its whole 

200 Route 15. FERMO. 

extent. The ascent should be made on the N. side. On the hill stands 
the Porta delf Arco, a remarkable gateway with a pointed arch. 

From Arpino to Arce, diligence in l'/z hr. 

About 3 M. to the W. of Isola (good road; carr. 3-4 fr.) lies the abbey 
of SS. Giovanni e Paolo di Casamari, now declared national property, with 
a well-preserved "Church of the beginning of the 12th century. The name 
preserves the memory of the house of Marius at Cercalae, afterwards 
known as Cercalae MaHanae. 

From Isola to Arce, 8 M. The road follows the left bank of the 
river. To the right is the loftily situated town of Monte San Gio- 
vanni ; to the left lies Fontana. Then Arce , and Rocca d'Arce, in 
a strikingly picturesque situation, connected with Roccasecca by a 
branch-railway (6 M. , in 22 min. ; fares 1 fr. 15, 80, 55 c.) ; see p. 3. 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi). 

201 M. Railwat in V/t-12 hrs.; fares 36 fr. 50, 25 fr. 55, 14 fr. 60 c. 
(3rd class by express 18 fr. 25 c). — Ancona is 347 II. distant from Brin- 
disi, to which an express train runs daily in 14'/4 hrs. in correspondence 
with the quick trains from Milan and Bologna (fares 62 fr. 90 c, 44 fr. 5, 
31 fr. 45 c); also once weekly (Sun.) in ll 3 /4 hrs. (from Bologna to 
Brindisi 15 3 /4 hrs.), in connection with the English mail to India, carrying 
lirst-class passengers to Brindisi only. The local trains stop for the night 
at Pescara or Foggia. 

The line skirts the coast, affording a sea view to the left, and an in- 
land view to the right. The towns, generally situated on the heights, at 
<ome distance from the railway, communicate regularly with their stations 
by diligence; but these vehicles have little pretension to comfort. 

From Ancona via, (3y 2 M.) Varona, (10 M.) Osimo, (15 M.) 
Loreto, (17'/2 M.~)Recanati, and (23 M.) Potema Picena to(26'/2M.) 
Porto Civitanova, see Baedeker's Central Italy. — Porto Civitanova, 
at the mouth of the Chienti, is the station for the town of Civitanova, 
which lies l 1 ^ M. inland. A railway, not yet completed, runs hence 
to Fabriano via Macerata. 

The railway to Foggia and Brindisi crosses the Chienti. 31 M. 
S. Elpidio a Mare. The village of S. Elpidio lies several miles 
inland. — The Tenna is next crossed. 

36'/ 2 M. Porto S. Oiorgio, with an imposing fort. 

On the hill, 3 M. inland, is situated Fermo (Locanda deW Aqiiila; 
seat in a carriage 50 c), the ancient Firmvm Picenum, with 18,000 inhab., 
and the seat of an archbishop. It became a Roman colony after the begin- 
ning of the First Punic War, and has continued since that period to be a 
town of some importance. At the Porta S. Francesco, by which the town 
is entered , are seen remnants of the ancient wall , constructed at a very 
remote period. The streets ascend somewhat precipitously to the height 
on which the handsome Piazza is situated ; the Town Hall here contains 
some inscriptions and antiquities. Outside the town we obtain fine views 
of the fertile district, the Apennines, and the sea. 

The train next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. 43 M. 
Pedaso; 48 M. Cupra Marittima (Maranoj. Near the latter once 
lay the ancient town of that name , with a celebrated temple 
dedicated to the Sabine goddess Cupra, and restored by Hadrian 
(in A.D. 127). 50 M. Grottammare. On the hill, about 4>/ 2 M. 
inland, is Ripatransone (6000 inhab.). The inhabitants of these 

ASCOLI. 15. Route. 201 

districts greatly resemble their Neapolitan neighbours in manners 
and appearance. 

53 M. 8. Benedetto (inn at the station), a village on the coast. 

From S.Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno, 2CH/2M., railway in l>/ 2 hr. (fares 
3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). The train ascends the valley of the Tronto, 
passing Porto d'Ascoli, Monteprandone, Montesampolo, Spineloli- Colli, Offida- 
Caslel-Lama, and Marino. — Ascoli Piceno ("Locanda delP Aquila, moderate), 
the ancient Asculum Picenum, with 23,300 inhab., the seat of a bishop and 
capital of a province, is situated on the S. bank of the Tronto. The valley 
is here contracted and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the N. rises the 
jagged M. delta Ascensione (.3610 ft.), to the W. the Sibilla, and more to 
the S. the Pizzo di Sevo. Ascoli, an ancient town in a commanding situation, 
the capital of the tribe of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, and was captured and destroyed by Pompey. Interesting 
remains of the ancient walls, a bridge, and a 'Gate at the W. end of the 
town. The town-hall contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are 
encountered in other parts of the town , e. g. insignificant vestiges of a 
theatre and amphitheatre. The architecture of the churches and palaces 
dates chiefly from a period anterior to the Renaissance, materially en- 
hancing the interest of the town , which is indeed the most attractive on 
the E. coast of S. Italy. The 'Cathedral is said to have been founded 
by Constantine on the site of a temple of Hercules. The original sub- 
structures are still traceable. A chapel on the right in the interior con- 
tains good pictures by Crivelli. — Mountain-roads lead hence via Norcia 
to Spoleto, and others through the valleys of the Velino and Alerno to 
Aquila (p. 190). 

Beyond (56 M.) Porto d' Ascoli the train crosses the Tronto, the 
ancient Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 62 M. Tortoreto. 

68 M. Giulianova, a dirty village with a few fine villas on the 
hill, l!/ 4 M. from the coast, built in the 15th cent, by the inhabi- 
tants of the ancient Castrum Novum on the Tordino, and then nam- 
ed 8. Flaviano. 

Fkom Giulianova to Tekamo, 16 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 
10, 1 fr. 35 c). The train ascends the valley of the Tordino, passing Mosciano, 
Notaresco, Bellaite-Ripattone, Castellalto-Catizano. — Teramo (Albergo Pelle- 
grino, Via Delfico ; Caffi Zippeita, Corso S. Giorgio; omn. from the sta- 
tion to the town, l /i- l /-ifr.), the ancient Inter amna , is the capital of a 
province and seat of a bishop, with 20,400 inhabitants. The Gothic cathe- 
dral is now modernised. — A road ascends the valley of the Vomano from 
Teramo, passing Montorio and Fano Adriano, ascending between the Monte 
Piano (5645 ft.) and the Monte Cardito, leaving Monte S. Franco (7000 ft.) 
to the S., and then descending in many curves past <S. Vittorino (p. 191) 
where several roads meet, to Aquila (p. 190). Ascent of the Gran Sasso 
d'ltalia, see p. 191. 

The train crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, and then 
the Vomano (Vomanus). To the right a fine view is obtained of 
the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 192), which is here visible from base to 
summit. — 791/2 M. Atri-Mutignano. 

Atri (1390 ft.; "Albergo di Vine. Marcone), 6 M. inland (diligence daily, 
1 fr. 25 c. ; other conveyances rarely obtainable), the ancient Hatria, an epis- 
copal residence, with 10,000 inhab., is a town of great antiquity, and was 
once celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony to 
its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral with its frescoes merits a 
visit. It rests on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a 
temple. Extensive "View from the campanile. Several large grottoes near 
the town are also of very remote date. 

The train now crosses the Piomba, the ancient Matrinus, 5 M. 

202 Route 15. PESCARA. From Ancona 

inland from which is situated Cittd Santangelo (7000 inhab.). 
84 M. Silvi; 87 M. Montesilvano. 

Penne, 16 M. inland, the capital of the district, with 10,000 inhab., was 
the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, of which period 
various relics still exist. 

90 M. Castellammare Adriatico, junction for the lines to Terni 
and Aquila, and to Rome, Avezzano, and Solmona (see RR. 12, 13). 
— The train next crosses the Pescara river. 

92 M. Pescara {Leone d'Oro; Alb. Rebecchino, near the station, 
tolerable), a fortified town with 5500 inhab., is situated in an 
unhealthy plain. The mountain-group of the Maiella, culminating 
in Monte Amaro (9160 ft.), now becomes visible on the right. 

The train crosses the Alento. 96 M. Francavilla, a village on the 
hill to the right. Beyond it a mountain-spur projects into the sea. 
Four short tunnels. Beyond the third the fort of Ortona becomes 
visible on the left. 

105 M. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe in the Piazza), i/ 2 M. 
from the station, the ancient Ortona, capital of theFrentani, is 
now a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,000 inhab.), situated 
on a lofty promontory , with a small quay on the shore below. 
Beautiful views towards the S. as far as the Punta di Penna (see 
below), especially of the ancient and dilapidated fort. The archi- 
tecture of the cathedral should be inspected. 

Beyond Ortona the train passes through another tunnel and 
crosses two brooks. 109'/2 M. S. Vito Lanciano is the station for 
Laneiano, 6 M. inland, with 18,000 inhab., the ancient Anxanum. 
Between S. Vito and the next station (52 M.) Fossacesia are three 
tunnels, beyond which we obtain a pleasing survey of the peninsula, 
terminating in the Punta di Penna. 

Near (116 M.) Torino di Sangro the train crosses the Sanyro, 
Lat. Sayrus. 122 M. Casalbordino. Three tunnels, beyond which 
Vasto becomes visible, on an olive-clad hill on the right. 131 M. 
Vasto. The town lies on the hill, lt/ 4 M. from the station. 

Vasto d'Aimone (Locanda delV Indipendenza ; Loc. del Pesce; 
the others dirty ; Cafe Nazionale), the ancient Histonium , with 
14,000 inhab., lies high, and commands fine views as far as the 
Tremiti islands and Monte Gargano. The small cathedral with a Go- 
thic facade bears a memorial tablet to General 'Carlo Antonio Manhes, 
distruttore de' briganti, prinio cittadino del Vasto', date 1810. A 
small museum in the town-hall contains inscriptions and other relics 
found here. In the environs are extensive olive-plantations. 

The train crosses the Triyno , Lat. Trinius. 147!/ 2 M. Termoli 
Alb. $ Trattoria delta Corona), a small town close to the sea, with 
mediaeval walls, excessively dirty. Charming survey of the Maiella 
and Abruzzi, with the Tremiti Islands (the Insulae Diomedeae of 
mythology, still serving, as in antiquity, as a place of confinement) 
and Monte Gargano in the distance. The cathedral, with a Gothic 
facade, contains a number of quaintly decorated saints. 

to Foggia. FOGGIA. 15. Route. 203 

From Termoli to Benevento, 107 M., railway in 9'A hrs. (fares 
19 fr. 45, 13 fr. 65, 8 fr. 65 c). The journey on the whole is monotonous. 
5'/2 M. Guglionesi- Porlocannone: 10 31. £. Martina in Pensilis ; 17'/ 2 M. 
Ururi Rotello; 23 M. Larino, near the ruins of the ancient Larinum; 31 M. 
Casacalenda; 33'/2 M. Bonefro; 36'/2 M. Ripabottoni-Santa-Elia ; 41'/2 M. Cam- 
polieto-Munailione; 47 M. Matrice-Montagano; 52 M. Ripalimosano. — 55 M. 
Campobasso (Alb. Centrale ; Leone), the capital of a province, and a place of 
some importance, with 15,000 inhab., is noted for its steel wares. — 59'/z M. 
Baranello; 62 M. Vinchiaturo. — The railway here begins to descend the 
valley of the Tanaro. 69 M. S. Qiuliano del Sannio. — 71'/2 M. Sepino; 
in the neighbourhood are the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepinum, now 
Altilia. — 75'/2 M. S. Croce del Sannio; 80 M. Morcone; 85 M. Pontelan- 
dolfo; 86V2M. Campolattaro ; 90 M. Fragneto Monforle ; 92 M. Pescolamazza; 
104'/2 M. Pietra Elcina. — 107 M. Benevento, see p. 215. 

Beyond Termoli, where the cactus first makes its appearance, 
the scenery is less attractive. The train crosses the Biferno, Lat. 
Tifernus. 152 M. Campomarino , 158 M. Chieuti, once Albanian 
colonies. "We next cross the Fortore, the ancient Frento. 

165 M. Ripalta. 

Near Ripalta, on 15th June, 1503, the Normans defeated and captured 
Pope Leo IX. , and then , falling on their knees , implored his blessing. 
Leo, relenting, imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, 
and Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant which 
was ultimately fraught with consequences so important to Rome and the 
papal throne, as well as to the Normans. 

To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The train now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of M. Oargano (p. 204), a buttress of the Apennines 
projecting into the sea, with several peaks about 3300 ft. in height. 
I741/4 M. Poggio Imperiale; ill M. Apricena; 184 M. San Seven, 
a dirty town with 17,500 inhab., which, after a gallant resistance, 
was taken and almost entirely destroyed by the French in 1799. 
The cholera committed fearful ravages here in 1865. 191 M. Motta. 

201 M. Foggia. — Restaurant, with several good rooms, at the station 
The town is 1/3 M. distant; cab 1/2 fr. — In the Town: Albergo di Milano; 
Locanda & Ristokatore Roma, in the main street, very mediocre. 

Foggia, the capital of a province formerly called the Capitanata, 
and the junction of the coast-railway and the line to Benevento and 
Naples (R. 17), is a clean, thriving town, with 40,300 inhabi- 
tants. It is well situated in a commercial point of view, and forms 
the central point of the great Apulian plain. The name is probably 
derived from the pits or cellars (Lat. foveae , now called fosse di 
grano), in which the inhabitants store their grain. On the left, 
opposite the first houses of the town, i/ 4 M. from the station, is a 
portico forming the entrance to the Giardino Pubblico , which is 
adorned with several busts. Beyond these public grounds is a bo- 
tanic garden. The main street which we follow now takes the name 
of Corso Vittorio Emanuele. To the left in the piazza planted with 
trees rises a monument to Vinccnzo Lanza (1784-1860), a physician 
and patriot, who was born at Foggia. After 5 min. we cross the Corso 
del Teatro and reach the Piazza Federico II. , adorned with a foun- 
tain (Pozzo dell' Imperatore). situated in the older part of the town. 

204 Route 15. MANFREDONIA. From Ancona 

The name is a reminiscence of the Emperor Frederick II . , who fre- 
quently resided at Foggia. Built into the wall of a modern house, 
in the side-street to the right, is a gateway belonging to the old pal- 
ace of the* emperor, hearing an inscription of the year 1223 relative 
to the foundation. Leaving the Piazza Federico II. and turning to 
the left, we soon reach the Cathedral, which was originally erected 
by the Normans, partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1731, and af- 
terwards re-erected in a modern style. Part of the old facade only 
now exists. 

A great part of the spacious , treeless plain around Foggia is used as 
a sheep-pasture (Tavoliere della Puglia). During the summer the flocks 
graze on the mountains, and in October return to the plain by three great 
routes (Tratturi delle Pecore). These migrations, during which hundreds 
of flocks may be encountered in one day , date from the Roman period. 
Alphonso I. , who introduced the merino sheep , converted the pastures 
into a royal domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4 l /2 million at the close of the 16th cent., but owing 
to the progress of agriculture, is now reduced to less than half a million. 

About 3 M. to the N. of Foggia are the scanty remains of the ancient 
town of Arpi, said to have been founded by Diomedes, and afterwards 
replaced by Foggia. 

From Foggia to Manfkedonia , 22'/2 M. , railway in 1 hr. 10 min. 
(fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 85 c). — 10 M. Amandola; 15 M. Fontanarosa. 
— 22'/2 M. Manfredonia, a quiet town with 8500 inhabitants, was founded 
by King Manfred about 1263, and destroyed by the Turks in 1620. It now 
contains no buildings of importance , but part of the mediaeval forliiica- 
tions is still well preserved. Owing to the sheltered situation of the town, 
to the S. of Monte Gargano, the vegetation is very luxuriant, resembling that 
of Sicily in character. — About 2 M. to the W. of Manfredonia, on the road 
to Foggia, is the "Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore di Siponto, a fine example of 
the Romanesque style, with a crypt. The tastelessly restored interior con- 
tains a 'miracle-working' Madonna and numerous votive tablets. This church 
is part of the scanty remains of the old Sipontum, which became a Roman 
colony": in B. C. 194. Other interesting remains of the old town have 
come to light in recent excavations. The road also passes S. Leonardo, 
converted into a commandery of the Teutonic Order in the time of Her- 
mann von Salza, with two fine portals, now used as a , Masseria , ) or farm- 
house , and very dilapidated. 

A road, at first traversing olive-plantations, and then ascending in 
win.lings, leads hence to (lO'/s M.) Monte Santangelo (2655 ft.), with a pic- 
turesque castle, and a famous old sanctuary of 8. Michele, where a great 
festival is celebrated on 8th May. The chapel consists of a grotto to 
which 55 steps descend, and where, as the legend runs, St. Michael appear- 
ed to St. Laurentius , Archbishop of Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent, 
the warlike Normans undertook pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they 
became masters of the country. The bronze doors, with scenes from Script- 
ure, bear the inscription : 'Hoc opus completum est in regia urbe Constan- 
nopoli adjuvante Dno Pantaleone qui fieri .jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni 
Millesimo Septuagesimo Sexto' (comp. p. 182). — From this point M. Calvo, 
the culminating point of Monte Gargano (3460 ft.), is most easily ascended. 
Between Monte Santangelo and Vico lies the extensive and beautiful beech- 
forest called Bosco delV Umbra, which stretches towards the sea. Farther 
to the"'N. is Ischitella; towards the E., on the coast, is Viesli. The roads 
are bad, and suitable for riding and walking only. 

From Foggia to Luceka, 12'/2 M., railway in about 40 min. (fares 
2 fr. 30 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. o c); three trains daily. The line ascends gradually 
through arable land. 

Lucera (Albergo d"Italia), a town with 14,500 inhab., the ancient Lu- 
ceria was regarded as the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first 
heard' of during the Samnite wars , and in B. C. 314 it became a Roman 

to Foggia. MELFI. 15. Route. 205 

colony. It continued to be an important and prosperous town down to the 
7th cent, after Christ, but was destroyed in 663. It was at length restored 
by Frederick II. , who in 1223 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither 
from Sicily, bestowing on them entire religious freedom. They were in 
consequence staunch adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and accorded 
an asylum to the wife and children of Manfred after the battle of Bene- 
vento. They were, however, subdued by Charles of Anjou in 1269, and 
in 1300, after an attempt to throw off the yoke of Charles II., were com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity. 

The town lies on a lofty plain , which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and W. On the W. side the 
plateau projects , forming" a kind of peninsula , on which stands the ad- 
mirably preserved 'Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, 
but dating in its present form from the reign of Charles I. It is an in- 
teresting example of a mediaeval stronghold, and occupies the site of the 
ancient arx. The "View embraces the plain bounded by the Apennines 
and Monte Gargano; to the N. lies the town of S. Severo, and to the E. 
stretches the sea. The isolated mountain to the S. is the Monte Vulture 
near Melfi, the summit of which commands a survey of the whole of Apu- 
lia. — The old Cathedral, which had fallen into ruin in the time of Fred- 
erick II., was restored in the Gothic style after the conversion of the 
Saracens by the Anjevins. The pilasters of the nave are in verde antico. 
The right transept contains a beautiful figure of the Madonna in marble, 
on a monument of 1600. Below the choir is a crypt. — A few inscriptions 
dating from the ancient municipium, which far exceeded the modern town 
in extent, are preserved in the library of the municipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

On the road to S. Severo, 6 M. from Lucera, lay the Castel Fiorenlino, 
where Frederick II., after a reign of 38 years as a German king, died in 
1250, in his 56th year. 

From Foggia to Rocchetta S. Antonio, 31 M., railway in l 3 / 4 
hr. (fares 5 fr. 65, 4 fr., 2 fr. 55 c). — b l k M- Cervaro, see p. 217 ; 
11 M. Ordona, the ancient Herdonia, with an ancient bridge, am- 
phitheatre, tombs, etc. ; i9 l fe M. Ascoli Satriano (Albergo di Koraa, 
clean), It/oM. from the station (cab 72 fr-), charmingly situated, the 
ancient Ausculum Apulum, famed for the victory gained here by 
Pyrrhus over the Romans, B.C. 279; 24'/ 2 M. Candela. — 31 M. 
Rocchetta 8. Antonio. 

From Rocchetta diligence daily in 3y 2 hrs. to — 

Melfi (2065 ft.), with 12,700 inhab., picturesquely situated on 
the slope of Monte Vulture. It possesses an old castle of the Nor- 
man sovereigns, who often resided here, now restored by Prince 
Doria as a chateau. The upper portion of the town was totally 
destroyed by the earthquake; a great part of the remainder has 
been re-erected. Here, in 1059, Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert 
Guiscard with the duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magni- 
ficent Cathedral of 1155, almost entirely destroyed by an earth- 
quake in 1851, has since been modernised. The town-hall con- 
tains a fine Roman sarcophagus. 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture (4365 ft.), an extinct vol- 
cano, may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'ApulianVultur'; at that 
period it formed the boundary between Lucania and Apulia. Calabria 
extended hence in a S.E. direction to the Iapygian or Salentinian pro- 
montory, the modern Capo di Leuca (p. 214); and S.W. lay the land of 
the Brultii, as far as the Sicilian straits. Since the middle ages, however, 

206 Route 15. VENOSA. 

the latter district has been named Calabria, while the ancient Calabria is 
now the Terra d'Otranto. 

The former crater of M. Vulture is densely overgrown with oaks and 
beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are situated. By one of 
these are the Capuchin monastery of S. Michele , most picturesquely 
situated, and the ruined church of S. Ilario. On the farther side of the 
principal crater rises the summit of the mountain, II Pizzuto di Melfi 
(4360 ft.)- The circumference of the whole mountain is about 37 M. 

A road leads from Melfi to the E. to (1572 M. ; or by a bridle-path, a 
pleasant , sequestered route , 7>/2 M. only) Venosa (poor inn), the ancient 
Venvsia, colonised by Rome after the Samnite war, now a small town 
with 7500inhab., picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture, not 
far from the Fiumara , the 'pauper aquae Daunus' of Horace (Carm. iii, 
30, 11) , and near the more considerable Ofanlo, Lat. Aufldus. The Castle 
was erected by Pirro del Balzo in the 15th century. The abbey and church 
of S. Trinitd, consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058, contain the tombs 
of the founder Robert Guiscard and his first wife Aberarda, mother of 
Boemund. Frescoes of the 13th and 14th cent, have recently been discovered 
in the church. The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. 
The nave is 76 paces in breadth. The handsome court contains numerous 
inscriptions , columns , and other relics of an amphitheatre, which lay in 
the neighbourhood. The church has recently undergone restoration in 
questionable taste. 

Near Venosa, on the road to the Fiumara, Jewish Catacombs, with 
inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, were discovered in 1853. History 
records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th centuries. 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum' here is called the Casa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, the son of a freedman, 
was born atVenusia, on 8th Dec. B.C. 65, and there received his elementary 
education, after which his father took him to Rome in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Aufldus' 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. iii. 4, 14), such as 
the lofty Achevontia, now Acerenza (p. 220), 9 M. to the S.E., the woods of 
Bantia, N. of the latter, now Abbadia de' Sanzi, near Genzano, and the 
fertile meadows of the low-lying Ferentum (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 
6 M. to the E. of Venosa, to the right of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontana Grande, believed to be identical witli 
the Fons Bandusiae so highly praised by Horace (Carm. iii. 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia , in B.C. 208, 
M. Claud. Marcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first gen- 
eral who succeeded in arresting the tide of Hannibal's success (at Nola, 
215), fell into an ambuscade and perished. 

Lavello, where King Conrad died in 1254, lies 9'/ 2 M. to the N. of 
Venosa, beyond the wooded slopes of the Monte Vulture. The traveller 
may proceed thence by (19 M.) Canosa (p. 207) to the railway. 

16. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian 

Railway to Brindisi , 146 M. , in 4y 4 -7 hrs. ; fares 26 fr. 40, 18 fr. 50, 
10 fr. 65 c. (3rd cl. express 13 fr. 20 c.) ; comp. p. 200). — From Brindisi to 
Otranto, 54 M., in 3 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 85, 3 fr. 90 c. (3rd cl. express 
4 fr. 90 c); only two through-trains daily. — Excursions in the country 
are usually made here in two-wheeled Sciarraba's (a corruption of the 
French 'char-a-bancs'), resembling the Neapolitan corricoli. The average 
charge per day is 6-7 fr., fee included, and the average journey 30-35 M. 

Foggia, see p. 203. On the right lies an extensive plain, the 
Tavoliere di Puglia. Beyond it, to the S., rises Mtt. Vulture (p. 205). 

12'/2 M. Ortnnova. — 22 M. Cerignola, with 26,000 inhab., un- 
interesting. Route to (lO 1 ^ M. ) Canosa, see p. 207. The sur- 

CANOSA. 16. Route. 207 

rounding plain is richly cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees, 
which generally form an important feature in Italian fields and 
enhance the beauty of the landscape. Cotton-plantations begin 
here. — 32i/ 2 M. Trinithpoli. The train then crosses the Ofanto, the 
ancient Aufidus, the last river of the E. coast, with banks covered 
with underwood. Between two ranges of hills to the right lies the 
broad plain on which the battle of Cannae was fought (see below). 

42'/2 M. Barletta (Locanda di Ettore Fieramosca), a seaport- 
town with 33,200 inhab., picturesquely situated, contains a number 
of well-built houses and churches. The market-place is adorned 
with a bronze statue 14 ft. in height, said to represent the Emp. 
Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), and to have been found 
in the sea. In the Piazza d'Azeglio is a monument to Massimo 
d'Azeglio (d. 1866), the statesman, erected in 1880. The Cathedral 
of S. Maria Maggiore contains the tomb of a Count of Barbi and 
Miihlingen (d. 1566), with a German inscription. S. Andrea and 
S. Trinitci possess several ancient pictures. The extensive Castello 
dates from the time of Charles V. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic, Barletta 
was defended in 1503 by Gonsalvo da Cordova and besieged by the Duke 
of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato) between thirteen on 
each side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted re- 
spectively by Colonna , and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche' , which 
terminated in favour of the former. 

Canosa (Albergo Genghi, bad), with 16,500 inhab., on the slope of 
a hill, lies 14 M. inland from Barletta and about as far from Andria (see 
below), with both of which it is connected by high-roads. Of the ancient 
Canusium , once a prosperous town, a gate (Porta Varrense , on the road 
to Cerignola) , ruins of an extensive amphitheatre, and other relics still 
exist. Numerous painted vases, golden trinkets, etc., have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood. The principal church of S. Sabino, with several 
small domes, contains a pulpit and episcopal throne in marble and some 
antique columns; its pavement is now several feet below the level of the 
street. In an adjacent court is the tomb of Boemund (d. 1111), son of 
Rob. Guiscard, one of Tasso's heroes. Large olive-plantations in the neigh: 
bourhood, which, like the whole of Apulia, also yields excellent wine. 

About midway between Barletta and Canosa, and a little to the N. of 
the road, on the right bank of the Aufidus (Ofanto), once lay Cannae, where 
the Romans were signally defeated by Hannibal, B. C.216. The Roman army, 
under the Consuls Lucius ^Emilius Paullus and Caius TerentiusVarro, con- 
sisted of 80,000 foot and 6000 horse, that of Hannibal numbered 40,000 foot 
and 10,000 horse. After various changes of position the two armies engaged 
on the right hank of the Aufidus, the right wing of the Romans and the 
left wing of the Carthaginians leaning on the river. The Gallic and Spanish 
legionaries opened the battle by a successful attack on the Carthaginian 
centre, but Hasdrubal, at the head of the Carthaginian cavalry on the 
right wing, quickly put the Roman horse to flight, and then attacked the 
legions in the rear. Scarcely a single Roman foot-soldier escaped, 70,000 
being left on the field, including ^Emilius Paullus the Consul, and 10,000 
being taken prisoner. Hannibal lost only about 6000 men. — In 1019 an 
Apulian and Norman army under Melo of Bari was defeated at Cannse 
by the troops of the Greek prefect Basilius Bugianus. In 1083 Cannse was 
taken and destroyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Barletta to Bari via Andria , about 50 M., steam-tramway 
in 3>/2 hrs., four times daily in each direction. — 7 '/a M. Andria (lo- 
canda di Milone, near the road to Trani , tolerable), with 37,000 inhab., 

208 Route 16. TRANI. From Foggin 

founded about 1046, once a favourite residence of the Emp. Frederick II., 
whose second wife Isabella of Jerusalem died here in 1228, after having 
given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting old 
cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at Foggia in 
1241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by 
the partizans of Anjou. On the Porta S. Andrea, or delV Imperatore, is 
a metrical inscription in letters of metal, attributed to Frederick : Andria 
fidelis nostris affixa medullis, etc. The old church of S. Agostino and the 
adjoining convent belonged to the Teutonic Order during- the sway of the 
Hohenstaufen. — To the S. of Andria, on the summit of the pyramidal 
Murgie di Minervino, is the conspicuous and imposing "Castello del Monte, 
erected by Frederick II., who frequently resided here, for the purpose 
of hawking in the neighbourhood. The building is maintained by govern- 
ment. This height commands a fine 'View of the sea, the valley of the 
Ofanto, Mte. Vulture, etc. A bridle-path (9y 2 31.) ascends to it from Andria. 

A little beyond Andria, in a field by the road-side, is a modern 
monument called VEpitafio, marking the spot where the above-mentioned 
encounter between Colonna and Bayard took place. 91/2 M. Corato, with 
30,000 inhabitants. 14 M. Ruvo {Giov. Nanni, tolerable), with 17,000 inhab., 
the ancient Rubi, famous for the numerous and beautiful vases found in 
the Apulian tombs in its environs , and now among the chief treasures 
of the Museum of Naples. The tombs have since been covered up again. 
The collection of Giov. Jatta is worthy of a visit. — 17 M. Terlizzi. 
26 M. Bitonto, with 26,000 inhab. and large manufactures of salad-oil. 
The interesting cathedral contains several tombs of the 17th century. — 
Near (30'/2 M.) Modugno the tramway-line crosses the railway from Bavi 
to Taranto (p. 211). — 37 M. Bari, see p. 209. 

The line now skirts the coast. The country is luxuriantly fer- 
tile, and is chiefly famous for large olive-plantations yielding the 
finest quality of salad-oil. The district where this is produced now 
extends from Barletta and Canosa, past Bari, to the neighbourhood of 
Taranto (p. 221). The culture of the olive is very profitable, but the 
yield is extremely fluctuating. A first-rate crop, though very rare, 
sometimes realises a price equal to the value of the whole estate. 

5O1/2 M. Trani (Albergo della Stella d' Italia; Alb. delle Pug- 
lie ; Due Mori), with 26,000 inhab., is a well-built seaport. 
The loftily situated *Cathedral, built about 1100, still possesses a 
Romanesque portal and beautiful bronze doors of 1175. Interior 
barbarously modernised. The interesting Castello is now used as a 
prison. Several synagogues afford an indication of the former 
prosperity of the place and of its importance at the time of the 
Crusades. The pretty 'Villa', or public gardens, on the coast, con- 
tains two well-preserved milestones from the Via Trajana, which 
led from Benevento to Brindisi via Canosa, Ruvo, Bari, andEgnatia. 
Excellent wine (Moscado di Trani) is produced in the neighbourhood. 

50Y2 M - Bisceylie, with 23,000 inhab., the ruins of a Norman 
fortress, and numerous handsome villas. 

61 M. Molfetta (27,000 inhab.), beautifully situated, an epis- 
copal see, was once in commercial alliance with Amalfi. After the 
death of Johanna I. her husband Otho, Duke of Brunswick, was 
confined in the castle here until released by Charles of Durazzo in 
13S4. — 65 M. Qiovinazzo, said to have been founded by the inhabi- 
tants of Egnatia (p. 211 ), on the destruction of the latter, or by the 

Geogr. Anstilt TOn 

Wagner i. Debeijeip"i( 

toBrindisi. BARI. 16. Route. 209 

inhabitants of the ancient Netium (Natiolum). 69i/ 2 M. 8. Spirito 
and Bitonto (p. 208); the latter lies 4 M. to the W. 

77 M. Bari. — Hotels. Albekgo del Risorgimento (PI. a; C, 4) 
with good trattoria, R., L., & A. 2V2fr., bargaining necessary; Alb. Cen 
trale, at the corner of the Via Piccinni and the Via Cavour (PI. D, 4): 
Hotel Cavoub, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 86 ; Alb. Piccinni, Via Piccinni 121 

Cafes. Risorgimento and Stoppani, both in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele: 
Gran Gaff <S Piccinni. — Beer, etc., at Orsola CaflisclCs and the Birreria del 
Bolognese, both in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. 

Gabs into the town, o* per drive, 50 c, after dusk 70 c. ; with two 
horses 70 or 90 c. 

Tramway to Barletta, from the N.W. of the Giard. Garibaldi, see p. 208. 

Steamboats. Vessels of the Societd Florio-Rubattino for Brindisi, the 
Pirseus, Tremiti, Ancona, Venice, and Trieste. Also steamers of the Soc. 
Bart, Soc. Puglia, etc., to Genoa and Marseilles. 

British Vice-Consul, Emit Berner, Esq. — V. S. Consular Agent, 
Joseph Klein, Esq. 

Bari, the ancient Barium, which is still, as in the time of 
Horace, well supplied with fish ('Bari piscosi mcenia'), a seaport, 
and the capital of a province, with 60,600 inhab. ('commune'), 
is the most important commercial town in Apulia. It is one of the 
most ancient bishoprics in Italy, and is now the seat of an arch- 
bishop. In mediaeval history it is frequently mentioned as the 
scene of contests between Saracens, Greeks, and Normans, etc. In 
1002 it was wrested from the Saracens by the Venetians. "Wil- 
liam the Bad destroyed the town in 1156, but William the Good 
restored it in 1169. Bari was an independent duchy from the 14th 
cent, down to 1558, when it was united with the kingdom of Naples. 

The Strada Sparano da Bari leads to the N. from the station and 
crosses the Piazza Ateneo, in which, on the left, stands the Ateneo 
(PI. C, 6), containing a technical school and the new Provincial 
Museum. The latter consists chiefly of vases in the S. Italian style; 
one of the most interesting objects is the *Figure of a Moor in ter- 
racotta, found in a grave at Monopoli. 

The Strada Sparano ends in the Cokso Vittoeio Emanuble, 
which runs from "W. to E. and separates the closely built old town 
from the new town, or Borgo. On the "W. the Corso ends in the 
grounds of the Giardino Garibaldi (PI. A, 4) ; at the E. end is the 
Giardino Margherita (PI. D, E, 4), with a bust of Giuseppe Masari 
(d. 1883), parliamentary deputy and author, beyond which is the 
Old Harbour, now used only by fishing-boats and other small craft. 

In the middle the Corso expands into the Piazza della Pbb- 
pbttuea (PI. C,4), which is bounded on the W. by the Giardino 
Piccinni, with a statue of the composer Piccinni, Gluck's rival, who 
was born at Bari in 1728, on the S. by the Teatro Piccinni (PI. 15), 
the Palazzo di Citta, and the Tribunali (the last two forming the 
wings of the theatre), and on the N. by the Prefecture (PI. 11). 
Passing to the left of the prefecture we reach the Castello (now a 
prison, PI. B, C, 3), which was built in 1169 and afterwards re- 
peatedly strengthened. The castello lies on the New Harbour, 

Baedeker. Ital^ HI. 10 th Edition. 14 

210 Route 16. BARI. from Foggia 

whence a fine view of Mte. Gargano is enjoyed in clear weather. 
— Farther on is the Cathedral of S. Sabino (PI. 3; C, 3), begun in 
1027, originally a fine Byzantine building, sadly modernised in 1745. 
Over the altar of S. Rocco is a picture by Tintoretto, and opposite 
to it one by Paolo Veronese. The lofty campanile resembles the 
Moorish tower of Seville. — Near the cathedral is the church of 
*S. Nicola (PL D, 2, 3), begun in 1087 for the reception of the 
relics of the saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia. The 
crypt was consecrated by Pope Urban II. in 1089; the church it- 
self , a pillared basilica in an antique style, with numerous later 
additions, was finished by the Norman king Roger in 1139. On 
the exterior are tombstones erected to members of noble families 
of Bari, and to Byzantine pilgrims who died here. The interest- 
ing facade is embellished with mediocre statues of the Virgin, S. 
Nicola, and S. Antonio di Padova. 

The Interior consists of nave and aisles with flat ceiling, borne by 
double rows of columns , with galleries over the aisles. The transverse 
arches in the nave did not form part of the original structure. In the N. 
aisle is the Tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protonotarius' of Charles 
of Anjou, who conducted the proceedings against the ill-fated Prince Con- 
radin, and was afterwards assassinated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou 
on the very spot on which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 41). He 
was a member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. — To the right 
of the high- altar is a Madonna with saints, by Barlolommeo Vivarlni of 
Murano, 1476. — At the back of the choir is the Tomb (erected in 1593) 
of Bona Sforza, queen of Sigismund I. of Poland and last Duchess of Bari 
(d. 1558), with statues of St. Casimir and Stanislaus. 

On the staircase leading to the Crypt are some early-Christian sar- 
cophagus-sculptures representing Christ and the Evangelists (5th cent. ?), 
which were perhaps brought from Mysia. — The crypt itself contains a 
silver altar with interesting "Alto-reliefs, executed in 1319 for the Servian 
king Urosius by Ruggero dalV Invidia and Roberto da Barletla, and 
restored in 1684 by Bom. Marinelli and Ant. Avitabili of Naples. ' Below 
the altar is the vault containing the bones of the saint, from which a 
miraculous fluid ('Manna di Bari'), highly prized by believers, is said 
to exude. The festival of the saint , on 8th May , is attended by thou- 
sands of pilgrims, chiefly from the Albanese villages. 

The Treasury contains a beautifully illuminated breviary of Charles II. 
of Anjou, the sceptre of the same monarch, and an iron crown, which is 
said to have been made at Bari in 1131 for the Norman Koger. Roger 
himself, Emp. Henry VI. and his consort Costanza, Manfred, and Ferdi- 
nand I. were all crowned with it in this church. — In 1271 Charles of 
Anjou presented the church with a colossal bell, which Manfred had in- 
tended for Manfredonia, but tradition reports that this giant was melted 
down and made into live smaller bells about the year 1394. The present 
bells date from 1578, 1713, and 1830. 

The Lion, in the Piazza, with the inscription 'custos justitise 
on its collar, is the heraldic cognisance of Bari. 

From Bari to Taranto, 72 M., railway in 4y 2 hrs. (fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 10, 
o fr. 85 c). The line leads inland, towards the W., and gradually ascends. 
7 M. Modugno; 9>/sM. Bitetto. On a hill 3 M. to the N. lies Palo del Colle, 
once surrounded by four villages (Auricarre, Marescia, Staglino, Battaglia), 
of which few traces are now left. 14 M. Grumo-Appula. 25>/2 M. Acqua- 
viva delle Fonti; about 3 M. to the W. is situated Cassano, with a stalactite 
grotto (key at the Sindaco's); fine view from the Capuchin monastery. 

34 M. Oioia del Colle (14,000 inhab.). The line now enter9 the Terra 
d'Otranto, the ancient Calabria, and traverses the low range of hills which 

to Brindisi. BRINDISI. 16. Route. 211 

form the S.E\ spurs of the Apennines. The scenery becomes of bleak char- 
acter, the olive-trees disappearing and the fields often looking as if sown 
with fragments of limestone rocks. 42 M. S. Basilio-Motlola ; 48 M. Cas- 
tellanela, where olives reappear. Beyond the next tunnel the line crosses 
three deep ravines ('gravine'). 53 M. Palagianello ; 58 M. Palagiano; 6OV2 M. 
Massafra, picturesquely situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The train 
approaches the sea. Fine view of the bay. — 72 M. Taranto, see p. 221. 

84 M. Noicattaro; 89 M. Mola di Bari (13,000 inhab.), on the 
coast. 99 M. Polignano a Mare is situated on a lofty and precipitous 
rock, rising above the sea and containing several fine grottoes. 
The finest of these lies under the new town (entrance by a small 
door in the old town ; key at the house opposite). — 102 M. Monopoli, 
the ancient Minopolis, with 21,000 inhab., the residence of an arch- 
bishop. The cathedral contains a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. 
The tower of S. Francesco commands a fine view. Near the sea there 
have recently been discovered several rock-hewn tombs, the contents 
of which are now in the museum at Bari (p. 209). — On the coast 
between Monopoli andFasano lies the ruined town ('la citta distrutta' ) 
of Egnatia, the Greek OnatMa, now Anazzo, where a number of 
vases, ornaments, etc., have been found. The ancient walls have 
been nearly all removed by the peasants to build their cottages. 

llOt/2 M. Fasano (Locanda in the Municipio, tolerable), a thriv- 
ing town with 15,500 inhabitants. The old palace of the Knights 
of St. John, with its handsome loggie (1509), is now occupied by 
the Municipio. Signora Scarli Oolucci possesses a collection of an- 
tiquities from Egnatia , to which , however, persons unprovided 
with an introduction will scarcely obtain access. 

The train now enters the province of Lecce or Otranto {Terra 
d'Otranto, the ancient Calabria, see p. 206). 123 M. Ostuni (Lo- 
canda Petruzzo-Anglana) possesses a cathedral with a fine Roman- 
esque facade ; the Biblioteca Municipale contains a collection of 
antiquities. — 129 M. Carovigno ; 139 M. iS. Vito d'Otranto. 

146 M. Brindisi. — Grand Hotel des Indes Oeientales , built by 
the S. Italian railway company, on the quay, near the landing-place of 
the P. and O. steamers, R. 3, A. 1, B. li/ a , D. 5, lunch 3>/2-4 fr. — Ai.- 
bergo d'Europa , in the Strada Amena, leading from the station to the 
O/2 M.) harbour, good and tolerably clean, R. & L. 2'/zfr., A. 40c. 

Cabs. From the station to the harbour, 1 pers. 60 c, at night 80 c, 

2 pers. 1 fr. or 1 fr. 20 c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 40 c, 4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 1 fr. 

70 c; per 1/2 hr. 2 fr. or 2 fr. 20 c, per hr. 3 fr. or 3 fr. 20 c. ; trunk 20 c. 

Post Office, in the Strada Amena. — Telegraph Office, at the harbour. 

Steamboats to Corfu, Syra, and the Pirseus (comp. R. 43); also to An- 

cona, Venice, Trieste, Alexandria, etc. 

British Vice-Consul: Sig. S. O. Cocoto. — English Church Sehvicr 
in winter. 

Brindisi, with 17,000 inhab., the ancient Brentesion of the 
Greeks, and the Brundisium (i. e. stag's head) of the Romans, a 
name due to the form of the harbour which encloses the town in 
two arms, was once a populous seaport, and the usual point of em- 
barcation for Greece and the East. 

Brundisium was a very famous place in ancient history. At an early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B.C. 245, 

i r, * 

*■*-*> Koutel6. BRINDISI. From Foggia 

and it formed the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. i. 5) of his journey from Kome to Brundisium , B. C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas , who wished to be present at the con- 
clusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 
is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, in B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour being still pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he expired). The town , when occupied by Pompey, B. C. 49, sus- 
tained a memorable siege at the hands of Csesar, who describes the event 
in the first book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently 
assembled in the harbour of Brundisium , but the place soon declined 
after the cessation of the crusades. It was subsequently destroyed by 
Lewis , King of Hungary, in 1348 , and again by a fearful earthquake in 
1458, which buried most of the inhabitants beneath its ruins. 

In modern times Brindisi has again become the starting-point 
of the most direct route from Central Europe to the East, and bids 
fair to become an important station for the carrying trade. The ex- 
tensive harbour, admirably sheltered from every wind, has been en- 
tirely restored. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Co., etc., are enabled to enter and lie at the quay itself. The N. 
arm of the harbour, which once bounded the town and extended far 
into the land , was productive of malaria , owing to its muddy con- 
dition, and is now dried up. The entrance to the harbour is 
divided into two channels by an island. In order to prevent 
the harbour from becoming filled with sand , the N. channel has 
recently been closed by means of a substantia] bulwark of solid 
stone. The quarantine establishment and a small fort are situated 
on the island. The fort may be visited by boat, and a fine view 
enjoyed from the top, and the trip may be extended to the break- 
water (in all 1-1 1/2 hr-, fare II/2 fr-)- 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia ; but more probably belonged to an 
honorary monument of the Byzantine period , like the column of 
Phocas at Rome. The other relics of antiquity are insignificant. 

The Castello with its massive round towers , founded by the 
Emp. Frederick II., and strengthened by Charles V., is now a 
bagno for criminals condemned to the galleys. The remarkably 
picturesque remains of the circular church of 8. Oiovanni , de- 
stroyed by an earthquake in the 11th cent. , with colonnades, and 
decorated with frescoes, are still preserved, and will probably be 
converted into a museum. In the Cathedral the nuptials of Fred- 
erick II. with Isabella of Jerusalem were solemnised in 1225. 
Several thousands of the participators in the Crusade of 1227 perish- 

to Otranto. LECCB. 16. Route. 213 

;d here. Brindisi possesses a public library, presented by a Bishop 
le Leo, a native of the place. The environs are fertile, but malarious. 

Railway from Brindisi to Taranto, see R. 18. 

From Brindisi the train runs in 1 hr. 20 min. , via, stations 
Tuturano, S. Pietro Vernotico, Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to — 

170 M. Lecce (Albergo della Vittoria; Alb. della Ferrovia; 
loma; Gran Caffe, Piazza S. Oronzo), the capital of a province 
md the seat of a bishop, with 26,000 inhab., situated in an un- 
ittractive district, not far from the sea. 

The church of 8. Croce , with its fanciful rococo facade , in the 
Mazza della Prefettura, dates from the end of the 16th century. The 
°refettura, an old Celestine convent, is of the same period ; it con- 
ains a collection of vases (Attic *Amphora with Polynices and Eri- 
>hyle ; vase with Achilles and Brise'is), terracottas, coins, and in- 
icriptions. Passing through the Prefettura we reach the Giardino 
Pubblico, where a bronze statue of Victor Emmanuel II., by Mac- 
;agni, was erected in 1889. Near the Porta di Rugge is the church 
)f S. Domenieo, in the rococo style of the 17th cent. ; opposite is 
he Hospital, of the end of the 16th century. In the Piazza del 
^escovado are the Cathedral of S. Oronzo, built in the 17th cent., 
;he Seminary, and the Vescovado. Outside the Porta di Napoli lies 
;he Campo Santo, with the church of SS. Nicola e Cataldo, built by 
:he Norman Count Tancred in 1180. Of the facade the central part 
ilone, with the beautiful portal, is of ancient date. The corridor to 
ihe right of the church is entered by an interesting *Side-poTtal. 

Lecce occupies the site of the ancient Lwpia. In the vicinity Jay Ru- 
liae, where Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, was born, B.C. 239 (d. 
tt Rome 168), now Rugge, a place of no importance. — On the coast lies 
he Castello di Cattaldo, Vfc M. to the W., a favourite point for excursions. 

About 4J/2 M. to the S.K. of Lecce lies Cavallino, with a chateau in the 
•ich rococo style of the 17th cent.; the owner, the Duca Sigismondo Castro- 
nediano de Limburg, admits visitors on their sending their cards. 

The train runs from Lecce to (29'/2 M.) Otranto in l 3 / 4 hr. Four 
inimportant stations. — 179 M. Zollino. 

From Zollino to Gallipoli, 22 M., railway in l>/4 hr. (fares 4 fr., 
! fr. 80, 1 fr. 80c). — Stations: Alezio, S. Nicola, Nardb-Galatone (the 
indent Neretum of the Sallentini, now an episcopal residence), Galatina, 
md Soleto. — 22 M. G-allipoli (British vice-consul), a seaport, with 11,000 
nhab., beautifully situated on a rocky island in the Gulf of Taranto, but 
Mnnected with the mainland by a bridge. It was founded by the Lace- 
lemonian Leucippus and the Tarentines, and is the Urbs Graia Callipolis 
)f the Roman geographer Mela, but is called Anxa by Pliny. The cathedral 
s a handsome building of the 17th century. The town was formerly 
;elebrated for its oil, which was stored for long periods in subterranean 
listerns , and thence drawn off for exportation in a thoroughly clarified 
;ondition. Date j palms are frequent in the gardens of the handsome villas. 
— A steamer of the Florio-Rubattino Co. plies weekly to Brindisi and Taranto. 

194t/ 2 M. Maglie; Bagnolo del Salento ; Cannole; Giurdignano. 

199^2 M. Otranto, the Greek Hydrus, the Roman Hydruntum, 
i colony and municipium , often mentioned by the ancients as a 
point of embarcation for Apollonia in Epirus, was destroyed by the 
Turks in 1480 , and never recovered from the effects of this cruel 

214 Route 17. AVERSA. From Naples 

blow. It is now an insignificant fishing town with 2000 inhab. , 
and the seat of an archbishop. The castle with its two towers was 
erected by Alphonso of Arragon and strengthened by Charles V. — 
The Cathedral still contains some columns from a temple of Mer- 
cury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not far from 
the town. — From the ramparts of the Castle the coast and moun- 
tains of Epirus are visible in clear weather. 

A road skirting the coast leads from Otranto to (31 M.) the Promon- 
tory of Leuca, via Muro (to the right), and Castro, situated on a rocky 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervac, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by iEneas ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase (l'/z M. 
from the sea), Alessano, Montesardo, Path, and finally S. Maria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Finisterra. This is the Promontorium Iapygmm, or Salentimim, 
of antiquity, the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect. 
In fine weather the lofty Acroceraunian mountains of Albania may be 
distinguished. We may return for a change via Path, Preticce, Cggento (the 
ancient Ifxentum, an episcopal residence), and Taviano, to Gallipoli (31 M.). 

17. From Naples to Foggia (Ancona). 

123 M. Railway in 5 2 / 3 -8i/2 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 40, 15 fr. 70, 10 fr. 10 c). 
This line forms part of the shortest route from Naples to N. and E. Italy 
and to Germany. From Naples to Bologna 19V2 hrs. From Foggia to An- 
cona (201 M., in 71/4-12 hrs. ; fares 36 fr. 50, 25 fr. 55, 18 fr. 25 c), see p. 200. 
— The slow trains are always behind time. 

Naples, see p. 19. — The line describes a wide curve through 
fields planted with poplars , vines, and various other crops, form- 
ing the most fertile and highly cultivated portion of the Terra di 
Laooro (p. 7). An occasional glimpse of Vesuvius is obtained to 
the right. — 6 M. Casoria, connected with Naples by a steam-tram- 
way (p. 24). 8V2 M. Fratta-Qrumo ; 10 M. <S. Antimo. 

I21/2 M. Aversa, a town with 21,000 inhab., probably occupies 
the site' of the ancient Atella, where the Fabula Atellana, or 
early Roman comedy, first originated. In 1029 it was the first 
settlement of the Normans, who afterwards became so powerful. 
The large church of S. Paolo contains a faithful reproduction of the 
Holy House of Loreto (see Baedeker's Central Italy~). On 18th Sept. 
1345 King Andreas of Hungary , husband of Queen Johanna I. of 
Naples , was assassinated by Niccolo Acciajuoli in the palace of 
Aversa. The light and rather acid wine of Aversa, called Asprino, 
is frequently drunk at Naples. Steam Tramway to Naples, see p. 24. 

18 M. Marcianise. — 28 M. Caserta, see p. 9. 

The line now gradually ascends ; to the right a view of the Cam- 
panian plain ; to the left, the mountains. Two tunnels. — 26 M. 
Maddaloni ; the town lies below the line. 

The train descends, and passes under the *Ponti delta Valle, an 
imposing aqueduct in three stories, about 210 ft. in height, and 
25 M. in length. It was constructed by Vanvitelli by order of Char- 
es III. and his son, for the purpose of supplying the gardens of 

toFoggia. BENEVENTO. 17 . Route. 215 

Caserta with water from Monte Taburno. The towers connected with 
it are seen on the hill to the left. — 30 M. Valle di Maddaloni. 
— At (33V2 M.) Frasso-Dugenta we cross the Isclero, on which, 
2Y2 M. above Dugenta, lies S. Agata de Ooti, on the site of the 
ancient Saticola. The defile between S. Agata and Mojano is sup- 
posed by some to be the Caudine Forks, as the locality corresponds 
better with Livy's description than the pass near Arpaia (p. 10). 

The train enters the broad and fertile valley of the Volturno, 
which is first crossed bejow, then above, the influx of the Calore. — 
Beyond (38 M.) Amorosi the train follows the right bank of the 
Calore. Near (40^2 M.) stat. Telese we observe on the right the 
Lago di Telese, a malarious marsh which poisons the neighbourhood. 
Telese, a poor village on the hills to the left, is visited in summer 
for its mineral springs, and possesses a large new establishment for 
visitors (special train from Naples daily in July and August). Near 
it are a few relics of the Samnite Telesia, once occupied by Hanni- 
bal, but taken and destroyed by the Romans. It was afterwards col- 
onised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the town suffered severely 
from an earthquake, and it was at length entirely destroyed by the 
Saracens. A diligence runs hence to Piedimonte d'Alife (p. 10) 
in about 3 hrs. 

43Y2 M. Solopaca; the small town (5000 inhab.) is pleasantly 
situated iy 2 M. off, at the foot of Monte Taburno (4095 ft.) , on 
the left bank of the Calore. — 47 4 /2M. S. Lorenzo Maggiore, on the 
hill to the left. — Another tunnel. — 51 M. Casalduni-Ponte, 
where the high-road to Benevento crosses the Calore by an iron 
bridge. The valley contracts; to the right on the hill lies Torre- 
cuso. — On each side of (55 J / 2 M.) Vitulano we traverse a tunnel. 

60 M. Benevento. — The Station (Rail. Restaurant, fair) lies s /i Jl. 
to the N. of the town; one-horse cab 50 c, two-horse 1 fr., after dusk 
60 c. or 1 fr. 30 c; one-horse cab per hour 70 c. 

Hotels. Villa di Roma , with good trattoria ; Albekgo Manfredi ; 
Locanda di Benevento, in the Largo S. Antonio, small, but clean; Loc. 
di Gaeta, in the Piazza, dirty. — Cafes, in the street leading to the 
station, and opposite the prefecture, near the cathedral. 

The sights of the town may be visited in 3 hrs. or less. 

Benevento, a town with 21,700 inhab., situated on a hill bound- 
ed by the two rivers Sabato and Calore , was formerly the capital 
of a papal province of the same name. The narrow and dirty streets 
are gradually undergoing improvement. 

Beneventum, founded according to tradition by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally called Maleventum, but the name 
was changed when it became a Roman colony, B.C. 268. It lay on the Via 
Appia, and became one of the most important places in S. Italy. In the 6th 
cent, after Christ Beneventum became the seat of a powerful Lombard 
duchy. In the 11th cent. Emp. Henry III. ceded the principality of Bene- 
vento to Pope Leo IX., after which it belonged to Rome. In 1241 the town 
was partly destroyed by Frederick II. From 1806 to 1815 Benevento was 
capital of the short-lived principality of that name, which Napoleon I. 
granted to Talleyrand. 

*Trajan'a Triumphal Arch, or the Porta Aurea, on the N. side 

*"« aouieiv. BjuwjfiVJiiwru. zrom ivapies 

of the town, dating from A. D. 114, is one of the finest and 
best preserved Roman structures in S. Italy. It was dedicated 
to the emperor by the Roman senate and people, in recognition 
of his having completed a new road to Brundisium , and some- 
what resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. It is constructed of 
Greek marble, and is 50 ft. in height, the passage being 27 ft. 
high. A quadriga with a statue of Trajan once crowned the 
summit. The reliefs relate to the history of the emperor. 

Outside. Over the arch are two rivers , the Danube and Euphrates 
(or Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, on the left, assembly of the gods, resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva; on the right, conquest of Dacia, King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the left Trajan triumphing over Dacia; 
on the right the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted 
a Roman province; r. an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage: 1. Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiarium' 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Dacian triumph. Reliefs : 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the Capitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica Ulpia. 

Following the Town Walls , which , as well as the town itself, 
contain many relics of antiquity, we proceed towards the S. to the 
Castle, erected in the 14th cent. , now partly used as a prison. 
The promenade in front of it , which is embellished with a hand- 
some obelisk , commands an excellent survey of the valley of the 
Sabato and of the mountains. — From this point we follow the 
main street to the Piazza Papiniana. Another obelisk, re-erected 
here in 1872, is a memorial of the Egyptian worship of Isis, which 
was very prevalent heTe towards the end of the pagan period. — On 
the right is a suppressed Benedictine monastery with the church of 
Santa Sofia, a circular edifice of the Lombard period, erected about 
732-74. It is now partly modernised. The vaulting of the dome is 
borne by six ancient Corinthian columns. Handsome cloisters. 

We next pass the Episcopal Palace, where there is another obe- 
lisk, and reach the piazza in front of the ^Cathedral, a beautiful 
edifice in the Lombard-Saracenic style, dating from the 12th cen- 
tury. In the wall of the clock-tower is a relief in marble, repre- 
senting a wild boar, the cognisance of Benevento. The principal 
door of the cathedral is of bronze, adorned with basreliefs of New 
Testament subjects. It is said to have been executed at Constanti- 
nople in 1150. The interior is in the form of a basilica, with 
double aisles borne by ancient columns. Ambones and candelabra 
of 1311. Valuable treasury. 

Descending to the right of the church, we reach the Prefecture. 
Continuing to descend to the right, we pass through an old gate- 
way to the site of the ancient Theatre, now concealed by other 
buildings. — Returning to the cathedral and going straight past 
it , and passing the street leading to the station , we come to a 
piazza embellished with an Apis, another relic of the ancient worship 
of Isis which the local savants have pronounced to be an emblem 

toFoggia. BOVINO. 17 . Route. 217 

of the Samnite League. The traveller may now continue his route 
along the bank of the Sabato, planted with poplars, to the ancient 
Ponte Lebroso, by which the Via Appia once led to the town. It 
is now the site of a mill. Near it, to the W., lie the ruins of 
Santi Quaranta, an extensive structure of brick with a crypto- 
porticus and colonnades, probably part of a bath-establishment. 

The road to the station crosses the Calore by a handsome bridge. 

Hear this, according to tradition , was the temporary grave of the 
young King Manfred, who on 26th Feb., 1266, in a battle with Charles I. 
of Anjou on the neighbouring plains , had lost his throne and his life 
through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of Caserta 
and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated prince 
was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop of Cosenza, 
conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied on the 
bank of the Rio Verde. Dante records this in his Purgatorio (iii. 134). 

From Benevento to Termoli, see p. 203. 

The Railway crosses the Tammaro, a tributary of the Calore, 
immediately before (64 M.) Ponte Valentino, and follows the un- 
interesting N. bank of the latter stream, through its narrow valley, 
to (67^2 M.) Apicio. — 74 M. Buonalbergo. 77 M. Montecalvo ; 
the town is on the hill to the right. Four tunnels , one of which 
is more than l 1 ^ M. long. We then cross the watershed between 
the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic. 84 M. Ariano; the town is 
not visible from the line. Then a long tunnel, beyond which we 
descend the Valle di Bovino , the narrow valley of the Cervaro. — 
90 M. Savignano-Greci, two villages loftily situated on opposite 
sides of the valley. — 95 M. Montaguto-Panni. Montaguto lies on 
the left bank of the Cervaro ; Panni lies high up among the hills 
to the right. We follow the left bank of the Cervaro. — 93i/ 2 M. 

10272 M. Bovino, the ancient Vibinum, lies on the hill to the 
right. At Ponte di Bovino the train crosses the Cervaro. — 107 M. 
Oiardinetto is the station for Troja, 7 M. to the N. (diligence 
l'/ 2 ir0» a colony founded in 1017 by the Greek prefect Bugianus 
(p. 207); to the 11th cent, belongs also the interesting cathedral 
with its ancient bronze doors. 

From (118 M.) Cervaro diverges the branch-line to Rocchetta 
S. Antonio mentioned at p. 205. We finally traverse the Tavoliere 
di Puglia (p. 204) to (123 M.) Foggia (p. 203). 

18. From Naples to Brindisi via, Metaponto and 

240 M. Railway (express to Metaponto) in 113/ 4 -i8 hrs. ; fares 43 fr. 
65, 30 fr. 55, 19 fr. 65 c. 

From Naples to(45'/2M.) Battipaglia (the junction for Paesturri), 
see p. 177. The line to Brindisi runs to the E., skirting the hills. 

49'/2 M. Eboli (Albergo del Vozzo, outside the town, R. 2, pens. 
7 fr., tolerable, bargaining necessary), a town with 9000 inhab. , 

218 Route 18. PERTOSA. From Naples 

Situated on the hillside, with an old chateau of the Prince of 
Angri, enjoys a fine view of the sea, the oak-forest of Persano, the 
towns at the foot of Monte Alburno , the temples of Psstum, and 
the valley of the Sele, the ancient Silarus. The sacristy of S. Fran- 
cesco contains a large Madonna by Andrea da Salerno. 

The railway proceeds towards the E., at the foot of the hills. 
On the right flows the broad and turbulent Sele, beyond which rises 
the Monte di Postiglione, the Alburnus of the ancients , described 
by Virgil as 'green with holm-oaks'. The line , which is here 
scaling the main chain of the Apennines , passes through no less 
than thirty-six tunnels in the limestone rock. Scattered groves of 
oaks and olive-trees are seen at intervals. 54M. Campagna ; 6IV2 M. 
Contursi; the village lies at some distance to the left. The train now 
follows for a short time the course of the Tanagro or Negro, the 
Tanager of the ancients. — 65 M. Sicignano. 

Feom Sicignano to Casalbuono, 41 M. , railway in 3^4 hrs. — The line 
crosses the Tanagro and ascends its left bank. 5'/2 M. Galdo, 7'/2 M. Petina; 
the villages of these names are on the hills to the right, at some distance. 
— IOV2 M. Auletta, a poor village (3000 inhab.) on the right bank of the 
Tanagro. The dilapidated church was destroyed by the appalling earth- 
quake of Dec. 12th, 1857, through the effects of which, direct and indirect 
(exposure, hunger, etc.), 40,000 people perished in the district of Sala and 
the valley of Diano alone. 

The line describes a wide bend to the right and crosses the ravine of 
the Lontrano by a lofty viaduct, beyond which it again approaches the 
Tanagro. To the left lies the village of Perlosa, which was partly de- 
stroyed in 1857. Below the village is a large cavern, dedicated to St. 
Michael, whence, after a subterranean course of Vft M., the Negro pre- 
cipitates itself into a gorge. Beyond (17 M.) Polla, the ancient Forum 
Popilii, which was almost entirely destroyed in 1857, we enter the beautiful 
Valle di Diano. The valley, 15 M. in length, 3 M. in width, is traversed 
by the Negro, here named the Calore, and is remarkable for its fertility. 
Numerous villages are situated on the heights on both sides. 21 M. Atena, 
the ancient Atina in Lucania, with remains of an amphitheatre, walls, and 
towers, almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1857. 25'/2 M. Sala- 
Consilino (Albergo in the Piazza, tolerable), the seat of a sub-prefect, pictur- 
esquely situated on a height. On an isolated eminence, nearly opposite, 
on the other bank of the river, which is crossed by the Ponte di Silla, an 
ancient Roman bridge, rises (28V2 M.) Teggiano or Diano , the ancient 
Ttgianum., whence the valley derives its name. 30/2 M. Padula, below 
which are the ruins of the Certosa di S. Lorenzo. 

[From Sala and Padula beautiful routes (formerly not unattended with 
danger from brigands) cross the Monte S. Elia to the picturesque Valley of 
Marsico, which is watered by the Agri. The chief place is Marsieo Nuovo, 
;i town with 12,000 inhab. in the upper part of the valley. After a ride 
of 4-5 hrs. across the fertile plain the traveller reaches Saponara, situated 
on a steep hill, at the foot of which, in the Agri valley, once lay the an- 
cient Orumentum. The ruins are insignificant, but a rich treasure of vases, 
inscriptions, and gems has been found among them.] 

41 M. Casalbuono is at present the terminus of the line , which is to 
be continued via Lcigonegro to Cnstrocucco on the Gulf of Policastro (and 
to Gioia, p. 233). 

From Casalbuono to Spkzzano (Cosenza), about 53 M. , high-road, 
traversed by a 'Vettura Corriera' and by diligences ('Giornaliera'). The 
road ascends, and crosses the rivulet Trecchina to Lagonegro, a small town 
with 4000 inhab., in a wild situation, amidst lofty mountains. The French 
gained a victory over the Neapolitans here in 1806, after which they com- 
mitted the most savage excesses. The road now winds through dark and 

to Taranto. POTENZA. 18. Route. 219 

profound ravines, passing to the left of the Lwjo di Serino, the ancient 
Lacus Niger, in which the Sinno, the Sir-is of the ancients, takes its rise. 
The next village, Lauria, lies at the base of a lofty mountain, opposite 
the huge Monte Sirino, and is surrounded by vineyards. Then Castelluccio, 
on an eminence above a branch of the Lao, the ancient Laos, environed 
by dense woods. 

27 M. Rotonda, with 5000 inhabitants. We now traverse the long and 
desolate tableland of Campo Tenese, where the Neapolitans fled before the 
French general Regnier in 180b'. A path descends from this point, and passes 
through the narrow valley at the base of Monte Pollino (7325 ft.), on the W. 
side of which Morano, the ancient Muranum, is picturesquely situated. 

39 M. Castrovillari, with 10,000 inhab., on a hill, surrounded by lofty 
mountains, with an ancient Norman castle, is next reached. 

Beyond Castrovillari the high-road leads through the well -cultivated 
valley of the Coscile to (53 M.; 94 M. from Sicignano) Spezzano, where we 
reach the railway from Sibari to Cosenza mentioned at p. 230. 

Beyond Sicignano the train traverses a tunnel % M. in length 
and reaches (70 M.) Buccino , a town with 7000 inhab., situated 
on the hill to the left. Beyond (71 M.) Ponte S. Cono is another 
tunnel (^2 M.), under the hill of La Montagnola. The train now 
enters the valley of the Platano, which receives several small 
affluents on the left. At (74^2 M.) Romagnano the country becomes 
bleak, and covered with broom. 79 M. Balvano. 83 M. Bella- 
Muro , the station for the village of Bella and the town of Muro 
Lucano (8000 inhab.), both of which lie about 6 M. to the N. 
Near (91 M.) Baragiano the train crosses the Platano, which it then 
quits. — 92Y2 M. Picerno, with 6000 inhab., who make oil, wine, 
and silk. In the vicinity are some marble quarries. — 96 M. Tito, 
at the top of the pass , with an extensive view , stretching on the 
S. to Monte Pollino (see above), snow-covered even in June. The 
village (5000 inhab.) lies to the right. 

103 M. Potenza {Alb. $ Rist. Lombardo , R. with two beds 
3 fr., good cuisine, omnibus to the station l 1 /^ fr. ; Croce di Savoia, 
dirty; * Cafe Pergola, opposite the Alb. Lombardo; Rail. Restau- 
rant, with bedrooms), with 20,300 inhab., is the capital of the pro- 
vince of the same name , which forms part of the old Basilicata, a 
district nearly corresponding with the ancient Lucania. The town 
lies on an eminence above the Basento, which rises on the mountain 
Ariosa not far from this , and falls into the Gulf of Taranto near 
the ruins of Metapontum. Fine view from the piazza in front of 
the Cappella di S. Gerardo. — The ancient Potentia, destroyed by 
Frederick II. and again by Charles of Anjou, lay lower down in 
the plain , at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and in- 
scriptions have frequently been found. Remains of various ancient 
towns have been discovered near Potenza. Sig. Lacava, director of 
the Banca di Napoli, is well acquainted with the environs, and 
exceedingly courteous in imparting his information. 

The Earthquake of 1857, which wrecked a number of towns and 
villages in the Basilicata and occasioned a loss of upwards of 32,000 lives, 
was attended here with the most terrible consequences. The greater part 
of the town, including the Lyceum, fell, and numerous lives were lost. In 
consequence of wounds alone 4000 persons underwent amputations. The 

220 Route 18. ACERENZA. From Naples 

result in thirty or forty neighbouring villages was not less disastrou; 
This stupendous convulsion took place in a circular course in thre 
distinct shocks, of which the second was the most violent. A line draw 
from Monte Vulture to the volcano of Stromboli intersects the plac< 
which suffered most; thus Auletta, Atena, Polla, Sala, Padula, Saponart 
Sapri, and many other villages were entirely destroyed. In the directio 
of Mt. Vesuvius, towards Naples and Salerno to the W. , the concussior 
were much more violent than in the opposite direction. The loss of HI 
was not less serious than that occasioned by the earthquake of 1783 i 
Calabria. The shocks recurred in March and April 1858. 

From Potenza to Acerenza, an interesting excursion: diligence I 
Pietragalla (in 4 hrs., fare 2 fr.), and a walk of 2-3 hrs. thence. Acerenz 
("Locanda in the old castle), the Acherontia of Horace (comp. p. 206 
famed for its wine, occupies a lofty and beautiful situation. The cry] 
of the cathedral contains four ancient columns of coloured marble an 
pedestals with mediaeval reliefs. 

From Potenza to Melfi (p. 205; about 37 M. ; hilly road) a diligeno 
runs in 9-10 hrs. (fare 6 fr.), via, Avigliano and Atella. Railway under coi 

From Potenza to Grumo (p. 211), about 75 M., local communicatio 
only. The road leads via Montepeloso, Oravina (with a collegiate churc 
and an old chateau of the Dukes of Gravina), and Allamuva, with an ol 
Norman cathedral. 

The train now follows the picturesque valley of the Basent( 
passing through numerous tunnels. The stations are generally at 
considerable distance from the towns and villages, with which thei 
is often no regular communication. 107 M. Vaglio ; the village lie 
to the left of the railway. 11372 M. Brindisi-Montagna ; 117 M. Tri 
vigno. 118 M. Albano ; the town of Albano di Lucania is situate 
on a hill to the N. The train now crosses the Camastra, the chit 
affluent of the Basento ; fine mountains to the right. 122 M. Can 
pomaggiore; to the left, Tomantic mountain scenery. 12972 M - Ca 
ciano, the station for Tricarico, a town to the N., the seat of 
bishop, with 6000 inhabitants. 132 M. Orassano-Oaraguso (sma 
restaurant) ; 1377 2 M. Salondra-Grottole. Grassano and Grottole 1 
considerably to the N. , Garaguso and Salandra to the S. of the rai 
way. Salandra, with its oastle , is situated on the Salandrella, i 
affluent of the Cavone, which flows into the Gulf of Taranto. - 
1457a M. Ferrandina, 163 l / 2 M - Pisticci ; the two small towns are 
some distance to the S. Farther on the train crosses the Basent 
which descends in windings to the sea. 161 72 M - Bemalda, a tovi 
of 7000 inhab., with extensive fields of saffron and cotton. 

169 M. Metaponto (comp. the Plan at p. 221; Station In; 
R. li/ 2 -3fr. ; Rail. Restaurant, tolerable), with the castle of Torr 
mare, the junction of the railway to Taranto and Bari (R. 16). 

About 1 M. to the N.W. of the station lie the ruins of a Doric Temp 
dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and called by the peasants Chiesa di Sanson 
the columns are all encased in stucco. — About 3 M. to the N.E. (hot 
2-2'/2 fr.) is another ancient Greek 'Temple in the Doric style, called 
Tavole Paladine by the peasantry, who believe each pillar to have been t 
seat of a Saracen chieftain. Fifteen columns of the peristyle (ten on the 1 
five on the S. side) are still standing. The limestone of which they consist 
now much disintegrated. This temple marks the site of the celebrated ancie 
Greek city of Metapontum. Pythagoras died here, B.C. 497, in his 90th yes 
but his philosophy long survived him in the principal towns of Mag 

to Taranto. 


18. Route. 221 

Grrecia, especially rt Metapontum itself, Tarentum, and Croton. When 
Alexander of Epirus came to Italy in B.C. 332, Metapontum allied itself 
with him, and in the Second Punic War it took the part of Hannibal. 
Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, caused its downfall, 
and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd cent, after Christ, it was a mere 
heap of ruins. — We may now return by the right bank of the Bradano. 
The neighbouring farm-houses (massarie), such as the Massaria Sansone, 
are built of massive blocks from the ancient walls of the town. On the 


coast are traces of a harbour now filled with sand. To the S.W. are 
rows of tombs which afford an idea of the great extent of the town. 

The proceeds of the latest excavations are temporarily exhibited in 
the red house behind the railway-station (adm. on previous application 
to the Guardia di Antichita, Sig. Giov. Morolli, at Bernalda, p. 220). They 
include a dedicatory inscription to Apollo Lyceus, which revealed the pur- 
pose of the temple ; a fragment of a metope, some polychrome terracotta 
mouldings, and architectural fragments from the same temple ; a boar, in 
the archaic style, carved in sheet-bronze, etc. 

The railway from Metaponto to Taranto traverses a flat and 
monotonous district on the coast. The once fertile country is now 
very inefficiently cultivated (comp . p . 225). The train crosses several 
fiumare (p. 225). — 1751/2 M. Oinosa; 186 M. Chiatona. 

196M. TirantO (comp. Map, p. 208). — Hotels. Albekgo Europa, 
Borgo Nuovo, in anew street near the canal, R. 2V-2-5, L. 1/2, A. >/s fr., 
well spoken of; Hotel d'Eueope, on the Mare Piccolo, new, well spoken 
of. The others are all rather dirty: Alb. Gaeibaldi, at the gate, '/a II. 
from the station, with view towards the Mare Piccolo, R. from 1 fr. 20 c; 
Albergo di Roma (the antiquities offered for sale by the landlord are not. 

Trattorie and Cafes. "Aquila d^Oro, near the Alb. Europa, charmingly 

222 Route 18. TARANTO. From Naples 

situated on the coast ; Cafi Duilio, Strada Maggiore ; several Cafis in t 
Einghiera, often crowded on Saturdays. 

Cab from the station to the town, i/ 2 M., 60 c. — Two omnibus-lir 
ply in the town: 1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 10 c. 

British Vice-Consul, Signor G. Alberti. 

Taranto, a town with, about 40,000 inhab., is situated in the 1 
angle of the Gulf of Taranto , on a rock which divides the de- 
inlet here into the Mare Piccolo and Mare Grande and which 
made an island by the canal at Porta di Lecce. The Mare Gram 
is bounded by the Capo 8. Vito on the S.E. The ebb and flow 
the tide is distinctly visible under the bridges which connect tl 
island with the mainland, one of the few places on the Medite 
ranean where it is perceptible. The harbour is protected by t^ 
fiat islands situated in front of it, the Choerades of antiquity, nc 
8. Paolo (the smaller), occupied by a fort, and S. Pietro. Tl 
entrance to the harbour is between S. Vito and S. Paolo, on eat 
of which a lighthouse is situated. Towards the N.W. the passa; 
is navigable for small boats only. 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was called in Greek, founded to the W. 
the mouth of the Galsesus by Spartan Parthenians under the guidance 
Phalanthus, B. C. 707, gradually extended its sway over the territory 
the IapygEe, which was peculiarly suited for agriculture and sheep-fan 
ing. (The sheep of this district wore coverings to protect their fleece 
comp. Horace, Carm. II. 6, 'ovibus pellitis Galesi\) Excellent purpl 
mussels were also found here, so that the twin industries of weavii 
and dying sprang up side by side; and this town seems also to have fu 
nished the whole of Apulia with pottery. Thus through its strong flee 
its extensive commerce and fisheries, its agriculture and manufacture 
Tarentum became the most opulent and powerful city of Magna Grseci 
The coins of the ancient Tarentum are remarkable for their beaut 
In the 4th cent. B. C. the city attained the zenith of its prosperit 
under the guidance of Archytas , the mathematician ; but at the san 
time its inhabitants had become notorious for their wantonness, 
the war against the Lucanians Tarentum summoned to its aid forei{ 
princes from Sparta and Epirus, and in its struggle with Rome it w 
aided by Pyrrhus f2Sl), whose general Milo, however, betrayed the ci 
into the hands of the enemy. In the Second Punic War the town t 
poused the cause of Hannibal, but was conquered in 209 by the Roman 
who plundered it, carried off its treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of tl 
citizens as slaves. In the time of Augustus Tarentum, like Naples ai 
Reggio, was still essentially a Greek town, and its trade and indust 
were still flourishing ('ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet', Ho 
Carm. II. 6). Subsequently it became quite Romanized. After the reij 
of Justinian the town, with the rest of S. Italy, belonged to the Byzar 
ine empire. In 927 it was entirely destroyed by the Saracens, but in 9' 
it was rebuilt by Nicephorns Phocas, in consequence of which Greek on 
more became the common dialect. In 1063 Robert Guiscard took tl 
town and bestowed it on his son Boemund. At a later period Frederi 
II. of Hohenstaufen. built the castle of Rocca Imperiale. Philip, son 
Charles II. of Anjou, was made prince of Taranto in 1301, 

The modern town, occupying the site of the Acropolis of tl 
ancient city, which extended far towards the S. E., is the seat < 
an archbishop , a sub-prefect , and other dignitaries , and carrif 
on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and wheat. Near the statio 
are large bonded warehouses, the largest belonging to the Brothei 
Cacace, who also carry on manufactures. 

to Taranto. TARANTO. IS. Route. 223 

The population is densely packed in confined houses and nar- 
row streets. The town is intersected lengthwise by three streets. 
The Mare Piccolo is skirted by the Strada Garibaldi, inhabited 
chiefly by fishermen , whose language is still strongly tinctured 
with Greek and is often unintelligible to the other Tarentines. 
This street is connected by a number of lanes with the narrow 
Strada Maggiore, or main street, the chief business thoroughfare, 
which under various names intersects the town from N.W. to S.E. 
The Strada Vittorio Emanuele, skirting the coast, affords a view 
of the bay and the mountains of Calabria, and forms a pleasant 
evening promenade. 

The now entirely modernised Cathedral of S. Cataldo was 
founded in the 11th century. It contains a few Byzantine capitals. 
The chapel of the saint (an Irishman), adjoining the choir on the 
right, is sumptuously decorated. The crypt is closed. The tower 
commands a fine view. — The Castle, at the S. end of the town, 
and the other fortifications date from the time of Ferdinand of 
Arragon and Philip II. of Spain. 

The relics of the celebrated ancient city are scanty. The most 
important is a Doric Temple, discovered by Prof. Viola, of which 
two incomplete columns may be seen in the court of the Congrega 
della Pieta (Strada Maggiore), and some fragments of the stylobate 
in the cellar. To judge from the heavy proportions of the columns 
and the narrow intercolumniation, this must rank with the temple 
of Ortygia (p. 366) as one of the oldest extant examples of the 
Doric style. — Over the bridge to the N. of the Porta di Napoli 
runs a Roman aqueduct, 9^2 M. long, known as II Triglio. 

The S.E. gate of the town is named the Porta di Lecce. The 
canal which here unites the Mare Piccolo with the Gulf of Taranto 
is 295 ft. wide, and admits war-ships of the largest size. It is 
crossed by an iron swing-bridge. 

On the mainland towards the S.E., where the Tarentum of an- 
tiquity was situated, a new quarter, the Borgo Nuovo, is now 
springing up. A Museum (Director, Prof. Luigi Viola) has recently 
been fitted up in the former convent of S. Pasquale, in the market- 
place, in which are collected the antiquities unearthed in the course 
of building operations and excavations in the neighbourhood. 

Among the contents is pottery, some of rude workmanship and some 
ornamented with geometric designs, dating from the pre-Grecian inhabi- 
tants. The Corinthian vases and their imitations date from the Doric 
colonists. — The development of the Hellenistic plastic art from the 
severe style of the 6th cent. B.C. to the more florid taste of the 3rd cent. 
B.C. is illustrated in numerous votive-statues and reliefs. — Among the 
more noteworthy objects are a few jewels, glass and ivory articles, two 
fine marble 'Heads : Persephone 'or Aphrodite , from the end of the 5th 
cent., and Hercules, from the 3rd cent. B.C. ; and Reliefs of marine and 
land fights between Greeks and barbarians, from the Alexandrian period. 

Near the hospital are the remains of the Amphitheatre, with 
cellars. Beside the road to S. Lucia, near the sea, are large heaps 

224 Route 18. TARANTO. 

of the purple-yielding mussel shells, dating from antiquity. In 
this neighbourhood is the Villa Beaumont-Bonelli (gardener ^fr.), 
with a good view, and farther on, 3 / i M. from Taranto, stands the 
Villa Pepe, once the property of the celebrated Archbishop Capece- 
latro (d. 1816), who placed on it the inscription — 'Si rursus heic 
peccasset Adam, forsitan Deus ignosceret', and afterwards that of 
General Pepe. Although in a dilapidated condition, it still merits 
a visit, and is thus described by an old writer: — 

'This is one of the most charming spots in the neighbourhood. The 
Mare Piccolo looks like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive- 
groves, rise in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two magnificent 
palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the courtyard of the archiepiscopal 
residence. Gardens with oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates 
slope down from the town to the water's edge, filling the air with their 
delicious fragrance'. 

From this point we obtain a survey of the extensive naval 
buildings, including the Arsenal, with docks 218 yds. long and 
40 yds. broad, and the Mare Piccolo. The last is divided into two 
halves by the promontory II Pizzone, and the Punta della Penna. 
Excellent fish abound in this bay. They enter with the tide under 
the S. bridge, and aTe netted at night in great numbers. There 
are no fewer than 93 different species, and they are largely ex- 
ported in every direction. Shell -fish are also bred here in vast 
numbers (oysters and others called cozze , the best being the coc- 
cioli). The situation of the beds is indicated by stakes protrud- 
ing from the water. The traveller may visit them by boat (1^2 fr- 
per hr.), and enjoy his oysters fresh from the sea (about 50 c. per 
doz. is sufficient recompense; bread should be brought). 

The climate of Taranto is somewhat cold in winter, and not 
unbearably hot in summer. The honey and fruit of the neigh- 
bourhood are in high repute, as they were in ancient times. The 
date-palm also bears fruit here, but it seldom ripens thoroughly. 

In the district between Taranto, Brindisi , and Otranto the venomous 
tardnlola, or tarantella-spider occurs. Its bite is said by the natives to 
cause convulsions and even madness, for which evils music and dancing 
are supposed to be effectual remedies. The latter belief gave rise to the 
curious tarantella-dancing mania, which was epidemic in S. Italy in the 
15-17th centuries. 

From Taranto to Lecce (p. 213) diligence daily in 9 hrs., via S. 
Giorgio, Suva, Manduria (an old town with 9500 inhab.) , and Campi- 
Salentino. Scenery unattractive. 

From Taranto to Bari, see p. 211. 

The railway describes a curve round the Mare Piccolo, and then 
turns to the E. — 204i/ 2 M. Monteiasi-Montemesola. 217 M. Fran- 
cavilla-Fontana. 221 M. Oria, the ancient Vria, from which the 
Doria family is said to derive its origin, a beautifully situated place 
with numerous palaces and a small museum (in the Biblioteca Mu- 
nicipale). 2261/2 M. Lntano ; 231 M. Mesagne. — 240 M. Brin- 
disi, see p. 211. 


19. From (Naples) Metaponto to Reggio. 

267 M. Railway in 10»/ 4 -17"/2 hrs. (fares 48 fr. 60, 34 fr. 5, 21 fr. 90 c). 
— Fbom Naples to Reggio, 436 M., railway in 21-27 hrs. (fares 79 fr. 45, 
55 fr. 65, 35 fr. 75 c). — Through-tickets to Messina, Catania, and other 
places in Sicily include transport from the railway-station to the quay at 
Reggio and the steamer-fare to Messina. — The traveller should supply 
himself with refreshments for this journey, as the railway-restaurants arc 
poor and few in number. 

Metaponto, see p. 220. — The railway crosses the Basento and 
skirts the Gulf of Tarentum. The soil is very fertile, but miserably 
cultivated. Although quite capable of yielding two crops annually 
with proper management, it is allowed, in accordance with the old- 
fashioned system prevalent here , to lie fallow for two years after 
each crop. In the marshy districts near Metaponto and at other parts 
of the line the railway company has surrounded the stations and 
many of the pointsmen's and signalmen's huts with plantations of 
the Eucalyptus Globulus , which have already proved extremely 
beneficial in counteracting the malarious influences of the district. 
The train crosses several fiumare, or mountain-torrents, which were 
confined within embankments on the construction of the railway. 
The numerous watch-towers are a memento of the unsafe condition 
of the coast during the middle ages, which is also the reason of the 
distance of the settlements from the sea. 

5 M. (from Metaponto) S. Basilio Pisticci , beyond which the 
train crosses the Cavone. 10 M. Scanzano Monlalbano. We next 
cross the Agri, the ancient Aciris. 13 V2 M. Policoro, near which lay 
the Greek town of Heraclea (founded by the Tarentines in 432), 
where Pyrrhus with the aid of his elephants gained his first victory 
over the Romans, B.C. 280. At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated 
bronze Tabula Heracleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis), now in the 
Museum at Naples (p. 65), was discovered in 1753. 

The train traverses a wood (Pantano di Policoro), full of the 
most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles, oleanders, etc.), and near 
(20 M.) Nova Siri crosses the river Sinno, the ancient Siris. The 
line now approaches the sea. 

22'/ 2 M. Eocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 26 M. 
Monte Giordano; 31 M. Roseto. To the left, on the coast, is a 
curious ruin. — The finest part of the line is between Roseto ami 
Rossano. It commands a beautiful view of the precipitous Monte 
Pollino (7850 ft.) never free from snow except in summer, and of 
the broad valley of the Crati, at the head of which rise the pine- 
clad Sila mountains (p. 237). — 34 M. Amendolara ; 407a M. Tre- 
bisacce (a good echo at the station); 47 M. Torre Cerchiara. 

50 M. Sibari (Rail. Restaurant) , formerly Buffaloria, whence 
the line mentioned at p. 230 diverges to Cosenza, derives its name 
from the ancient Sybaris (see below). 

The train now crosses the Crati, on which the wealthy and lux- 
urious Sybaris, founded B.C. 720 by Achaeans and Troezeiiians, and 

Baedeker. Italy III. 10th Edition. 15 

226 Route 19. COTRONE. From Naples 

destroyed in 510 by the Crotonians , is said to have been situated. 
Excavations were begun in 1883. 

About 6 M. from this point, near Terranova, are the scanty ruins of 
Thurii, which was founded by the Sybarites after the destruction of their 
city. In 443 the Athenians sent a colony thither, and with it the historian 
Herodotus. Owing to the wise legislation of Charondas , Thurii soon at- 
tained to great prosperity. It formed a league with the Romans in 282 
and was defended by C. Fabricius against the attacks of the Lucanians! 
but it was afterwards plundered by Hannibal. In 193 it received a Roman 
colony, and the new name of Copiae, but it rapidly declined, and was at 
length entirely deserted. 

58 M. Corigliano Calabro. The town, with 11,000 inhab., lies 
on a height, 4 M. from the station. 

65t/ 2 M. Rossano. The town (*Albergo & Trattoria Milanese, 
unpretending, R. from li/ 2 fr.), with 18,000 inhab., situated on 
a hill, and possessing quarries of marble and alabaster, is 5 M. dis- 
tant. This was the birthplace of St. Nilus. The archiepiscopal library- 
contains a valuable 5th cent. MS. of the Gospels, engrossed on purple 
vellum and copiously illustrated. 

The train runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stations Mirto Crosia, S. Oiacomo, Pietra- 
paola, Campana. 72'/ 2 M. Cariati (Albergo di Sibari, miserable). 
Farther on, the train traverses pleasant plantations of olives, vines, 
and figs. Stat. Crucoli, Cirb, Torre Melissa, and Strongoli. This 
last, a squalid village with 3000 inhab., situated on a bold emin- 
ence 4 M. from the station, and reached by a bad road, was the 
ancient Poetelia, founded according to tradition by Philoctetes, and 
besieged by Hannibal after the battle of Cannae. 

119 M. Cotrone [Albergo della Concordia, Alb. Valente, both at 
the entrance to the town, with tolerable trattorie; carriage from the 
station '^frO; athriving little seaport with 9700 inhab., situated on 
a promontory, was in ancient times the famous Achaean colony of 
Croton, founded B.C. 710, which is said to have been once so 
populous and powerful as to be able in 510 to send an army of 
100,000 men into the field against Sybaris. After its great victory 
on that occasion, however, Croton declined; not long afterwards 
the citizens were defeated by the Locrians on the river Sagras, and 
in 299 the town fell into the hands of Agathocles of Syracuse. 
During the height of the prosperity of the city, Pythagoras, who 
had been banished from Samos by the tyrant Polycrates, and was 
then in his 40th year, established himself at Croton. He attracted 
a band of disciples and founded his brotherhood here, B.C. 450, 
but was at length banished in consequence of the jealousy of the 
citizens. On the way to the station are large storehouses for the 
fruit which is exported hence in considerable quantities. A visit 
should be paid to the old Castle, dating from the reign of Charles V., 
the highest tower of which commands a fine view (admission by 
applying to an officer or sergeant). • — A pleasant walk may be 
taken through the Strada Margherita to the harbour. 

to tleggio. CATANZARO. 19. Route. 227 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs, and are 
argely exported. Liquorice is also a staple product. An intro- 
luction to a member of the Baracco family, which is all-powerful 
n this neighbourhood , will be found of great service (sometimes 
ibtainable through the consuls at Naples). 

About 7 M. to the S. E. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo Nao, a low 
romontory, much exposed to the wind. (Route to it by land 2'/s hrs., 
ery rough ; boat 6-10 fr.) As the steamer rounds this cape , the eye is 
.rrested by a solitary column, rising conspicuously on massive substruc- 
ures above the few modern buildings of the place. This is now the sole 
elic of the Temple of Hera of the Lacinian Promontory , once the most 
evered divinity on the whole of the Gulf of Tarentum. The worship of 
lera has been replaced by that of the Madonna del Capo, to whose church, 
:lose to the temple, a number of young girls from Cotrone (')e verginelle) 
;o every Saturday in procession, with bare feet. To the S.W. of this 
iromontory are three others, the Capo delle Cimili, the Capo Rizzulo, and 
he Capo Castella. 

Beyond Cotrone the train quits the coast, and traverses a hilly 
iistriot, with little trace of cultivation. Near (1297-2 M.) Cutro it 
>asses- through a long tunnel (5 min.). Stations Isola-Capo-Rhzuto, 
Roccabernarda, Botricello, Cropani, Simmeri. 

156 M. Catanzaro - Marina ; about */% M. from the station is 
La Rocceletta, the ruins of the mediaeval abbey of Roccella. — 
'rom the Marina a branch-line (5'/.2 M. in 25 min. ; fares 1 fr. 5, 
5, 50 c. ) runs via S. Maria to Sola, the station for the loftily sit- 
lated town of Catanzaro. 

Catanzaro. — Hotels. Ale. Centkale, tolerable; Alb. Serravai.le. — 
"rattoria Centrale, in the Piazza. Farther along the Corso, Cafe del Oenio. 

Diligence at 6 p.m. to Tiriolo (p. 232) in connection with the diligences 
o Cosenza and Reggio. — Mule 3-5 fr. a day. 

British Vice-Consul, Signor Alphonso Cricelli. 

Catanzaro, with 28,600 inhab. (including the suburbs), the 
apital of the province of the same name, prettily situated 8 M. 
rom the sea, possesses numerous velvet and silk manufactories, and 
uxuriant olive-groves. Adjoining the law-courts is a small Pro- 
vincial Museum, containing coins, vases, and other antiquities from 
he Greek settlements of the district (fine *Helmet from Tiriolo ; 
tatuette of yEsculapius; among the pictures, a Lucretia by a Ve- 
letian master, and a Madonna by Antonello Saliba, 1508). The 
'athedral contains a Madonna with S. Domenico, a good Venetian 
licture of the 16th century. Fine views are obtained from the oam- 
lanile and from the ViaBellavista (N. side of the town). The Castle 
vas built by Robert Guiscard. The climate is cool in summer, and 
now often lies in winter. Many wealthy families reside here. The 
landsome Calabrian costume is still frequently seen here, parti- 
;ularly on Sundays. Catanzaro suffered severely by the earthquake 
if 1783. Numerous pleasant excursions may be made hence. 

Beyond Catanzaro the line skirts the coast and passes through 
everal promontories by means of tunnels. 

160 M. Squillace, the ancient Scylaceum, is perched on an al- 
oost inaccessible rock, 41/9 M. from the station and nearly opposite 


228 Route 19. SQUILLACE. From Naples 

the lofty Monte Moscia, which here projects into the sea; it is not 
visible from the railway. 

Cassiodorius, the private secretary of Theodoric the Great, was born 
at Scylaceura , and after the death of his master retired to his native 
place, where he founded a monastery , wrote a number of learned works, 
and died in 575, upwards of 90 years old. — To the N. of Squillace the 
Emp. Otho II. was defeated in July, 982, by the Arabs, who had crossed 
over from Sicily. He himself escaped almost by a miracle, and succeeded 
in reaching Rossano, where he met his consort T/ieophano. Otho did not 
long survive this reverse ; he died at Rome in December , 983, and was 
interred in the old church of St. Peter. 

The train passes through the promontory hy means of two tunnels. 
Stations Montauro, Soverato, San Sostene, Sant' Andrea, Badolato, 
Santa Caterina , Monasterace-Stilo (near which are iron-works), 
Riace. 193!/2 M. Caulonia. The river Alaro is supposed to be the 
Sagras of antiquity, where an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to 
have been utterly routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies 
Castelvetere , on the site of the ancient Achaean Caulonia, where 
Pythagoras sought refuge after his expulsion from Croton. 

197 M. Roccella Ionica, with 6500 inhab.; the old town, with 
its ruined castle , is picturesquely situated on a rock overhanging 
the sea. — Near the station of (201 Y2 M.J Qioiosa is a small ancient 
amphitheatre. From this point the magnificent scenery resembles 
that of Greece. 204 M. Siderno. 

2071/2 M. Gerace (Alb. Locri). The town, with 9600 inhab., and 
a cathedral, originally Romanesque, in which the antique columns 
are still extant, lies on the slope of a lofty spur of the Apennines, 
having risen from the ruins of Locroi Epizephyrioi, the once celebrated 
colony of the Locrians, founded B.C. 683, provided with a salutary 
code of laws by Zaleucus (664), and extolled by Pindar and De- 
mosthenes for its wealth and love of art. The ruins of the ancient 
city near Torre di Gerace are now concealed by an orange-garden. 

The Passo del Mercante, a mountain path, leads from Gerace through 
beautiful woods, and over the lofty Aspromonle , to Casalnvovo (p. 219|. 
Thence by a post-road to Gioia (p. 233) or to Seminara, 2 l /-z M. to the S.E. 
of Palmi (p. 233), about 37 M. The top of the pass commands a delightful 
view of the sea in both directions. In descending , we overlook the Bay 
of Gioia as far as the Lipari Islands. 

Stations: Ardore, Rovalino,Bianconuovo. Two tunnels. 22o M. 
Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo Spartivento, the Pro- 
montorium Herculis of antiquity, the S.E. extremity of Calabria 
(station, 232 M.J. Tunnel. 236 M. Palizzi. The train turns towards 
the W. and then nearly to the N. From this point to Pellaro the 
railway is bounded on the right by barren rocks and sand-hills, 
intersected now and again by the stony beds of the mountain tor- 
rents, dry in summer and often overgrown with oleanders. Tunnel. 
Then': 239'/ 2 M- Bova; 242 M. Amendolea; 247 M. Melito. 

253 M. Saline. The train affords a view of the coast and 
mountains of Sicily, and rounds the Capo dell' Armi, the Promon- 
torhtm Leurnpetrae, which was in ancient times regarded as the 
termination of the Apennines. Cicero landed here in B.C. 44, 

to Beggio. REGGIO. 19. Route. 229 

after the murder of Caesar, having been compelled by adverse winds 
to turn back from his voyage to Greece , and he was then per- 
suaded by citizens of Rhegium to go to Velia, where he met Brutus. 

256 M. Lazzaro; 260 M. Pellaro ; 263y 2 M. S. Oregorio. 

267 M. ReggiO. — There are two Railway Stations here : Reggio 
Citta, for local traffic, and Reggio Porto, for through-passengers to or from 
TYI p^fii nfti 

' Hotels. -Albeego Vittokia, E., L., & A. 3y 2 , B. 3/ 4 , lunch 2'/2, D. 4 fr. ; 
Alb. Centkale ; Colomba -, Genio; Capkeea, all these in the Corso Gari- 
baldi. Novaea, in the Strada Plebiscite; Tkinaceia, on the Marina. — 
The larger hotels have also good trattorie. — Cafes : Spinelli, in the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele ; Giordano, Corso Garibaldi. 

Carriages (stand in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), per drive 80 c, at 
night 1 fr. 20 c. ; per hr. V/j fr., at night 2 fr. 20 c. 

Steamer to Messina every morning and evening, 2 fr. ; embarcation 
and landing 50 c. (bargaining necessary); the passage may also be made 
in one of the Naples mail-steamers, which cross several times weekly. 

Beggio, called Beggio di Calabria to distinguish it from Reggio 
nell J Emilia, is the capital of the province of the same name, and 
an archiepiscopal residence, with 16,000, or with the surrounding 
villages, 40,000 inhabitants. Known in antiquity as Bhegium, it was 
originally a Eubcean colony, and was peopled in B.C. 723 by fugitive 
Messenians. Rhegium soon rose to prosperity, but it also early 
suffered the hardships of war. In 387 B. C. the town was captured 
and destroyed by Dionysius of Syracuse, and in 270 B. C. by the 
Romans. In the middle ages it suffered the same fate, successively 
at the hands of Totila the Goth in 549, the Saracens in 918, the 
Pisans in 1005, Robert Guiscard in 1060, and the Turks in 1552 
and 1597. The town was almost entirely destroyed by the great 
earthquake of 1783 , and it therefore now presents a modern 
appearance , with its broad and handsome streets extending from 
the sea to the beautiful hills in the rear , which are studded with 
numerous and handsome villas. 

The Cathedral, a spacious basilica with pillars, dates from the 
17th cent. ; the Cappella del Sacramento, to the left of the high- 
altar, is richly adorned with coloured marble. On the facade is a 
quotation from the Acts of the Apostles. — In the small piazza to 
the right, at the back of the cathedral, is the Museo Comunale 
(Director, Canon de Lorenzo ; inspector, Giuseppe Vazzano) con- 
taining fine terraeottas, lamps, statuettes, and vases (including a 
few very antique specimens and native examples with curious or- 
namentation) ; a relief of a woman dancing, of the 6th cent. B.C., 
with its architectural framework painted black , red , and yellow ; 
similar fragments of a later date, with elegant ornamentation on a 
bright red ground; mosaics, small bronzes, coins, inscriptions, etc.- — 
Above the cathedral rises the Castello. 

In the piazza adjoining the railway-station is a statue of Gari- 
baldi. — A military band often plays in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, which is embellished with a statue of Italia. — The 
Strada Reggio Campi, which runs along the heights behind the 

230 Route 20. COSENZA. From Sibari 

town, forms a charming promenade with varying views (especially 
line by evening -light) of the environs and the Sicilian coast. The 
distance from Reggio to Messina is about 6 3 /4 M. 

Excursions. At the back of Reggio rises the imposing, forest-clad As- 
promonte, the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the 
name of Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6420 ft.). The last name 
is applied to the entire range by the natives of this district. The summit is 
overgrown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggie, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini , 29th Aug., 1862. The ascent, which is very 
laborious, is best undertaken from Villa Giovanni (p. 234) or from Scilla 
(p. 234; two mules and one guide for a day and a half 14 fr.). If possible 
the start should be made early on a moonlight night. The summit, which 
is reached in 9 hrs., commands an imposing view of the sea, the islands, 
and Sicily. 

To Scilla, see p. 234. — Ascent of the Mte. EHa , see p. 233. This 
excursion is best made by taking the train to Palmi , ascending the hill 
on foot, and descending through beautiful chestnut wood to Bagnara in 
2 hrs. Travelling in the province of Reggio has always been considered 
free from hazard. 

20. From Sibari to Cosenza and thence to Reggio 
via Gioia. 

From Sibari to Cosenza, 43 SI., railway in 2 3 /4-3'A hrs. (fares 7 fr. 80, 
5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). — From Cosenza to Gioia Tauro, about 93 M., 
high-road traversed by Vetture Corriere and diligences (Giornaliera), in 
about 25 hrs. — From Gioia to Reggio, 30'/2 M., railway in 2-274 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 5, 2 fr. 60 c). 

Sibari, a station on the Naples and Reggio railway, see p. 225. 
— 6 M. Doria , the station for Cassano (9000 inhab.) , a beauti- 
fully situated town i 1 ^ M. to theN., with warm baths , and an 
ancient castle on a lofty rock. The castle affords a magnificent 
survey of the valleys of the Coscile and the Crati , the Sybaris and 
the Crathis of antiquity. The wild , barren limestone mountains 
rise here almost immediately from the plain, culminating in the 
Monte Pollino. The Torre di Milo is pointed out here as the tower 
whence the stone was thrown that caused the death of T. Annius 
Milo, when he was besieging Cosa on behalf of Pompey. 

10 M. Spezzano - Castrovillari ; Spezzano is 5 M. and Castro- 
villari 9i/ 2 M. to the S. of the station (p. 219). Beyond (15 M.) 
Tarsia the train reaches the valley of the Crati , which it ascends, 
crossing several affluents of that river. Stations : <S. Marco Rog- 
giano, Mongrassano - Cervico, Torano - Lattarico, Acri- Bisignano, 
Montalto- Rose, and Rende-San-Fili. To the W. are the Calabrian 
spurs of the Apennines. 

43 M. Cosenza (Alberyo dei Due Lionetti , with the good Trat- 
toria Centrale), the ancient Consentia, once the principal city of 
the Brnttii , is now the capital of the province of the same name 
with 16,700 inhab., and an archiepiscopal residence, containing 
well-built houses and palaces of wealthy landed-proprietors and 
manufacturers. It lies on the N. slope of a hill which separates 

to Reggio. COSENZA. 20. Route. 231 

the Crati from the Busento above the confluence of these streams. 
The town is commanded by a castle (fine view), the walls of which, 
though 9 ft. in thickness, were unable to resist the shock of the last 
earthquake. Shocks are felt here almost every year. In 1181 the 
town was destroyed by an earthquake, and again on 4th Feb., 1783, 
when upwards of 30,000 persons perished in this district. Serious 
damage was also sustained from the earthquakes of 1854 and 1870. 

The Gothic Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, 
who died here -in 1435, eighteen months after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. — On the piazza in front of the Prefettura 
a monument, with an allegorical figure of Liberty by Gius. Pac- 
chioni of Bologna, was erected in 1879 to the Brothers Bandiera 
and other participators in the Calabrian rising of 1844. 

Alaric, King of the West Goths, died at Cosenza in 410, after 
he had plundered Rome and made an attempt to pass over into 
Sicily. His coffin and his treasures are said to have been buried 
in the bed of the river Buxentius (Busento). The site is unknown, 
but a tradition of Cosenza places it at the union of the Busento 
and the Crati, near the station. 

In front of the Theatre, on the other side of the town, is a 
Statue of Italia; in the gardens farther on, several busts: to the 
right, Bernardino Telesio, the philosopher (d. 1588), to the left, 
Garibaldi, Cavour, Mazzini. The foot-path through the fruit-gardens, 
to the right from the point where the high-road descends to the 
river, is highly picturesque. 

Fkom Cosenza to Paoi.a (p. 235), where the steamers touch four times 
weekly, a drive of 3 l /2 hrs. (seat in a carriage on these days 5 fr.). 

To the E. of Cosen?a rises the Sila (locally known as 'Monte Nero'), a 
lofty and wooded range of mountains, extending ahout 37 M. from N. to S.. 
25 M. fromE. to W., attaining a height of 6325 ft., and embracing an extensive 
network of valleys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, 
are remarkable for their beauty and fertility; their slopes are studded with 
numerous villages, while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The E. and S. slopes descend to the Gulf of Taranto. 
In ancient times these mountains supplied the Athenians and Sicilians 
with wood for ship-building, and they were famed for their cattle. The 
snow does not disappear from the higher regions until the latter end 
of May, or June, after which they afford a delightful summer abode tc 
the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, which has very 
rarely been explored by travellers , is still in a very primitive condition. 
Letters of introduction to influential inhabitants should be procured al 
Naples or Messina by intending explorers. The best months for the 
tour are July, August, and September. Either Cosenza or Cotrone 
(p. 226) may be taken as a starting-point. Fine scenery and picturesque 

The Road from Cosenza to Gioia Tatjro ascends gradually 
through a well-cultivated district. The heights on each side are 
clothed with oaks and chestnuts. 

9!/2 M. Rogliano, a town of 5500 inhab. on a hill to the 
left, commands a charming view of the fertile country and the 
surrounding mountains, above which on the right rises the M. Co- 

232 Route 20. TIRIOLO. From Sibari 

cuzzo (5050 ft.). The road descends into the ravine of the Sa- 
vuto , the ancient Sabdtus , ascends Le Crocelle di Agrifolio , an 
abrupt ridge of the Apennines, and leads by Carpanzano, Coraci, 
Arena Bianco, , and through ravines and forest, to — 

34 M. Tiriolo, a town with 4000 inhab., loftily situated on 
the watershed between the Corace, which falls into the bay of 
Squillace, and the Lamato, which descends to the bay of S. Eufe- 
mia, the ancient Sinus Terinaeus. Near Tiriolo, a name perhaps 
derived from the Ayer Taurianus, numerous coins and other anti- 
quities have been found. In 1640 a bronze tablet (now at Vienna) 
was discovered here , bearing the Senatusconsultum against the 
Bacchanalia, of B. C. 186, mentioned by Livy (xxxix. 18). 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the left crosses the river Corace and 
leads to (9'/2 M.) Calanzaro (diligence, see p. 227). 

To the right a road leads to (11 M.) Nicastro, an episcopal town on 
the hillside, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. once 
for several years confined his son, the German king Henry VII., who had 
rebelled against him in 1235. The latter died at Martorano in 1242, and 
was buried at Cosenza. Towards the sea, 3 M. from Nicastro, lies S. 
Eufemia , with a celebrated Benedictine monastery founded by Robert 
Guiscard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1638. 

The road to Reggio traverses a chain of hills, and then crosses 
the Lamato, the right bank of which it skirts for some distance, 
commanding almost uninterrupted views of the bays of Squillace 
and S. Eufemia, which are here barely 19 M. apart. 

We next pass Casino Chiriaco and cross the plain of Maida, 
where in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under 
Sir John Stuart defeated the Erench under Regnier and drove 
them out of Calabria. The road crosses the fertile , but un- 
healthy plain via Francavilla to Torre Masdea. 

56 M. Fizzo is a small town with 8500 inhab., situated on a 
sandstone rock on the coast. Below it are the ruins of the old 
castle where Joachim Murat, king of Naples, who had been com- 
pelled to land here the day before, instead of at Salerno as he in- 
tended, was shot on 13th Oct. 1815. He was interred in the church 
at Pizzo. — The Naples and Messina steamers touch here (p. 235). 

A bridle-path leads hence to Tropea , beautifully situated near the 
Capo Vaticano, whence the Lipari Islands (R. 33) may be visited. 

The road, running near the coast, next leads to — 

65 M. Monteleone (Albergo d'ltalia), on the site of the ancient 
Hipponion, the Vibo Valentia, of the Romans, a loftily situated town 
with 12,000 inhab., which was much damaged by the earthquake 
of 1783. The old castle was erected by Frederick II. Pleasant 
promenade commanding a charming view of the sea, Sicily, and 
the Lipari Islands. 

A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village of 
Bivona, on the site of the ancient port of Vibo, destroyed by the Saracens 
in 983. 

The road now traverses a hilly district to — 

74'/ 2 M. Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger of 

to Reggio. MILETO. 20. Route. 233 

Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. Pop. 5000. It con- 
tains the ruins of the abbey of S. Trinith founded by him, where 
his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly reposed 
in two sarcophagi which are now in the museum at Naples. — 
The mountains of Sicily, and particularly the summit of ^Etna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (5 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Sanlo Ste/ano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
tnenico Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Certosa, 
in which St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians in 1094, 
and where he died and was interred in 1101. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioia on theN., and reaches (84 1 /2M.)Bosarno. 
The picturesquely situated town (4000 inhab.) was destroyed by the 
earthquake of 1783. The plain is then traversed to — 

93 M. Gioia Tauro, which occupies the site of the ancient Me- 
tnurum, a desolate-looking place, situated on the coast to the right, 
and an extensive depot of oil. It is the present terminus of the 
railway which is to connect Naples with Reggio (comp. p. 219). 

The Railway from Gioia to Reggio (30 4 /2 M. ; time and fares, 
see p. 230) follows the direction of the high-road and skirts the coast. 

The line crosses the Marro, the ancient Metaurus, a liver famed 
for its fish. The earthquake of 1783 was particularly destructive 
in this neighbourhood. The earth opened in many places , swallow- 
ing up houses entire, and filling up several valleys. — On the coast 
to the right, near the railway (cab 1 fr.), on a cliff rising perpend- 
icularly from the sea, stands the singularly picturesque town of — 

4!/ 2 M. Palmi (Albergo Plutini), with 15,500 inhab., surrounded 
by orange and olive plantations, and affording beautiful views of 
the coast and the island of Sicily, particularly from a *Terrace on 
the sea at the end of the main street. 

The town is situated about halfway up the *Monte Elia , which 
commands a superb view of the Faro , the castle of Scilla , the town and 
harbour of Messina, and the majestic jEtna in the background. The N. 
coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo ; out at sea are Stromboli and 
the Lipari Islands ; to the N. the bay of Gioia as far as Capo Vaticano. 

The line from Palmi to Reggio, traversing chestnut and olive 
plantations, skirts the E. side of the Mte. Elia (see above), on the S. 
slope of which is situated — 

10^2 M. Bagnara (Locanda della Stella, with beds). Farther on 
the line skirts the sea, affording a succession of fine views. — 
13 M. Farazzina. 

16 M. Scilla (Locanda di Baviera, on the Marina, unpretend- 
ing and moderate ; a relative of the landlord is recommended as 
a guide to Aspromonte), the ancient Scylla, with 8000 inhab., re- 
built since the terrible earthquake of 1783. The castle, situated 
on a promontory commanding the town, once the seat of the prin- 

234 Route 20. SCILLA. 

ces of Scilla, was occupied by the English after the battle of Maida 
(p. 232), and defended for 18 months (until 1808) against the 
French. Fine view of Sicily, across the Straits of Messina, here 
3 M. broad. The silk and wine produced here enjoy a high repu- 
tation. Numerous swordfish (pesce spada) are caught here in July. 
To Messina, see p. 334. 

The rock of Scylla , represented in Homer's Odyssey as a roaring 
and voracious sea-monster — a beautiful virgin above, and a monster 
with a wolfs body and dolphin's tail below — is depicted by the poets 
in conjunction with the opposite C/tarybdis as fraught with imminent 
danger to all passing mariners. The currents and eddies in the straits are 
still very rapid, but it is now believed that the Charybdis of the ancients 
is by no means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as the 
saying 'incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdini appears to indicate, 
but outside the harbour of Messina, 7Va M. from Scilla, at the point now 
called Garofalo (comp. p. 333). 

19 M. Cannitello ; 21 M. Villa S. Giovanni, prettily situated 
opposite Messina (p. 326) ; 23^2 M. Catona. Wc are now in a region 
of luxuriant vegetation, with oranges, pomegranates, palms, and 
aloes. — 25i/o M. Gallico ; 26V 2 M. Archi-Reygio ; 28 M. S. Ca- 
terina-Reggio ; 29 M. Reggio Succursale. 

30y 2 M. Reggio, see p. 229. 

21. From Naples to Messina by Sea. 

Daily communication between Naples and Messina is maintained by 
the Italian Societa Flvrio-llubatiino. The voyage lasts 14-18 hrs. Besides 
the direct steamers, the same company despatches vessels thrice a week tc 
Sicily, touching at the chief ports on the Calabrian coast, and taking 37-52 
hrs. in all. In the case of cholera most of the boats cease running. — 
Embarcation with luggage l-i'/z fr. 

We enjoy a magnificent retrospective view of the lovely bay. 
After 2'/ 2 hrs. the steamer enters the strait between Capri, witli 
the rugged and precipitous ho Capo (p. 169), and the Punta di 
Campanella (p. 163). Shortly afterwards a view of the Bay of 
Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and the vessel gradually stands 
out to sea, Mt. Vesuvius presents a most majestic appearance. 

On the Direct Voyage the steamer reaches the open sea about 
dusk. On the following forenoon the volcano of the island of 
Stromboli , near which the steamer afterwards passes, becomes 
visible on the right. The mountain-range of the N. coast of Sicily 
next comes in sight , presenting a very striking appearance. As 
the vessel steers for the Strait of Messina we observe Scilla on 
the left, and the Faro on the right. Arrival at Messina, see p. 326. 

The Coasting Steamers pass the promontories della Licosa 
and dello Spartivento and the Bay of Policustro during the night. 
The once powerful town of Policastro (4000 inhab.) was destroyed 
by Robert Guiscard in 1055, and by the Turks in 1542. 

On the following morning, Monte Pollino (7325 ft.), which 
terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is the most conspicuous 
mountain, and adjoining it begin the Calabrian Mts. As the vessel 

PAOLA. 21. Routt. 235 

proceeds southwards to Paola we enjoy a succession of line views. 
The coast is studded with numerous towns and villages, most of 
them situated on the heights , between which valleys descend to 
empty their brooks into the sea. Verbicaro is seen somewhat 
inland, then Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on, 
Belvedere with 4600 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of 
the mountain. Then, beyond a small promontory, in the bay to the 
S., lies Cetraro, the inhabitants of which are anchovy- fishers. 
We next observe Guardia, on a lofty hill, with warm baths ; then 
Fuscaldo, with 10,000 inhab. and the ruins of an old castle. 

Paola, with 8500 inhab., beautifully situated in a ravine and 
on the slope of the mountain, carries on an extensive oil and wine 
trade. The town, which some suppose to be the Palycus of the 
Greeks, was the birthplace of Francesco di Paola, founder of the 
mendicant order of Minorites. — On the arrival of the steamer 
carriages start for Cosenza (S 1 ^ h rs - drive, seat 5 fr. ; see p. 231). 

After a halt of about i 1 ^ hr. the vessel resumes her voyage. 
On the coast are the villages of San Lucido, Fiumefreddo, and Bel- 
monte, at the back of which rises the conspicuous Monte Cocuzzo 
(5050 ft.). Amantea next becomes visible, supposed to be the 
ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and fortress, erected on 
a lofty rock, were garrisoned in 1806 by royalists, who repulsed the 
French troops ; but, after severe sufferings from famine, they were 
compelled to surrender the following year. To the S. of Amantea 
the Savuto falls into the sea. The coast becomes flat and less richly 
cultivated. Farther on, Nocera ; then past the Capo Suvero to the 
Qolfo di Santa Eufemia, at the S. end of which lies — 

Pizzo (see p. 232); halt of li/ 2 hr. 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 232. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone, and reaches Tropea, an 
ancient town (6000 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the climate 
of which is much extolled. To the S. is the Capo Vaticano with its 
lighthouse, projecting far into the sea. In the bay lies Nicotera, 
which suffered severely from the earthquake of 1783 , near the 
influx of the Mesima. At Oioia (p. 233) the post -road from 
Naples to Reggio (R. 20) leads down to the coast, which it skirts 
during the rest of the way. Soon after the harbour of Pizzo is 
quitted the Lipari Islands (R. 33) become visible to the W. ; Strom- 
boli, with its continually smoking crater, is the most conspicuous. 
Off Capo Vaticano the Sicilian mountains suddenly appear. 

Palmi, Bagnara, Scilla, see pp. 233, 234. The Aspromonte range, 
with the Monte Alto (6425 ft.), looks uninteresting from this side. 
We now enter the Strait of Messina, which presents a busy scene 
during the daytime. 

Messina, see p. 326. If the steamer arrives during the night 
the passenger had better remain on board till morning, enquiring 
beforehand of the captain when the vessel is to start again. 


22. From Naples to Palermo by Sea. 

Steamers of the Sociela Florio-Rubaltino daily in 12-13 hrs. ; fares 40 fr. 
60, 25 fr. 60 c, including provisions. — The passenger should be on deck 
early next morning to enjoy the beautiful approach to Sicily and the en- 
trance into the harbour. 

Beyond Capri the steamer reaches the open sea. Early next 
morning (between 5 and 6 o'cl.) the Lipari Islands (R. 33) are seen 
to the S. (left); later the island of Vstica (p. 288) to the W., 
long remaining visible ; then, about 10 a.m., the towering moun- 
tains of Sicily ; to the extreme right is the Capo di Gallo, nearer 
rises Monte Pellegrino (1960 ft. ; p. 282), and to the left is the 
Monte Catalfano (1230 ft.), with a smaller pointed promontory, 
guarding the E. entrance to the Bay of Palermo. At length we per- 
ceive the beautiful and extensive city. A little to the left of Monte 
Pellegrino are the lofty Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.), Monreale (p. 284), 
and farther distant the Monte Griffone. — Palermo, see R. 23. 


General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one passage calls Sicily an 'addition' 
in another a 'detached portion 1 of Italy ; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied, geographically as well as 
historically, with the great peninsula which bisects the Mediterranean. 
Goethe has justly observed that, without Sicily, Italy would lose much 
of its charm: 'the climate cannot be too highly extolled; the beauties 
are innumerable.' This cannot fail to be experienced by every traveller 
who forms acquaintance with this 'gem among islands'. Nor is the beauty 
of the scenery the sole attraction to the wanderer from the north. Those 
equipped with even a superficial knowledge of history cannot but exper- 
ience a profound interest in the places with which the most ancient Hel- 
lenic and Roman traditions are connected, where the destinies of Athens, 
Carthage, and Home have been decided, and where mediseval characters 
so famous as Henry VI. and Frederick II. have ruled. There is not a 
nation which has materially influenced the destinies of European civili- 
sation, that has not left distinct traces of its agency in this island. Those 
whose time and resources permit are therefore strongly recommended to 
visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. 

Modes of Travelling. The Steamboats of the Italian companies ply 
daily from Naples to Palermo, and almost daily from Naples to Messina 
(see pp. 236, 234.) Steamers also ply once weekly from Palermo to Sar- 
dinia (R. 40), and to Malta and the East. — Railway to Reggio, and the 
passage thence to Messina, see R. 19; the railway journey from Naples to 
Reggio occupies 21 hrs. (express), the passage thence to Messina l 3 /t hr. 

Other steamers (Society Florio-Rubattino, whose headquarters are at 
Palermo) make the circuit of the island once a week, Palermo being the 
starting-point, and Messina and Syracuse the principal stations. A steamboat 
also plies several times weekly between Palermo and Messina, see p. 320. 
The service is tolerably punctual on the N. and E. coasts, but on the S. 
side of the island, where the navigation is more difficult, delays of many 
hours and even days frequently occur. 

Railways. The following railways now form a complete network 
over Sicily: (1) From Messina via Catania, S. Caterina- Xirbi , Roccapalumbo, 
and Termini to Palermo, 210 M. ; (2) From Catania to Syracuse, 54 M. ; 
(3) From Canicatti to Licata, 31 M. ; (4) From Roecapalumho to Giraenti and 
its harbour Porto Empedocle , 47 M. ; (5) From Palermo via Partinico, 
Alcamo, Castelvetrano, Mazzara, and Marsala to Trapani, 117 M. ; (6) From 
S. Ca/erina- Xirbi via Caltanissetla to Aragona-Caldare , 37 M. ; (7) From 
Palermo via Misilmeri, Bolognelta-Marineo, and Villafrati to C'orleone, 42VaM.; 
(8) From Termini via Bnonfornello to Cefalii , 20 M. ; (9) From Messina via 
Gesso to S. Filippo, I81/2 M. ; (10) From Syracuse via Avola to Noto, 20 M. 

Diligences run on all the principal roads in Sicily, but the ordinary 
traveller is now almost independent of their aid. The usual charge 
throughout the island for a Carriage with two horses is 20-30 fr. per 
day, with a 'buona mano' of 2-3 fr. The usual charge for a Mole is 
7-10 fr. per day, with a small fee to the attendant, but for an excursion 
of several days the rate is lower. If, however, the traveller does not 
return to the point of starting, the return-journey must be paid for. 

Plan of Tour. The best seasons for travelling in Sicily are the months 
of April and May, or October and November. Even in January the weather 

238 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

is often fine and settled (comp. pp. 244, 245). The ascent of jEtna in spring 
is possible , but the best period is August or September , after the first 
showers of autumn have cleared the atmosphere. 

The principal points in the island may be visited in a fortnight or 
three weeks without divergence from the railway. The following distri- 
bution of time may be followed : — At Palermo 3-4 days ; the towns in 
the W. part of the island (Segesta, Selinunto, Mazzara, Marsala, Trapani) 
4-5 days (Segesta and Selinunto alone 2-3 days) ; journey to Girgenti 1 day ; 
at Girgenti 1 day; from Girgenti to Catania 1 day; Catania and Mt. jEtna 
2 days ; at Syracuse l'/2 day ; at Taormina 1 day ; at Messina 1 day. The 
best mode of exploring the very picturesque N. Coast is indicated at p. 320. 

The most energetic of travellers, however, will take at least a month 
to exhaust the beauties of the island. The following routes are the most 
important : — At Palermo 3-4 days ; by land in 4 days, or by steamer 
direct in 15 hrs. from Palermo to Messina; in the latter case Milazzo 
and Patti (Tyndaris) should be visited from Messina, 3 days; by railway 
to Taormina 1 day; Catania and JEtna 3 days; stay at /Syracuse 2 days; 
by railway or steamer to Girgenti; at Girgenti 1-2 days; by land in 2 days 
to Sciacca, Selinunto, and Castelvetrano ; thence by Calatafimi (Segesta) in 
1 day, or, if Marsala and Trapani be included, in 4 days, to Palermo. 

Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (Greek Sikelia or Trinacria) is the largest island in the 
Mediterranean. Its area, according to the most recent measure- 
ments, amounts to about 25,800 sq. kilometres, i. e. about 10,000 
Engl. sq. M. The form of the island is an irregular triangle. The 
N. coast is 200, the E. 135, and the S. W. 177 Engl. M. in length. 

The whole island of Sicily is mountainous in character. Closely 
connected with Italy by geological structure as well as in geo- 
graphical position, it forms a continuation of the great Apennine 
range which stretches across the Mediterranean from the main trunk 
of Europe to Africa, a submerged prolongation of the range being 
also distinctly traceable. The distance between Cape Boeo and 
Cape Bon is only 75 M. , and the depth in the direct line never 
exceeds 100 fathoms, except in one narrow belt running S.E. 
towards the island of Pantellaria (248 fathoms), while the Straits 
of Pantellaria, separating Sicily from Africa, are as a rule not more 
than 50 fathoms deep. This submerged elevation is probably of 
volcanic origin. Pantellaria and Linosa are extinct volcanoes, 
and to the N. of Sicily lies another volcanic tract, the eruptions of 
which have produced the Lipari Islands. The S.E. portion of the 
island of Sicily is of the tertiary formation, and is connected with 
the Malta Islands by a submarine table-land. The virtual W. 
apex of Sicily is formed by Maritime, the westernmost of the Aega- 
dian Islands, which lie in shallow water. The Straits of Messina 
are only 2 M. wide at their narrowest point, and at their shallowest 
part (near the same point) 51 fathoms deep , while on the N. and 
E., on the contrary, the shores of the island descend abruptly into 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 239 

the deepest parts of the Mediterranean, a sounding of no less than 
2000 fathoms having been made within about 30 M. of Cape Passero. 
Mountains. Sicily , which is of a hilly or mountainous char- 
acter throughout its whole extent , may be roughly described as 
a table-land of a mean level of 2300-2800 ft., somewhat tilted 
towards the N., and higher at the edges than in the interior. The 
loftiest of the non-volcanic summits are towards the N., where a 
range of mountains runs from the Straits of Messina along the 
coast , forming a prolongation of the Apennine range which tra- 
verses the Italian peninsula. The continuity of the chain remains 
unbroken as far the valley of Polizzi, a place of historical interest, 
whence the Himera Septentrionalis (Fiume Grande) flows N. to the 
Tyrrhenian, and the Himera Meridionalis (Fiume Salso) S. to the 
African Sea. The W. part of the range , which consists rather 
of detached groups of mountains, is the only one which has received 
a distinguishing name from the natives, who call it the Madonie. Its 
highest summits are the Pizzo deW Antenna (6480 ft.), the loftiest 
mountain in the island after jEtna, and the Monte Salvatore, both 
covered with snow during one half of the year. Scientific geographers 
apply the name of Nebrodic Mountains to the Madonie together with 
the mountains to the N. and N.W. of JEtna (where the Monte Sori 
attains a height of 6050 ft.), while they distinguish that section of 
the range which abuts on the Straits of Messina as the Peloric Chain 
(the Monies Neptunii or Pelorides of the ancients). 

To the W. of the important watershed of the two Himeras the 
mountains still form a chain or range, though of less distinct char- 
acter, the highest summits of which all lie near the N. coast. 
As we proceed towards the W. , however , single mountains or 
isolated clusters become more prominent, till they end at last 
in the pyramid of Monte S. Giuliano, the ancient Eryx, rising 
precipitously from the sea and standing like a gigantic sentinel to 
guard the W. coast of the island. From this great northern range, 
running fromE. to W., various minor chains branch off towards the 
S. and S.W. into the heart of the island, leaving both on the E. 
and W. small littoral plains between them and the sea. 

In the S. E. corner of the island is a mountainous district of a 
very peculiar and interesting geological character, united with the 
other mountain-systems only by a narrow ridge near Caltagirone. 
In the heart of it rises the Monte Lauro (3230 ft.) , whence the 
considerable rivers of this part of Sicily descend in all directions 
through profound ravines and valleys , the sides of which are 
honeycombed with caverns. These erosions reveal to us the fact, 
that , while the surface of the mountain consists chiefly of tertiary 
shell-limestone , this formation alternates lower down with strata 
of dark volcanic rock. Nearly the whole remainder of the island, 
particularly the districts in the middle, and to the S. and S.W., 
is also composed of the tertiary formation. To this formation, 

240 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

represented mainly by marl, clay, and gypsum, belong extensive 
deposits of sulphur and rock-salt, the first of which contribute so 
materially to Sicily's wealth and prosperity, while the latter are 
as yet almost untouched. The sulphur-strata extend westwards as 
far as the secondary mountain-ranges near Salemi and Partanna, 
and eastwards as far as the mountains of Judica and Rammacca. 
Whatever part of the interior of the island the traveller visits, 
he is sure to stumble upon a sulphur-mine, or meet long trains of 
waggons or mules conveying this 'yellow gold' of Sicily to the coast. 
The richest mines are at Lercara (p. 304), situated on the watershed 
between the Tyrrhenian and African Seas, to theN. of Girgenti, and 
near Caltanissetta (p. 311). — The tertiary formations in Sicily 
attain a most unwonted altitude ; the huge rock on which lies Castro- 
giovanni, the historical Enna (p. 312), rears its head no less than 
3270 ft. above the level of the sea. — The mountains on the N. 
coast, with the ramifications extending to the Eryx and the Monte 
San Calogero near Sciacca, belong to the secondary formations, and 
consist chiefly of calcareous limestone. This limestone is perforated 
by numerous caverns, in which the bones of huge pachydermata, 
denizens of the country before its separation from the African con- 
tinent, and various prehistoric antiquities are frequently found. — 
The Peloric range and the mountains of the N. coast from Messina 
to Cape Calavh are composed of crystalline rocks of the primary for- 
mations, but their bases are overlaid with strata of recent tertiary 
deposits, so that the older formation seldom comes to light on the 
coast itself. The identity of the geological structure of this part of 
the island with that of Calabria is a proof of the intimate connec- 
tion between Sicily and the Italian peninsula. The rock of Scylla 
(p. 234) , visible from the Faro , and the peninsula of Milazzo 
(p. 324), are both formed of fine-grained granite and gneiss. The 
S. margins of the Peloric Mts. and of the Aspromonte (p. 230) 
consist of clay-slate. 

Mt. JEtna (10,870 ft.), the loftiest mountain in Sicily and the 
largest volcano in Europe, rises on the E. side of the island, and is 
completely detached from the other mountains by the deep valleys 
of the Simeto and Alcantara. The watershed between these rivers, 
however, near the Lake of Ourrita, which is sometimes quite dry, 
attains a considerable height (3790 ft.). The district in which this 
great volcano rises has evidently been at one time a bay of the 
sea , still recognisable in the plain of Catania. The mountain is 
capped with snow throughout the year, except during a few weeks 
in summer, while in some of the gullies the snow never melts 

The island contains no Plains of any extent. The most con- 
siderable is the Piano di Catania (Ager Leontinus, Campi Laestry- 
gonii), extending between the rivers Simeto and Gurnalunga. The 
littoral plains of Terranova (Campi Geloi), Licata, and Milazzo, 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 241 

the plain between Trapani and Marsala, and the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo may also be mentioned. 

The Coasts of Sicily are as a rule steep and rocky, short reaches 
of flat coast being found in the gulfs of Catania and Terranova, 
and to the S. of Trapani only. A peculiarity of the Sicilian coast 
is found in the numerous narrow peninsulas lying in front of it, 
which have in comparatively recent times only ceased to be islands, 
and which almost invariably form good harbours. Of this nature 
are the peninsulas of Syracuse , Augusta, Trapani, and Milazzo. 
The strikingly picturesque Monte Pellegrino , near Palermo, was 
at one time an island off the coast , and the sickle-shaped piece 
of land which forms the harbour is also of very recent geological 
formation. To these capacious natural harbours falls to be added 
the artificial one of Palermo , the somewhat inadequate successor 
of the famous ancient harbour, which has been gradually silted up 
during the geological elevation of the W. coast of Sicily. The same 
cause has rendered the fine harbour of Trapani almost useless. 
The S. coast is perfectly destitute of natural harbours, and there- 
fore unapproachable in stormy weather; but artificial harbours 
have recently been constructed at great expense at Porto Empe- 
docle and Licata. 

The Rivers of Sicily are very numerous , but none of them 
are large , and with a few exceptions they all dry up in summer. 
The district of primary formations in the N. E. of the island does 
not contain a single perennial water-course , but many broad Fiu- 
mare , or river-beds , filled after heavy rain with turbulent and 
destructive torrents , which carry down large masses of the easily 
detached rock , and refuse to be confined within embankments, 
often causing widespread devastation. The stony beds of the 
'fiumare' are sometimes upwards of 1 / i M. wide at the mouth, and 
even in winter are traversed by a mere thread of water only. 
The numerous streams towards the S.E., which take their rise in 
the porous, honeycombed limestone hills, are, on the other hand, 
comparatively copious in the lower part of their course. Water 
may generally be found by digging below the dry beds of the 
fiumare even in summer. The principal rivers, none of which are 
navigable, are the Simeto (which waters a great part of E. Sicily), 
the Alcantara, the Fiume Salso (Himera Meridionalis), the Platani. 
and the Belice. (In the Map at the end of the Handbook the water- 
courses which dry up in summer are coloured brown, and those 
which contain water throughout the whole year are blue.) 

The splendid Forests with which Sicily was originally covered, 
and which yielded the admirable ship-building timber mentioned 
so often in the days of the Greek and Saracenic domination, have 
been disappearing so rapidly under the axe of the woodman since 
the 16th cent., and especially since the beginning of this cent., 
that it is estimated that not more than 4 per cent of the area of the 

TUinifKiR TIT. 10th F.rlitinn -If! 

242 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

island is now under wood. In the 11th cent, the Monte Lauro was 
still clothed with forests of pines and flr , and in the 15th cent, 
the Monte Pellegrino, now conspicuous for its baldness, was clothed 
with underwood. The only considerable forests are those of jEtna 
and the mountains on the N. coast , the finest of which are the 
Caronian Forest and the Bosco di Ficuzza on the Busambra, where 
the Bourbon sovereigns used to hunt when they resided at Palermo. 
These woods consist of oaks, chestnuts, elms, ashes, etc., and are 
carpeted with thick green underwood like the woods of Central 
Europe , while others nearer the coast and in lower situations con- 
sist mainly of isolated evergreen oaks {Quercus Ilex, Quercus Suber, 
etc.). Pine-forests are found in the ^Etna region only. The Macchie, 
a kind of thicket of dense , almost impenetrable , and often thorny 
bushes, 5-6 ft. high, peculiar to the regions of the Mediterranean, 
and growing on the denuded sites of former forests , are less com- 
mon in Sicily than in neighbouring lands. 

Products and Cultivation. The current impression that only 
a small portion of the area of Sicily is cultivated , is quite er- 
roneous. In 1857 it was estimated that about 200,000 acres only 
were unproductive, and 1,600,000 acres under pasture, leaving 
5,500,000 acres, or 8/4 of the whole area, under cultivation. Since 
that date, moreover, a large proportion, probably about one-half, 
of these unproductive lands have been reclaimed , chiefly through 
the partition of large estates falling into the hands of government 
on the failure of heirs. The value of pasture in Sicily may be 
gathered from the fact that an annual rental of 25,000 fr. has been 
paid for the apparently barren Mte. Pellegrino near Palermo. 

The cultivation of the soil has made rapid strides within the 
last few decades, especially since 1860, and arboriculture has of 
late become one of the chief occupations of the farmer. The greater 
part of the island is still devoted to the production of wheat, but 
the culture of fruit-trees, especially of the Citri (the generic term 
for oranges, lemons, and citrons), is found to be still more lucrative, 
and assumes ever-increasing proportions. In the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo the yield of a hectare (21/2 acres) of lemon-trees averages 
4225 fr., and that of a hectare of orange-trees 2880 fr. per annum. 
The export of these fruits , particularly to the United States , is 
steadily increasing, and has now reached the value of 80, 000, 000 fr. 
annually. They are shipped in almost equal quantities from Pa- 
lermo and Messina , being cultivated most sedulously on the N. 
coast from Partinico to Messina, and on the E. coast as far S. as 
Catania. The orange and lemon harvest lasts from November to 
March, but the fruit docs not thoroughly ripen till January. Dur- 
ing the hot season the trees require a constant supply of water. 
About one-fifth of the whole island is now devoted to the culti- 
vation of trees of various kinds, the products of which are exported 
to the value of 135,000,000 fr. annually, a sum that will appear 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 243 

still more considerable when it is remembered that nine-tenths 
of the islanders themselves subsist entirely on wheaten bread, 
fruit, and fish. This branch of agriculture is interesting, not only 
from an economical hut also from a social and moral point of view. 
The constant attention which arboriculture demands renders it 
impossible for the agricultural labourers to live in crowded vil- 
lages, often at a considerable distance from their daily work ; so 
that this branch of agriculture tends to a more equal distribution 
of the population , and contributes to improve their moral con- 
dition. Sicily at present contains about 500 of these over-grown 
villages of agricultural labourers , with an average population of 
5000 each, but the people are now beginning to descend from their 
rocky nests and settle among the fields. 

Another prevalent error with regard to Sicily is that its fertility 
has decreased. Rain still falls in sufficient quantity to make the 
fruits of the field as plentiful now as of yore , in spite of the poor 
agricultural implements and the want of manuring. Wheat, Barley, 
and Beans, which form almost the only crops, cover all the avail- 
able level districts in the island. As the Sicilian wheat is of ex- 
cellent quality and commands a high price, it is usually exported, 
while an inferior kind is imported for home consumption ; but the 
already-mentioned concentration of the population in a few large 
villages, the peculiarity of the farm-tenure, the inferiority of the 
agricultural implements, and the occasional deficiency of hands, 
which is supplied in many parts by peasants from Calabria, are un- 
favourable to the agricultural prosperity of the country. The fields 
on the N. and E. coasts, like those in Sardinia and N. Africa, 
are enclosed by Cactus-hedges (Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia 
Amyclaea), which frequently attain a considerable height. Their 
fruit, the cactus-fig, of a sweetish, somewhat insipid taste, is 
much esteemed by the natives, who in autumn use it to a consider- 
able extent as a substitute for bread. The Cotton culture, which 
was greatly extended during the American civil war, has since 
then declined, as the Sicilian cotton is very inferior to the Ameri- 
can. Sumach (Rhus coriaria, the leaves of which are used in 
tanning and as a black dye) and linseed are among the staple ex- 
ports. Other products exported, besides the Citri and their es- 
sential oils, are almonds, olive oil, wine (Marsala, Riposto, Ca- 
tania, Vittoria , and Siracusa) , nuts , capers , pistachios , manna, 
liquorice, lentils, and raisins. The chief animal products are silk, 
hides, wool, anchovies, tunny-fish, and cantharides. Mineral pro- 
ducts : sulphur, salt, and marble. The island possesses no mines 
of the precious metals or of coal. Many of the merchants are Ger- 
mans and Swiss, who have to a great extent taken the place of the 
English , but the Sicilians themselves are now beginning to turn 
their attention more zealously to commerce. About two-thirds of 
the manufactured goods imported into Sicily, as well as Italy, 


244 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

pass through the hands of Swiss and German merchants The sta- 
tistics relating to the exports and imports are untrustworthy, but 
it is ascertained that the former are far more considerable than the 
latter. This will be still more the case as agriculture advances in 
consequence of the partition of the vast landed estates and the 
promotion of the public safety. 

Climate. The climate of Sicily, which may be described gener- 
ally as of a marine character, is a most delightful one , and in 
equableness is second to that of Madeira alone. This is especially 
true of the climate of Palermo, which is rapidly coining into favour 
as a winter residence for invalids. Catania is somewhat colder in 
winter, and is moreover exposed to sudden changes of temperature 
on account of the proximity of Mt. JEtna. Messina and Syracuse 
are windy places. 

In Sicily the year consists of two seasons only , the rainy and 
the dry. The Rainy Season corresponds with the winter of Cen- 
tral Europe, and is marked by a fall of temperature. The freezing- 
point , however , is seldom reached , except occasionally just be- 
fore dawn , and there are few winter days when one cannot sit 
comfortably in the open air in a sheltered situation. The rainy 
season is at the same time that of the most luxuriant vegetation. 
It is ushered in by thunder-storms in September and October, 
sets in steadily in November, generally relaxes somewhat in Jan- 
uary, ends towards the close of March , and is followed by a few 
violent thunder-storms in April and May. In June, July, and Au- 
gust, but particularly in July, almost no rain falls, hut the heat is 
tempered by the proximity of the sea. Continuous rain is, how- 
ever, rare, even in the wet season, and there are seldom more than 
half-a-dozen days in the year absolutely without sunshine. Cicero's 
remark on Syracuse, that the sun shines there every day without 
exception, is almost literally true. The heaviest rainfall occurs in 
December. In Palermo it averages 22 inches per annum, of which 
3 in. fall in December and only about V6 ln - in July; in Syracuse 
the rain-fall is 16 in. , with practically none in June, July, and 
August. Wheat is sown at the beginning of the rains, and reaped 
shortly after their close. 

The Winds also vary in accordance with these two divisions of 
the year. From October to March the rainy W.S.W. wind, blowing 
from the equatorial regions , prevails ; from May to August the 
prevalent wind blows from the N.E., forming a continuation of 
the trade-winds from beyond the N. pole; while in April and 
September these winds Wow alternately. Violent winds, with the 
exception of the Scirocco , are rare , and the barometrical changes 
are on the whole slight. The Scirocco, one of the hot periodical 
storm-winds, which blow from the Sahara in all directions, is 
among the few drawbacks to the climate of Sicily. It visits Palermo, 
where it. is Tiarticularlv disaereeable. about twelve timps a vear 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 245 

and may occur in any month, though it is most frequent and most 
violent in April and the short transitionary seasons generally. On 
the E. coast it is generally charged with moisture, but at Palermo 
it is hot and dry. The highest temperature ever observed in the 
shade at Palermo (105° Fahr.) was registered during the scirocco. 
During its continuance the sky is of a dull, leaden appearance, 
often with a tinge of red , occasioned by the columns of dust 
which the storm frequently brings with it from a long distance. If 
rain falls, these fine particles of dust occasion the phenomenon 
known as 'blood rain', which may be easily collected on the fo- 
liage of the trees. The effect of the scirocco, often less felt at first 
by visitors from the N. than by the natives, is to occasion a diffi- 
culty of breathing and lassitude, which unfit one for work, espe- 
cially of a mental nature. The scirocco, however, often lasts for a 
few hours only, and rarely for more than three days. 

One of the great advantages of the climate of Sicily arises from 
the comparatively slight difference in the temperature of the differ- 
ent seasons. The heat at Palermo in summer is less than at Flor- 
ence, while the winters are remarkably mild and equable. The 
mean temperature in August, the hottest month, is 78° Fahr., and 
in January, the coldest month, 52°, the difference being 26° only, 
while the mean annual temperature is about 64°. The lowest temper- 
ature yet recorded at the observatory at Palermo has been 35°, but 
it is known that the mercury occasionally descends 3-4° below the 
freezing-point in the early morning almost every winter. During 
December, January, February, and March the thermometer remains 
at almost the same level , and abrupt changes are very rare, espe- 
cially at Palermo, which is sheltered from the N. wind by the 
Monte Pellegrino. The mean daily range of temperature at Pa- 
lermo is about 12°, in winter less, and on some days not more than 
4-5°. Catania has a mean annual temperature of 65° ; in summer 
it is warmer than Palermo, and in winter colder. The mean tem- 
perature in August is 81° and that of January 50°, showing a 
range of 31°. The daily range of temperature is also somewhat 
greater (12V2-11 ), and a difference of 41° has been noticed within 
24 hours. 

Mineral Baths, most of them sulphureous, and already famous 
in ancient times, are established at Sciacca on the Monte S. Calo- 
gero (Thermae Selinuntinoe), at Termini (Thermre Himerenses), at 
Termini di Castro near Barcellona, and at Acireale near Catania. 
The bath-arrangements are very defective, those at Acireale and 
the two Termini being the best. 

The Population of the island , according to the census of 
1879, amounts to 2,832,851, or on an average 247 souls per Engl, 
sq. M. National schools have been established everywhere under 
the new re'gime , and the towns now possess commercial (scuola 
tecniea and istituto tecnico] and grammar schools, but the number 

246 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

of 'analfabeti' (persons who can neither read nor write) still 
amounts to nearly four-flfths of the whole population ( 9 / 10 ths in 

Districts. From the Saracen period down to the beginning of 
the present century the island was divided into three districts : the 
Val (Welaia, i.e. province) di Demone, the N.E. portion ; the Val 
di Noto, the S.E. part; and the Val di Mazzara, to the S.W. Since 
1817 it has been divided into seven prefectures : (1) Palermo, (2) 
Trapttni, (3) Girgenti, (4) Caltanissetta, (5) Catania, (6) Siracusa, 
(7) Messina. 

Towns. The principal towns are Palermo, Messina, Catania, 
Modica, Trapani, Termini, Acireale, and Caltagirone. Of the 120- 
130 towns in the kingdom of Italy which contain above 10,000 in- 
hab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This is explained 
by the fact, that owing to the constant wars of the middle ages, 
the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of 
the country, it was unsafe for the peasantry to live in villages, and 
this class has therefore mainly contributed to swell the population 
of the towns. 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

First Period. According to the traditions of ancient Greek 
mariners, Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Loto- 
phagi, Lfestrygones, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endea- 
voured to classify into iron-workers, stone-workers , farmers, and 
gardeners. The most ancient inhabitants of Sicily were a prehistoric 
race , the only certain traces of whom are the flint implements 
found in various parts of the island and perhaps a few of the stone 
monuments. They were followed by the Sicani, who were believed 
by some authorities to be of Iberian, by others of Celtic origin. It 
is more probable, however, that they belonged to an Italian race. 
They dwelt at first in the E. part of the island , but within the 
period embraced in history are found only in the W., between the 
Tyrrhenian Sea (Hykkara) and the Libyan Sea. The deserted terri- 
tory of the Sicani to the E. was taken possession of before B.C. 
1000 by the Sikeli, a tribe related to the Latins, which, as some 
authorities believe, had already had a warlike history and made 
maritime raids upon Egypt. They dwelt in the S.E. corner of the 
island, in the middle of its E. half, especially in the valley of the 
Symsethus, and on the N. coast. Their principal towns were : <S. 
Hybla, Menae (Mineo), Morgantium, N. Hybla (Paterno), Centuripe 
Agyrion (Agira) , Assorus (Asaro) , Aluntium (S. Marco), and 
Agathyrnum (near C. Orlando). The Phoenicians , coming from 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 247 

the E., founded numerous colonies on the coast, and the Elymi, 
supposed to he descended from the Trojans, occupied Segesta, Eryx 
(with the sanctuary of Aphrodite), Entella, and other settlements. 
The Greeks make their appearance in Sicily in B.C. 735, when 
the Ionian Theocles of Chalcis (or Athens) founded Naxos, at the 
mouth of the Oantara. During the following year Dorians from 
Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse ; and in 728 Megara Hy- 
Uaea, another Dorian colony , was settled by Lamis of Megara. 
Zankle (afterwards Messana) was peopled by Ionians , who also 
founded Leontini and Catana (729). A Dorian character was 
impressed upon the S. coast by the foundation of Gela (Terranova) 
by Rhodians and Cretans in 689, of Selinus by Megara in 628, and 
of Acragas (Girgenti) by Gela in 581. The Dorians also made 
themselves masters of the S.E. corner of Sicily through the Syra- 
cusan colonies of Acrae (664), Casmenae (624), and Camarina (599). 
Himera (648), the only Greek colony on the N. coast, was a joint 
settlement, in which the Ionian element preponderated. The oc- 
cupation of the Lipari Islands in B.C. 580 marks the close of the 
spread of the Hellenic power in Sicily, and the beginning of the 
Semitic reaction. The Phoenicians, who on the approach of the 
Greeks had retired to Solus (or Soloeis~), Panormus, and Motye, now 
placed themselves under the protection of Carthage and thus 
imposed a check upon the farther progress of Hellenisation. The 
Sikelians in the E. part of the island, however, became almost 
entirely subject to the Greeks. 

The Greek colonies , as they grew in population , soon began 
to suffer from internal dissensions between the different classes of 
citizens. This led to the formation of codes of law, of which that 
of Charondas of Catana is the most famous, and to the establishment 
of tyrannies , a form of government which attained its most char- 
acteristic development in this island. The most notorious of the 
ancient tyrants was Phalaris of Acragas. About the year 500 we find 
tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Gelon of Syracuse 
and Theron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway from the perils which threatened it, when, at the 
time of the 2nd Persian War, the Greeks of the western sea were 
attacked by the Carthaginians. In 480, however, the Greek cause 
was victorious at the battle of Himera, the Salamis of Sicily. The 
short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, sullied 
only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast by 
Gelon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples and aqueducts 
at Syracuse, Girgenti, Selinunto, Himera, etc., the ruins of which 
excite such admiration at the present day, were erected between 480 
and 450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the demo- 
cratic parties of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of 
the Doric and Ionic-Achaean elements paved the way for a cata- 
strophe, to which the great Athenian campaign against Syracuse in 

248 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

413 contributed. Previously to this the Greeks had a formidable 
enemy to subdue in Ducetius of Netum (Noto), who united the towns 
of the Sikeli in a confederacy against the Greeks (461-440), but this 
league was compelled to succumb to the united forces of Syracuse 
and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in effecting was now 
attempted with more success by the great power of Africa. The 
Carthaginians now began their most formidable attacks. Selinus 
and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken in 406, 
Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, and Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were 
instrumental in causing the rise of Dionysius I. in Syracuse (406), 
who extended and fortified the town, and after a war of varied 
success finally drove back the Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus 
(Platani). Down to his death in 367 Dionysius was master of the 
destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily ; the greater part of Magna 
Grsecia was also subject to his sway, and he even intervened several 
times with effect in the affairs of Greece itself. Syracuse never again 
attained to such a pinnacle of power. On his death dissensions began 
anew. Dionysius II. was inferior to his father, and Dion able as a 
philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 343-336 in 
restoring some degree of order, defeated the Carthaginians in 340 on 
the Crimissus (Belice), and again restricted their territory to the 
W. of the Halycus. But even his brilliant example availed little 
to arrest the increasing degeneracy of the people. In 317-289 
Agathocles usurped the sovereignty of Syracuse, and in 310 the 
Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuccessfully. The 
brilliant African campaign of Agathocles was without enduring re- 
sult. Pyrrhus too, who had wrested the whole island as far as Lily- 
baeum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (278- 
276), dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 
274 II. usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Mes- 
sana, of which Campanian mercenaries, or Mamertines, had treach- 
erously taken possession , compelled the latter to sue for Roman 
aid. Thus it was that the Romans obtained a footing in the island, 
and the struggle between them and the Carthaginians , who had 
supported Hiero, now began. The chequered contest for the sover- 
eignty of Sicily lasted from 264 to 241. Hiero, who in 263 had 
become an ally of Rome, ruled over a small independent kingdom 
on the E. coast, even after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. 
After the death of Hiero II. his successor Hieronymus espoused the 
cause of Hannibal, in consequence of which Syracuse was besieged 
by Marcellus in 214-212, taken, and sacked. In 210, after the 
conquest of Agrigentum , the island became the first Roman pro- 
vince, and was divided into two districts or qu<esturae, Lilybaetana 
(with the capital Lilybseum, now Marsala) and Syracusana. 

Second Period. At first the Romans endeavoured to improve 
the agriculture of the island, which had suffered seriouslv dui-ins 

Historical Notice. STCILY. 249 

the protracted wars, with a view to render Sicily a more profitable 
province. The system of cultivation borrowed from the Carthagi- 
nians was indeed successfully employed in rendering Sicily the 
granary of Italy, but at the same time it proved the occasion of 
the Servile Wars (139-131 and 104-101), which devastated the 
island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the Roman 
governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres in particular impoverished it greatly during his 
term of office in 73-71. The civil war between Octavianus and 
Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of Sicily (43-36) 
but was defeated by Agrippa in the naval battle of Naulochus (on 
the N. coast, near Mylae), also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus 
was obliged in a great measure to repeople the island and re-erect 
the towns. Little is known of its internal affairs after this date. 
With regard to the dissemination of Christianity in Sicily numer- 
ous traditions are current, and are preserved in the different mar- 
tyrologies. It is recorded (Acts xxviii. 12) that St. Paul landed 
at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, 
and the evidence of monuments goes to confirm the local legends 
of missionaries from the E., and to refute the later pretensions of 
Rome to the establishment of Christianity in Sicily. Syracuse 
would thus seem to have taken an important part in the spread of 
the Christian religion. After the end of the 3rd cent, the new 
religion made rapid progress, and in the reign of Constantine it had 
become practically the universal faith, though heathens still existed 
in Sicily down to the 6th century. 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A.D. 
259), Syracuse began, in 278, to suffer from the incursions of bar- 
barian hordes, when it was plundered by a mere handful of wan- 
dering Franks. In B.C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the ten 
senatorial provinces , according to Augustus's distribution of the 
empire, and then a province of the diocese of Italy, according to the 
arrangement of Diocletian ; but in 395 it was separated from the 
W. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped the fate of 
neither. In 440 Oeiserich besieged Palermo and conquered Lily- 
baeum (Marsala). Odoacer made himself master of Sicily, and 
the island afterwards became subject to the Ostrogoths. In 535 
Belisarius brought it under the sway of the Eastern emperors, who 
retained it till its conquest by the Arabs. — The Romish church 
had great possessions in Sicily, and Pope Gregory I. was a zealous 
promoter of the cultivation of the island. Constans II. even 
transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, but he 
was murdered there in 668, and the city was plundered by the 
Arabs the following year. 

Third Period. In 827 the Saracens, under Ased-ibn-Forat, 
on the invitation of the governor Euphemius, landed near Mazzara. 
Four years later Palermo fell into their hands , and that city now 

250 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

became the capital , and swayed the destinies of the island. The 
Saracens, conquering one city after another, overran the whole is- 
land, and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibrahim -ibn- Ahmed. 
Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N.E. angle of the island only, and even there were deprived of 
Taormina in 902, and finally of Rametta in 965, yet the establish- 
ment of a lasting peace was rendered impossible by the antagonism 
between their Arabian and Berber conquerors, which continually 
led to sanguinary conflicts. To these evils were added the changes 
of dynasty. At first the Aghlabites of Kairvan ruled. Then Sicily 
became an independent emirate under the Fatimite Sovereigns of 
Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent, was the most prosperous 
period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. But the sanguinary 
struggles of the Sunnites and Shiites in Africa, where the Zirites 
had usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the 
Arabian dynasty. In spite of these unfavourable circumstances, 
the prosperity of the island had during this period considerably 
increased, and agriculture, industry, and commerce had progressed 
so greatly that the Norman conquerors found the island a most 
valuable acquisition. 

About the middle of the 11th cent., after an ineffectual at- 
tempt to conquer the island had been made by George Maniaces, 
a Greek, in 1038-41, Robert and Roger de Hauteville, sons of 
Tancred of Hauteville in Normandy, went to Italy on the invi- 
tation of their elder brothers , who had declared themselves 
Counts of Apulia. Robert, subsequently surnamed Ouiscard, i.e. 
'the Shrewd', compelled the pope to invest him with the Duchy 
of Apulia, and then, after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already in- 
voked his aid, proceeded from Mileto with his brother Roger to con- 
quer Sicily in 1061. The first expedition did not immediately 
produce the desired result. But ten years later they returned, and 
by 1090 the entire island was subdued. The line of Robert Guiscard 
having become extinct in 1127, the second son of Roger, Count 
Roger II. , united the whole of the Norman conquests under his 
sceptre, and caused himself to be crowned as king at Palermo in 
1180. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets conquered 
the Arabs and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion of 
ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son 
William (1154-66), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroni- 
clers Hhe Bad', who was followed by his son William II. , 'the 
Good'' (d. 1189). After the death of the latter a contest as to the 
succession arose. William II. had given his aunt Constance, 
daughter of Roger, to Henry VI., son of Frederick Barbarossa, in 
marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. The Si- 
cilians, however, declared themselves in favour of Tancred , of 
Lecce, a natural son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 251 

succeeded by his son William III. , whom Henry VI. had less diffi- 
culty in subduing (1194). Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, 
and died at Messina in 1197. He was succeeded by the Emperor 
Frederick II., as Frederick J. of Sicily, whose exertions in behalf 
of Sicily have been so highly extolled by posterity. In 12f)0-54 
his second son Conrad occupied the throne ; then Manfred until 
the battle of Benevento in 1266 ; and in 1268 Charles of An jou 
caused the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be exe- 
cuted (see p. 41). 

Fourth Period. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained 
his supremacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope 
Clement IV., for but a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian 
Vespers (1282) was an expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina 
defended itself heroically against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter 
of Arragon, son-in-law of Manfred , became master of the island. 
But its decline dates from this period. It was repeatedly devastated 
by the interminable wars with the Anjous of Naples, while the no- 
bility, such as the Chiaramonte and the Ventimiglia, attained to 
such power as to render systematic administration on the part of 
the government impossible. In 1410, when Sicily became an ap- 
panage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain , it still retained 
its freedom of internal administration. But this very privilege 
proved prejudicial to it, whilst its external defence against the 
barbarians was neglected. During the second half of the 18th cent, 
many mediaeval institutions were swept away by the advance of ci- 
vilisation , and in 1812 Sicily was finally rescued from the con- 
dition of a mediaeval feudal state. In that year, the Sicilian Es- 
tates, under the influence of the English general Lord William H. 
C. Dentinck, whose troops were then protecting the island against 
Napoleon, passed a constitution on the English model. But three 
years later this was again abrogated. The misrule of the Bourbons, 
and the popular antipathy to the union with Naples , led to a san- 
guinary revolt on July 14th, 1820, which, however, was repressed 
by the Neapolitan generals, Florestan Pepe and Coletta. The cholera 
epidemic, also, of 1837, which the people attributed to the fault of 
the government, was followed by renewed disturbances. At the re- 
volution of Jan. 12th, 1848, Sicily appointed a government of its 
own under the noble Ruggero Settimo, and maintained its inde- 
pendence against Naples for a year and a half. Among the leaders of 
the people at this time were the Marchese Torrearsa, Prince Bulera, 
Stabile, La Farina, and the brothers Amari. In September 1848, 
however, Messina was laid partly in ruins by the fleet of Fer- 
dinand II. ('Re Bomba') , in the following April Catania was cap- 
tured, and in May Palermo. During these struggles the inspiriting 
idea of a comprehensire national unity had impressed itself on the 
Sicilians, and when in 1860 Northern Italy became united under 
the house of Savoy , revolts once more broke out in the two chief 

252 8TCTLY. Historical Notice. 

towns of the island. Garibaldi, with 1000 volunters , landed in 
Sicily at Marsala on May 11th 1860, and after a victorious battle at 
Calatafimi , stormed Palermo on May 27th. In a few weeks more 
he was master of the entire island ; and by the plebiscite of Oc- 
tober 2ist, 1860, Sicily joined the new kingdom of Italy. 

The following is a chronological sketch of the history of this 
period of six centuries : — 

a. 1282-1285. Peter of Arragon, King of Sicily . 
1285-1296. James the Just. 
1296-1337. Frederick II. 
1337-1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321. 
1342-1355. Louis. 

1355-1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 
1377-1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 

1485 to Martin of Arragon. 
1402-1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily , married to 

Bianca of Castille. 
1409-1410. Martin II., father of Martin I. 
1410-1412. Interregnum. 
6. 1412-1416. Ferdinand the Just, King of Arragon and 
1416-1458. Alphonso the Generous, King of Arragon, and 

after 1442 King of Naples. 
1458-1479. John of Arragon and Navarre. 
1479-1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also 

King of Naples. 
1515-1554. Emp. Charles V.; 1517, Squarcialupo's re- 
bellion at Palermo. 
1554-1598. Philip II. 
1598-1621. Philip III. 
1621-1665. Philip IV.; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, 

Giuseppe Alessi. 
1665-1700. Charles II.; 1672-1678, Messina revolts in 
favour of Louis XIV. of France. 
r. 1700-1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 Kingof Spain, 
d. 1713-1720. Victor Amadeus of Savoy. 
e.. 1720-1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 
f. 1734-1759 Charles III. of Bourbon. 

1759-1825. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, after 

1815 Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. 
1825-1830. Francis I. 
1830-1859. Ferdinand II. 
1848-1849. Sicily independent. 
1859-1860. Francis II. 

History of Art. SICILY. 253 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the numerous nations which in the course 
of centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it 
some trace of its individual capacity for art, modified, however, to 
some extent by the characteristics peculiar to the island, and there- 
fore in most cases bearing a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed 
that the Sicilian is never so miserable as to be unable to utter a 
bon-mot, and a similar remark might be made at the present day. 
The Sicilians of all ages have displayed marked, though not bril- 
liant abilities. Their wit, flow of conversation, and power of re- 
partee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, there- 
fore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its 
earliest development here , and that bucolic poetry originated in 
Sicily, where to this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily 
has in all ages produced admirable speakers , although rather 
sophists and phraseologists than great orators. In the study of the 
history of their island the natives have ever manifested the utmost 
zeal, and for the concrete sciences as far as they are connected with 
practical life, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess con- 
siderable aptitude. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic 
character (in opposition to pure works of art) , as in architecture, 
the art of engraving, the composition of mosaics, etc., the Sicilians 
have from a very early period distinguished themselves. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that the Saracenic supremacy introduced 
a new and important element into the national character, which 
shows itself in a vein of seriousness , foreign to the character of 
neighbouring races, such as the Neapolitans. The national songs, 
for example , are strongly tinctured with Oriental melancholy. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period 
still preserved in Sicily, although far more scanty than the Greek, 
merit a more minute examination than has hitherto fallen to their 
share. Prehistoric antiquities have recently been investigated in 
several different spots , and traces of the flint period have been 
found in caverns and elsewhere. The most important antiquities 
of a somewhat later date are : the Subterranean Cities with which 
the S.E. angle of the island is full, the so-called Ddieri of Val 
d'Ispica, Palazzolo, Pantelica, etc., and the Polygonal Structures 
at Cefalu and on Mt. Eryx. 

The Metopes of Selinus, mementoes of the most ancient style, 
form the transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most 
magnificent Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily : 
Temple of Apollo at Selinus 371 ft. long, 177ft. broad; Temple of 
Zeus at Oirgenti 356 ft. long, 174 ft. broad (Parthenon at Athens 
229 ft. by 101 ft. ; Temple of Zeus at Olympia 233 ft. by 97 ft. ; 
Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. by 75 ft. ; Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus 388 ft. by 187 ft.). The Ruined Temples at Girgenti, Se- 
gesta. Selinunto, and Syracuse are nowhere surpassed. The Theatres 

254 SICILY. History of Art. 

of Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Palazzolo, and Catania 
have indeed been modified by additions during the Roman period, 
but the Greek origin of their foundations and arrangements may 
easily be recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae of Syracuse 
are among the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the 
kind. In the province of Sculpture comparatively few Greek works 
have come down to us. Among these may be mentioned the more 
recent metopae of Selinus in the museum at Palermo, and a few 
relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bronzes, in the casting of which 
Perilaos of Agrigentum is said to have excelled , scarcely a single 
specimen has survived. On the other hand a copious collection 
of admirable ancient Coins has come down to us. Beautiful 
Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the island. The 
climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contempo- 
raneous with that of their mother-country , and not in point of 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichorus of Himera per- 
fected the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe 
and antistrophe. Aeschylus resided long in Sicily, where he died 
(456), and was interred at Gela. Pindar and Sappho also enjoyed 
the hospitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories 
of her sons at Olympia. Simonides visited Sicily, and composed 
appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to the gods by Gelon after 
the battle of Himera in 480. Phormis, an officer of Gelon at Syra- 
cuse, who invented movable scenes, Epicharmus iu 480, Sophron 
in 460, and Xenarchus , the son of the last , distinguished them- 
selves in the composition of comedies. Nothing is more charac- 
ristic of the Sicilian enthusiasm for art than the story that the 
Syracusans once set at liberty several Athenian prisoners, because 
they knew how to recite the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even 
during the period of decline the national poetical bias was still 
pre-eminent , and gave birth to a new description of poetry, the 
idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of Syracuse was unsur- 
passed , and which even in modern times have found numerous 

The Sicilians have always manifested considerable capacity for 
philosophical research. Pythagoras found followers here. Xeno- 
phanes of Colophon, the founder of the Eleatic school , died in 
Syracuse at an advanced age. A century later, Plato thrice visited 
Syracuse. But the most illustrious Sicilian thinker was Empedocles 
of Acragas, distinguished as a natural philosopher, and also as a 
practical statesman, physician, architect, and orator. The names of 
a number of eminent physicians are recorded : Pausanias, Acron 
(5th cent. B.C.), Menecrates (4th cent. B.C.), and Celsus (but the 
last, born at Centuripae, is not to be confounded with his famous 
namesake who lived in the reign of Augustus). Distinguished histo- 
rians were : Antiochus, Philistus of Syracuse , Timaeus of Taor- 
mina, Dicaearchus of Messana, and the learned Diodorus (Siculus) 

History of Art. SICILY. 255 

of Agyrium, who wrote his celebrated Bibliotheca Historica in the 
reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the numerous orators 
were Corax and 1'isias, the teacher of Isocrates, Gorgias, and Lysias. 
Gorgias, the celebrated sophist and orator, was a native of Leon- 
tinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan. Among the mathe- 
maticians and mechanicians Archimedes was the most distinguished. 
Hicetas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth 
moved and the sun remained stationary. 

The Roman-Byzantine Supremacy gave the death-blow to the 
intellectual progress of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archi- 
medes may be regarded as symbolical of this epoch. In accordance 
with the Roman custom, however, numerous magnificent amphi- 
theatres, theatres, and aqueducts were constructed during this 
period. The rapacity of Verres and other governors despoiled the 
island of countless treasures of art. The Christians used many of the 
ancient temples and tombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzantine 
church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject condition to which Sicily had sunk 
is found in the circumstance that down to a late period of the Mus- 
lim supremacy not a single author of eminence arose, although 
crowds of monks and priests resided in the island. Theophanes 
Cerameus and Petrus Siculus , the historian of the Mauichaeans, 
alone deserve mention. The wandering San Simeon of Syracuse 
died at Treves. 

The Arabs were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They not only enriched the architectural art with new forms of 
construction, as mentioned below, but they also inaugurated a 
new era in the writing of history and geography, and under King 
Roger II. the first mediaeval geographer Edrisi completed his great 
work (Nushat-ul-Mushtak). Among the Mohammedan Kasides 
(poets) Ibn-Hamdis was the most distinguished. Art developed 
itself to a still greater extent under the Norman rule, and the 
princes and great men of that race have perpetuated their names 
by the erection of numerous cathedrals. The importance they at- 
tached to learning is proved by the fact that they were in the habit 
of summoning the most learned men of the East (e. g. Petrus 
Blesensis) to instruct their young princes. Whilst the Arabs de- 
serve commendation for the introduction of the most valuable com- 
mercial products (grain, cotton, sumach, etc.) which the island 
possesses, the Norman princes established the manufacture of silk ; 
and a school for the arts of weaving and the composition of mosaic 
was maintained in the royal palace. The brilliant reign of Fred- 
erick II., his legislative merits, and his zealous promotion of 
every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself so as to become a written language, 
and his counsellors, his sons , and even he himself made the first 
attempts at Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred, Enzius, 

256 SICILY. History of Art. 

Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter de Vineis, Guido delle Colonne, Jacopo da 
Lentini, etc., poems are still preserved to us. But this golden age 
was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes of subsequent cen- 
turies all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even the 
chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. Whilst 
well -written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in 
the 13th century {Hugo Falcandus , Bartholomew of Neocastro, 
etc.), those of a later period are often unreadable. The revival of 
classical studies, however, at length roused literature from its inert 
condition. At the close of the 15th cent. Messina distinguished 
itself by its promotion of Greek studies, and Constantine Lasearis 
taught there. The following century produced the learned and 
indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca (d. 1570), the originator 
of Sicilian history and topography. His work was completed by 
the historian Maurolycus of Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last 
century tended to promote the progress of science in Sicily, 
although the attention of scholars was principally directed to ar- 
chaeological research relating to the history of the island. The 
wealthier of the nobility formed collections of antiquities and wrote 
descriptions of them (Biscari, Torremuzza, Astuto, Judica, Airoldi, 
Gaetani, etc.). The clergy collected materials for the history of 
Sicily , and others composed detailed monographs on the subject. 
The 'polyhistor' Mongitore, a writer of little critical power, but of 
great importance owing to the untiring diligence with which he 
amassed MS. authorities, who had been preceded by the eminent 
Antonino Amico , Rocco Pirro , Agostino Inveges , and Giovanni 
Battista Caruso, died suddenly in 1743, at the advanced age of 80. 
His death is said to have been occasioned by his perusal of the 
Codex Diplomaticus of Giovanni di Giovanni, in which the mythical 
character of the traditions regarding the origin of Christianity in 
Sicily was exposed. Di Giovanni, Francesco Testa, the brothers 
Giovanni Evangelista and Salvatore diBlasi, Vito Amico of Catania, 
and Rosario Gregorio , the first writer of constitutional history in 
Sicily, form a series of historians of the last century who would have 
done credit to any nation. The art of poetry also revived, and found 
its most talented representative in Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 
1815). His anacreontic songs in the national dialect were universally 
popular even before they appeared in a printed form. Among the 
most distinguished scientific men of the present century may be 
mentioned Domenico Scina, the naturalist and historian of literat- 
ure, the astronomer Piazzi (born, however, in the Val Tellina in N. 
Italy), the brothers Gemeltaro, and the patriotic historian Giuseppe 
Lafarina, besides a number of living savants of whom the island 
can at present boast. 

Music. In the history of music Sicily occupies a less prominent 
position than in the other arts, but Bellini (b. at Catania 1802, d. 

History of Art. SICILY. 257 

at Paris 1835) is justly admired for the beauty and sweetness of 
Ms melodies. 

With regard to ancient art in Sicily , and particularly the 
sculptures of Selinunto, see p. xxx et seq. We may now add a few 
remarks upon the principal mediaeval and modern monuments of art. 

Architecture. The mediaeval architecture of Sicily, and par- 
ticularly that of Palermo, bears the impress of the political -desti- 
nies of the country in a very striking degree, showing the change 
from the Byzantine to the Arabian domination, and from the latter 
to the supremacy of the Normans. The style is accordingly of a very 
mixed character, which strict connoisseurs will not fail to censure, 
but it possesses great attractions for the less scientific lover of art. 
The leading element is the Arabian. After the overthrow of the 
Arabian supremacy the more refined culture of that race left its 
mark on the island, and the Norman princes found it desirable to 
avail themselves of its services in the administration of the country 
and particularly in the province of art. The Arabian culture, 
however , was in its turn considerably swayed by Byzantine in- 
fluences, and it is therefore not surprising that these again should 
be reflected in the Sicilian architecture of the 12th century. The 
ground-plan of many of the churches of Palermo is traceable to 
Byzantine originals , viz. a square space enclosed by four pillars 
and covered with a dome. It is uncertain whether this form was 
introduced direct from Byzantium after the final triumph of Chris- 
tian culture, or whether the Arabs had already employed it in the 
construction of their numerous little oratories (of which Ibn Hau- 
kal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th cent., says that there were 
hundreds at Palermo alone), and handed it down to their Norman 
successors. The latter alternative, however, is the more probable. 
While the plan of many churches, such as Martorana, 8. Cataldo, 
and S. Antonio at Palermo is Byzantine, and that of others, like 
Monreale, S. Spirito and several abbey-churches at Palermo, and 
the cathedral at Cefaiu, is Romanesque, the universally prevalent 
pointed arch is of Arabian origin, and quite distinct from the 
Gothic form. The Arabs brought it from Egypt and used it in all 
their buildings, and they also derived thence the custom of adorn- 
ing their flat ceilings with pendentives, resembling stalactites, and 
their friezes with inscriptions. While the ecclesiastical architecture 
of Sicily was thus unable to resist the Arabian influence , that of 
her palaces still possesses a distinctly Arabian character, cor- 
responding with the Oriental complexion of the Norman court. Of 
the numerous palaces which are said to have encircled Palermo in 
the 12th cent., we now possess imperfect examples only in the 
Zisa and the Cuba (and in the relics of the chateaux of Mimner- 
mum at Altarello di Baida and Favara at Mare Dolce), so that it 
requires a considerable effort of imagination to picture their vaunted 

Baedeker. Italy III. loth Edition. 17 

258 SICILY. History of Art. 

magnificence. Sicily possesses no Gothic churches of any note (S. 
Francesco and S. Agostino at Palermo, and the cathedral at Mes- 
sina), but it is curious to observe how tenaciously her architects 
clung to Gothic and other mediaeval forms down to a late period in 
the Renaissance epoch. Of the later mediaeval secular architecture 
we find many pleasing examples, especially at Palermo. In the 
17th cent, numerous edifices in the 'baroque' style were erected 
on a very extensive scale , but characterised by an only too florid 
richness of decorative detail. 

Sculpture. In the plastic art, in so far as it rises above a 
merely decorative purpose, mediaeval Sicily attained little pro- 
ficiency. The principal works in bronze (the gates at Monreale} 
are not the work of native masters. Sculpturing in marble for de- 
corative purposes, on the other hand, was extensively and success- 
fully practised here at an early period. The capitals and several 
shafts of columns in the monastery-court of Monreale are among 
the finest works of the kind in Italy. The early Sicilian Wood 
Carving, sometimes adorned with arabesques, which is still fre- 
quently met with (as at the Martorana), is of remarkably fine exe- 
cution. Another proof of the great skill of the Sicilian artificers is 
afforded by the Porphyry Sarcophagi of the Norman princes and 
German emperors in the cathedral at Palermo, and by the numerous 
Marble Incrustations and Marble Mosaics of the 12th century. The 
mural covering of the Cappella Palatina and the Martorana, and 
the mosaic decorations of the monastery court of Monreale will bear 
favourable comparison with the finest works of the Roman sculptors 
in marble and the members of the Oosmas school. Mosaic painting 
was also highly developed in the 12th century. The mosaics in 
the cathedral at Cefalii and in the Cappella Palatina, and those in 
the Martorana and at Monreale , which have been preserved from 
decay by repeated restorations, are not all of uniform value, but 
even those which show less vigour of conception display the bold- 
ness of touch and finish of execution peculiar to able and ex- 
perienced masters. As such artificers cannot possibly have sprung 
up under Arabian rule , we must assume that the earlier of the 
works to which we have referred were executed by Byzantine artists 
invited to Sicily from foreign countries , and that these masters 
then transmitted their a